A Taste of Elvish

Tolkien once stated that he had "tasted" a number of languages rather than studied them (MC:192). To provide a "taste" of Elvish I have here collected a number of vocabulary items from both Quenya and Sindarin, grouping them under various headings. This should enable potential students to assess the style of these languages and perhaps even sense the fusion of sound and meaning that so delighted Tolkien. Of course, this list may also be of help in acquiring some basic vocabulary. But I'm afraid it will still be a long time before we see a complete Elvish thesaurus!


Jump down to Sindarin

PEOPLE: Quendë "Elf" (but this is a technical word usually replaced by Elda, which strictly refers to the non-Avari Elves only), Atan "(Mortal) Man" (but this term came to be primarily associated with the Three Houses of the Edain), Firya and Fírima "Mortal", Nauco "Dwarf" (also Casar, from Dwarvish Khazâd), Picinauco or Pityanauco "Petty-dwarf", Orco or Urco "Orc". General terms (presumably) applicable to all races: quén "person" (pl. queni), nér "man" (pl. neri; cf. also vëo or vëaner = "adult man"), nís or nissë "woman" (pl. nissi), hína "child", lapsë "babe", seldo *"boy" (?), wendë later vendë "maiden, girl". A "people" as a whole is called a lië (hence Eldalië = the people of the Elves).

THE FAMILY: verno "husband", vessë "wife", indis "bride" (sometimes used for "wife"), atar "father" (atto = *"dad"), amil or ammë "mother" (mamil = *"mom"), yondo "son", yeldë "daughter" (changed to yendë in the Etymologies, but later material may suggest that Tolkien restored yeldë), toron "brother" (pl. torni), onónë or seler "sister" (pl. selli), indyo "grandchild, descendant", onóna "twin" (pl. ónoni). Besides the word for "brother" listed above, there is also otorno "sworn brother, associate" (the fem. form would seem to be osellë, glossed "sister, associate").

ANIMALS: General word celva "moving animal", cf. also laman (used of four-footed animals, not of insects or reptiles), andamunda "elephant", huo "dog" (ronyo "hound of chase"), hyalma "shell, conch" (at least technically an animal and not a plant!), leuca "snake" (also ango pl. angwi), lingwë "fish" (hala "small fish"), lókë "worm, dragon" (also longer angulókë; cf. also rámalókë "winged dragon", urulókë "fire-dragon", lingwilókë "sea-serpent"), máma "sheep", morco "bear", mundo "ox" (this word may also mean "snout"), *nyaro "rat" (misreading "nyano" in LR:379), "lion" (pl. rávi), ráca and narmo "wolf" (nauro "werewolf"), rocco "horse", rusco "fox", wilwarin "butterfly". Early material has mëoi "cat", but this word looks weird in mature Quenya (no other singulars in -oi). An early source also has nion or nier for "bee", noldarë or nolpa for "mole" and yaxë (or yaxi) for "cow". Birds: aiwë or filit "(small) bird" (pl. filici), alqua "swan", ammalë a yellow bird or "yellow hammer", cu or cua "dove", halatir or halatirno "kingfisher", lindo "singer" (singing bird), lómelindë "nightingale" (kenning tindómerel = Sindarin tinúviel), maiwë "gull", soron or sornë "eagle", tambaro "woodpecker", tuilindo "swallow", quáco "crow" (also corco).

PLANTS: olva "plant", uilë "long trailing plant, especially sea-weed" (which is explicitly ëaruilë), salquë "grass", sara "stiff dry grass", lassë "leaf", olwa "branch", tussa "bush", hwan "sponge, fungus", lótë "flower", lossë "blossom" (usually white), nieninquë "snowdrop", asëa aranion "athelas, kingsfoil". Trees: alda "tree", ornë "tree" (smaller and more slender like a birch or rowan), alalmë "elm-tree", feren "beech-tree", ercassë "holly", malinornë "mallorn", norno "oak", tasar or tasarë "willow", tyulussë "poplar-tree". (See also David Salo's Botany, covering Tolkien's earliest "Qenya".)

METALS, SUBSTANCES, ELEMENTS: erma, orma and hroa "(physical) matter", tinco or rauta "metal", malta "gold" (also poetic cullo "red gold"), telpë or tyelpë "silver", anga "iron", cemen "earth, soil", nén "water", nárë "flame, fire", vilya, wilma or wista "air", lossë "snow", helcë "ice", litsë "sand", asto "dust", ondo "stone" (as material, but also used = rock), rossë "dew", hrávë "flesh", sercë "blood" (also yár), hyellë "glass", "wool", fallë "foam".

BODY-PARTS: cár "head", loxë or findë "hair" (the term for a head of hair is findessë), anta "face", hén "eye" (pl. hendi, or dual hendu), lár "pair of ears", nengwë "nose", anto "mouth","lip" (so according to a late source; in the Etymologies, the gloss was "mouth"), nelet "tooth" (pl. nelci), lamba "tongue" (but "tongue" = language is lambë), fanga "beard", lanco "throat", yat (yaht-) "neck", hón "(physical) heart" (indo = symbolic heart), ranco "arm" (pl. ranqui), "hand", cambë "hollow of hand", quárë "fist", lepsë "finger", tiuco "thigh", telco "leg" (pl. telqui), tál "foot", tallunë "sole of foot", axo "bone". Early material also has ólemë "elbow" and aldamo "back". The word for the entire body is hroa (also used = "physical matter"). Somewhere there may be a sealed envelope containing a piece of paper with the Elvish designations of the genitals, furtively set down by Tolkien behind locked doors.

SOME TITLES AND PROFESSIONS: aran "king", tári "queen", cundu "prince", aranel "princess", heru "lord", heri "lady", arquen "a noble", aryon or haryon "heir", roquen "knight", cáno "commander", tercáno "herald", istyar "scholar", sairon "wizard" (but Gandalf was an istar), ingólemo "sage", lambengolmo "loremaster of tongues" (linguist), tano "craftsman, smith", quentaro "narrator", samno "carpenter, wright, builder", tyaro "doer, actor, agent", cemnaro or centano "potter". (See the heading War and Weaponry for "warrior" and "spearman".)

FOOD: apsa "cooked food, meat", masta "bread", sáva "juice", pirya "juice, syrup", lís "honey" (liss-), yávë "fruit", porë "flour, meal", culuma "orange", sulca "edible root", coimas "lembas", miruvórë a drink poured out at festivals in Valinor (translated "mead" in Namárië), limpë "wine, drink of the Valar". Early material also gives sulpa "soup", pio "plum, cherry", piucca "berry" (or specifically "blackberry") and tyuru "cheese".

GEOGRAPHIC TERMS: nórë "land", nórië "country", arda "realm, a particular land or region", ména "region", men "place, spot", réna "border", peler "fenced field", panda "enclosure", oron "mountain" (pl. oronti), rassë and tildë "peak, horn", ambo "hill", cilya "cleft", nandë "valley", tumbo "deep valley, under or among hills", yáwë "ravine, cleft, gulf", pendë "slope, declivity", mallë "way, street" (pl. maller), tië "path", taurë "great wood, forest", ehtelë "spring, issue of water", ailin "pool, lake" (also linya), ringë "cold pool or lake (in mountains)", sírë "river", nellë "brook", hópa "haven", hresta or hyapat "shore", falassë "beach", ëar "sea", celma "channel", tol "island" (pl. tolli; "tolle" in LR:394 is evidently a misreading), lóna "island, remote land". Directions: Formen "North", Hyarmen "South", Númen "West", Rómen "East".

WEATHER: mistë "fine rain", fanya "cloud", lumbo "(dark, lowering) cloud", súrë and vaiwa "wind", árë "sunlight", hísë and hísië "mist", raumo "(noise of a) storm", nixë "frost". Early material has lúrë "dark weather" and the corresponding adjective lúrëa "dark, overcast".

CELESTIAL OBJECTS: Anar "Sun" (also called Naira and Vása), Isil "Moon" (also called Rána), elen (poetic él) "star" (also tinwë and nillë, sometimes with certain specialized meanings), tingilyë or tingilindë "twinkling star". Planets: Eärendil "Venus", Carnil "Mars", Alcarinquë "Jupiter" (and more tentatively Nénar "Neptune", Luinil "Uranus" and Lumbar "Saturn"). Constellations: Telumehtar or Menelmacar "Swordsman of the Sky" = Orion, Valacirca "Sickle of the Valar" = Big Dipper (Great Bear), Wilwarin "Butterfly" = Cassiopeia (?). A few other constellations are named but are difficult to identify. General word for "sky, the heavens": menel (also hellë). Cf. also fanyarë "upper airs and skies".

MUSIC, POETRY, INSTRUMENTS, MUSICIANS: lindalë or lindelë "music", lírë "song", lairë "poem" (not to be confused with a homophone meaning "summer"), nainië "a lament", verb lir- "sing, chant", verb nanda- "to harp", noun nandë "harp" (nandellë "little harp"), nandaro "harper", nyello "singer" (also lindo, but this is also used of birds), nyellë "bell". Early material also has salma "lyre".

WAR AND WEAPONRY: ohta "war", verb ohtacar- "make war", verb mahta- "wield a weapon, fight", ohtar, ohtatyaro and mahtar "warrior", ehtyar "spearman", cotumo "enemy", macil "sword", lango "broad sword", ecet "small broad-bladed sword", sicil "dagger, knife", quinga "bow" (also ), pilin "arrow" (pl. pilindi), nehtë "spear-head", ehtë or ecco "spear", turma "shield", cassa or carma "helmet". Early material has hossë "army".

ARCHITECTURE: ataquë "construction, building", coa "house" (also car, card-), ampano "building, wooden hall", ando "gate" (andon "great gate"), fenda "threshold", sambë "room, chamber", caimasan "bed-chamber" (pl. caimasambi), tópa "roof", talan "floor" (pl. talami), ramba "wall", mindo "(isolated) tower" (mindon "great tower"), osto "city, town with wall round", opelë "walled house or village, town", hróta "dwelling underground, artifical cave or rockhewn hall", telma "the last item in a structure" (such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle).

TIME: "a time, occasion", lúmë "time, hour", vanwië "the past", yárë "former days", yalúmë "former times", aurë "day" (also arë), lómë "night" (but sometimes used = "twilight"; other terms for "night" include , mórë and Hui/Fui), ára "dawn", arin "morning", arië "daytime", sinyë "evening", tindómë and undómë "twilight" (near dawn and near evening, respectively), anarórë "sunrise", núro or andúnë "sunset", asta "month", loa "year" (astronomically speaking called coranar "sun-round"), yén "long year" (Elvish "century" of 144 solar years), randa "cycle, age". Seasons: coirë "stirring" (early spring), tuilë *"budding" (late spring), lairë "summer" (not to be confused with a word meaning "poem", see above), yávië "harvest" (early autumn), quellë "fading" (late autumn), hrívë "winter". For "autumn", the words lasselanta "leaf-fall" and lassewinta *"leaf-scattering" were also used. Months: Narvinyë "January", Nénimë "February", Súlimë "March", Víressë "April", Lótessë "May", Nárië "June", Cermië "July", Úrimë "August", Yavannië "September", Narquelië "October", Hísimë "November", Ringarë "December".

NUMBERS: minë 1, atta 2, neldë 3, canta 4, lempë 5, enquë 6, otso 7, tolto 8, nertë 9, cainen 10, minquë 11. For 12 only the stem RÁSAT is given, but it is generally agreed that the Quenya word must be *rasta. Higher numbers are uncertain. The word haranyë, the last year in a century, may literally mean "hundredth one", pointing to *haranya as the word for "hundredth" and perhaps *haran (*harna?) as the word for "hundred". Sindarin host means "gross", 144, the first three-digit number in Elvish duodecimal counting, but the Quenya cognate hosta is simply defined as "large number".

COLOURS: carnë "red", culuina "orange" (adj. only - the fruit is called culuma!), fána or fánë "white" (as clouds), helwa "pale blue", laiqua "green", laurëa "golden", lossë "snow-white" (also noun "snow"), luin "blue", malina "yellow", morë or morna "black", ninquë "white", silma "silver, shining white", sindë (or sinda) "grey", varnë "swart, (dark) brown". The Vanyar also used some colour-words adopted from Valarin: ezel or ezella "green", nasar "red", ulban "blue", tulca "yellow". These were apparently not in use among the Noldor.

SOME COMMON ADJECTIVES: vanya or vanima "beautiful, fair" (also linda), mára "useful, good" (of things), raica "wrong, crooked", ulca or úmëa "evil", halla "tall", anda "long", sinta "short", alta "great" (in size), úra "large", úvëa "very large, abundant", titta "tiny", pitya *"small", parca "dry", mixa "wet", arca "narrow", nindë "slender" (also teren), tiuca "thick, fat", lunga "heavy", lissë "sweet", sára "bitter", quanta "full", lusta "empty", lauca "warm", ringa (or ringë) "cold", forya "right", hyarya "left", vinya "new" (also sinya), yerna "old, worn" (of things), nessa "young", linyenwa "old" (lit. "having many years"; this word did not connote weakness, since the Elves were immortal), cuina "alive", coirëa "living", qualin "dead" (but firin with reference to the natural death of mortals).

SOME COMMON VERBS: car- "make, do", harya- "possess, *have", cen- "see", hlar- "hear", ista- "know" (pa.t. sintë), lelya- "go" (past tense lendë), mat- "eat", mer- "wish, desire, want", móta- "labour, toil", tul- "come", quet- "speak", hir- "find", anta- "give", mel- "love" (as friend), sil- "shine".

PREPOSITIONS: amba, ama "up, upwards", an "for, to", ana "to, towards" (also na), apa "after", ara "outside, beside", arta "across" (only attested in early material), arwa "having, *with" (followed by genitive), enga "save [= *except]", et "out of" (followed by ablative), hequa "except", ho "from" (the speaker's point of view being outside the thing left), imbë "between", mi "in" ("in the"), mir or minna "into", na "to, towards" (also ana), nu "under" (also no), undu "down, under, beneath", or "over", ter, terë "through", ve "as, like", yo *"with" (?). We especially miss a word for "before".


Note: In "Noldorin", the language Tolkien revised to produce Sindarin, many words showed initial lh- and rh-, sc. unvoiced L and R. Eventually, Tolkien revised the historical phonology, and in Sindarin as we know it from LotR and later sources, most "Noldorin" words in lh-, rh- should have normal l-, r- instead. Compare for instance "Noldorin" lham "tongue" (LR:367 s.v. LAM) with mature Sindarin lam (WJ:394). "Noldorin" words listed below have been altered to conform with Tolkien's later vision of Sindarin phonology, and lh-, rh- are retained only where these sounds have a rightful place in mature Sindarin (e.g. in rhaw "flesh").

PEOPLE: Edhel "Elf" (older Eledh), Adan "(Mortal) Man" (pl. Edain - but this term came to be primarily associated with Men of the Three Houses), Fíreb "Mortal", Nogoth "Dwarf" (also Norn, but the people as a whole was usually called Naugrim), Nibin-naug "Petty-dwarf", Orch "Orc". General terms (presumably) applicable to all races: benn "man" (properly "husband", but the word acquired a general sense and replaced earlier dîr), bess "woman" (properly "wife", similarly replacing earlier ), dess "young woman", hên "child", laes "babe", gwenn "maiden, girl". The term for a "people" (an ethnic group) is gwaith, but with reference to less civilized groups (such as Orcs and most non-Edain Men), the Sindar rather used the word hoth "horde".

THE FAMILY: herven "husband", herves "wife" (also bess, but this also acquired the general sense "woman"), dîs "bride", adar "father" (ada = *"dad"?), naneth "mother" (nana = *"mom"), iôn or ionn "son", sell (and iell) "daughter", muindor "brother" (also poetical tôr), muinthel "sister" (also thêl), gwanunig "twin" (gwanûn "pair of twins"; PM:365 also gives a pl. gwenyn "twins"). Besides the words for "brother" listed above, there is also gwador "sworn brother, associate" (the fem. form would seem to be gwathel, glossed "sister, associate"). General term gwanur "kins(wo)man, *relative". Cf. also herth "household" (also meaning "troop").

ANIMALS: General word lavan (not used of insects or reptiles), annabon "elephant", aras "deer", brôg "bear" (also called megli = "honey-eater"), cabor "frog", draug or garaf "wolf" (gaur "werewolf"), gwilwileth "butterfly", half "seashell" (not a plant!), "dog", lyg "snake", lim "fish", lhûg "worm, dragon" (also longer amlug; cf. also limlug "sea-serpent"), maew "gull" (also pl. my^l "gulls", sg. not attested), nâr "rat", raw "lion", ry^n "hound of chase", roch "horse". Birds: aew or fileg "(small) bird", alph "swan" (pl. eilph), corch "crow" (also *craban, pl. crebain in LotR1/II ch. 3), cugu "dove", emlin a yellow bird or "yellow hammer", heledir "kingfisher", dúlin "nightingale" (archaic kenning tinúviel), tavor "woodpecker", thoron "eagle", tuilinn "swallow".

PLANTS: salch "grass" (thâr "stiff grass"), salab "herb", uil "sea-weed", lass "leaf", golf "branch", loth "flower", gwaloth "blossom, collection of flowers", ereg or êg "thorn", aeglos 'snowthorn', a plant like furze (gorse), but larger and with white flowers, alfirin some (white?) flower also known as uilos (called simbelmynë or "Evermind" in Old English representing Rohirric; alfirin and uilos mean "immortal" and "everwhite"), athelas "kingsfoil", elanor 'sun-star' (a flower), niphredil "snowdrop", seregon "stonecrop", hwand "sponge, fungus". Trees: galadh "tree" (another word, orn, had fallen out of common use but survived in poetry and as part of many names), toss "low-growing tree" (such as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly etc.), brethil "beech-tree", doron "oak", ereg or eregdos "holly-tree", lalwen or lalorn "elm-tree", mallorn 'yellow-tree', mallorn, tathar "willow", thaun (thôn) "pine", tulus "poplar-tree".

METALS, SUBSTANCES, ELEMENTS: tinc or raud "metal", malt (and glaur) "gold", celeb "silver", ang "iron", cef "earth, soil", nen "water", naur "flame, fire", gwelw "air", sarn "stone" (as material), gloss "snow", heleg "ice", lith "sand", ast "dust", rhaw "flesh", sereg or iâr "blood", hele "glass", taw "wool", falf "foam".

BODY-PARTS: dôl or dol "head", hen "eye" (cf. Amon Hen "Hill of the Eye" in LotR - the Etymologies gives hên with a long vowel, but elsewhere, hên is glossed "child"), nîf "face" (also thîr), laws "hair", fîn "a single hair", finn "a tress", lhewig "ear" (lhaw "pair of ears"), nem "nose", nêl or neleg "tooth", lam or lam "tongue", fang "beard", iaeth "neck", lanc "throat", hûn "heart", ranc "arm", cam "hand" (camland "palm of hand"), paur "fist", lebed "finger", tâl "foot" (but an animal foot is called pôd), tellen "sole of foot".

SOME TITLES AND PROFESSIONS: aran "king", rîs "queen" (cf. also rien, rîn "crowned lady"), cunn "prince", hîr "lord, master" (another word for "lord" is brannon), hiril "lady" (also brennil, the fem. counterpart of masc. brannon just like hiril corresponds to masc. hîr), arphen "a noble", ithron (or curunir) "wizard", condir "mayor", rochben "knight", ceredir "doer, maker", thavron "carpenter, wright, builder", orodben "mountaineer", pethron "narrator", cennan "potter".

FOOD: aes "cooked foot, meat", bast "bread", saw "juice", peich "juice, syrup", glî "honey", iau "corn", solch "edible root", miruvor the cordial of Imladris (evidently named after - but hardly the same as - Quenya miruvórë), cram cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey or milk) used on a long journey, lembas the way-bread of the Elves.

GEOGRAPHIC TERMS: dôr (dor) "land", gardh "realm, a more or less bounded or defined place, a region" (so in WJ:402; the Etymologies has ardh), sad "place, spot", rain "border", parth "field", pel "fenced field" (pl. peli), orod "mountain" (pl. ered or eryd), till and rass "horn", amon "hill" (pl. emyn), tunn "hill, mound", dol or dôl "hill, head", penn "declivity", ambenn "uphill", dadbenn "downhill", talad "an incline, slope", cîl "cleft", ris or ress "ravine", iau "ravine, cleft, gulf" (this word also means "corn", see above), talf "flat field", nan "valley" (but nann "wide grassland"), tum "deep valley, under or among hills", athrad "ford, crossing", eryn "wood", taur "huge forest", men "road", ael "pool, lake" (pl. aelin), lîn "pool", eithel "spring, issue of water", habad "shore", sîr "river" (in some names also duin: Anduin, Baranduin, Esgalduin), hûb or hobas "haven" (also cirban), gaear (or gaer) "sea", toll "island". Directions: Forod "North", Harad "South", Annûn "West", Amrûn "East". For "East" and "West", the words rhûn and dûn are also used (cf. Dúnedain "Westmen").

WEATHER: gwaew "wind", alagos "storm of wind", hîth "grey mist", mith "white fog, wet mist", faun "cloud", glawar "sunlight", ross "rain", verb eil "it is raining" (read probably ail in LotR-style Sindarin).

CELESTIAL OBJECTS: Anor "Sun", Ithil "Moon" (also called Rân), cúran "crescent moon", gil "star" (also tim, tinw "spark, small star"), poetic êl "star" (pl. elin), elenath "starry host, all the stars of heaven". Borgil name of a red star, perhaps Betelgeuse or Algol (Stewart Fraser mentions Antares as a third possibility). Constellations: Menelvagor = Orion, Cerch iM(b)elain (Quenya Valacirca) "Sickle of the Valar" = Big Dipper, Remmirath = Pleiades (???). General word for "sky, the heavens": menel (taken from Quenya).

MUSIC, POETRY, INSTRUMENTS, MUSICIANS: glinn "song, tune", glîr "song, poem, lay", glaer "lay, narrative poem", narn "tale" (in verse, but to be spoken rather than sung), verb *gliri- "to sing" (misreading "glin" in LR:359), verb gannado or ganno "to play a harp", noun gannel "harp", talagand "harper", verb nella- "sound bells", nell "bell". A few modes of verse are named in the corpus, ann-thennath and minlamad thent/estent, but we don't know precisely what is meant.

WAR AND WEAPONRY: auth "war", verb dagro- "to battle, make war", verb maetha- "to fight", verb degi- "to slay" (past tense perhaps *danc), dangen "slain" (as noun), maethor "warrior", herth "troop" (also used for "household"), gweth "troop of ablebodied men, host, regiment", coth "enemy, enmity", dagor "battle" (but a fight between two or a few is called a maeth), hûl "cry of encouragement in battle", megil or magol "sword", lang "cutlass, sword", crist "cleaver, sword", hathel "broadsword-blade", sigil "dagger, knife", grond "club", and peng "bow", ech "spear", naith or aith "spearpoint", thôl "helmet".

ARCHITECTURE: adab "building, house" (pl. edeb), car or cardh "house", henneth "window", annon "great gate", fenn "threshold", thâm "hall", thamas "great hall", panas or talaf "floor", ram "wall", tobas "roofing", telu "dome, high roof", rond "vaulted or arched roof, or a large hall or chamber so roofed", barad, minas and mindon "tower", ost "city, town with wall round, fortress", gobel "walled house or village, town", caras "city built above ground", othlon "paved way", ostrad "street" (in Minas Tirith also rath, see UT:255).

TIME: "a time, occasion", erin "day", arad "daytime, a day", daw "nighttime, gloom" (fuin "dead of night"), amrûn "sunrise" (also used = "Orient, East"), aur "day, morning", thin (poetic word) "evening", "nightfall, late evening", tinnu "starry twilight, early night", idhrin "year", anrand "cycle, age". Seasons: echuir "stirring" (early spring), ethuil *"budding" (late spring), laer "summer", iavas "harvest" (early autumn), firith "fading" (late autumn), rhîw "winter". For "autumn", the word narbeleth "sun-waning" is also used; this word is also used with reference to the month of October. Full list of months: Narwain "January", Nínui "February", Gwaeron "March", Gwirith "April", Lothron "May", Nórui "June", Cerveth "July", Urui "August", Ivanneth "September", Narbeleth "October", Hithui "November", Girithron "December".

NUMBERS: min 1, tad or tâd 2, neled 3 (originally neledh), canad 4, leben 5, eneg 6, odo or odog 7, toloth 8, neder 9, caer 10. For 11 and 12 we have the primitive stems MINIK-W- and RÁSAT , but the Sindarin words are not given; "eleven" may be *minib or possibly *minig (Quenya minquë, cf. eneg = enquë). A "gross", 144, the first three-digit number in Elvish duodecimal counting, is in Sindarin called a host.

COLOURS: baran "swart, (dark) brown" (cf. the river Baranduin), calen "green" (also laeg), caran "red" (also coll and narw/naru), crann "ruddy", donn "swart, swarty", fein "white" (as clouds; read perhaps fain in LotR-style Sindarin), gaer "copper-coloured", elw "pale blue", *glân "white" (only lenited 'lân is attested), gloss "snow-white" (also noun "snow"), luin"blue", malen "yellow", mithren "grey", morn "dark, black" (misreading "moru" in LR:374), nim "white, pale", rhosc "brown", thinn "grey".

SOME COMMON ADJECTIVES: bein "beautiful, fair", mell "dear", maer "useful, good" (of things), um "evil", *faeg "mean, bad", *raeg "wrong" (updated from "Noldorin" foeg, rhoeg in LR:387, 383), orchal "tall, superior", ann "long", thent "short", beleg "great", ûr "wide", daer "big, great", tithen and pigen "tiny", parch "dry", mesc "wet", ninn "slender", tûg "thick, fat", long "heavy", pant "full", lost "empty" (also caun), laug "warm", ring "cold", feir "right", heir "left", taer "straight", raen "crooked", sein "new", brûn "old" (but not changed or worn out), gern "old, worn" (of things), neth "young", iaur "old, ancient" (of things or persons), ingem "old" (lit. "year-sick", suffering from old age; this word was coined after the Elves met Mortal Men), cuin "alive", gwann "departed, dead". (Note: In LotR-style Sindarin we should perhaps read ai for ei in the adjectives bein, feir, heir, sein.)

SOME COMMON VERBS: car- "make, do" (pa.t. agor), gar- "hold, have", tiri- "watch", ?glenna- "go" (anglenna- "approach"), medi "to eat", mudo- "labour, toil", teli- "come" (present tense tûl, tôl), ped- "speak", anno- "give".

PREPOSITIONS: adel "behind, in rear of", am "up", an "for, to", ab "after" (only attested as prefix), ath- prefix "across, on both sides", athan "beyond", dad "down", dan *"against", o "from, of" (uin "from the"), im "between", na "to, with, by", nef "on this side of", no "under" (nui "under the"), or "above", tri "through". We miss words for "in" and "before". A word ned occurring in Sauron Defeated (p. 131, in Tengwar writing) has been used by some for "in".

Ardalambion Index