Quettaparma Quenyallo

This is a html version of Helge Fauskanger's "Quenya-to-English wordlist" found at http://www.uib.no/people/hnohf/wordlists.htm. No copyright infringement intended

= poetic or archaic word (e.g.él"star" vs. elen, tinwe) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russe "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form or translation, ** = wrong form, ¤ = "reconstructed”/prehistoric form mentioned by Tolkien (and by him usually marked with an asterisk, here reserved for post-Tolkien reconstructions), # = form that is only attested in a compound or as an inflected form (e.g. #ahya-). Brackets indicate forms struck out by Tolkien. Abbreviations: LotR = The Lord of the Rings , Silm = The Silmarillion , MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays , MR = Morgoth's Ring , LR = The Lost Road , Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), RS = Return of the Shadow , TI = The Treason of Isengard , WJ = The War of the Jewels , PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth , Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1 ,LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárie (in LotR:398), CO = Cirion's Oath and its commentary in UT:305, 317, EO = Elendil's Oath in LotR:1003, 1004; Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters ), Markirya = the Markirya Poem and its commentary in MC:221-223; GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12), PE = Parma Eldalamberon , VT = Vinyar Tengwar (PE and VT being journals publishing Tolkien material edited by C. Gilson, C.F. Hostetter, A.R. Smith, W. Welden and P. Wynne; please refer to the individual journals here referenced to determine which editors are involved in any given case), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized ( c for kexcept in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in most of LotR). The spelling used in the source is usually indicated; for instance, following a word indicates that the word is spelt with a k instead of a c in Tolkien's text. When s in a word represents earlier þ ( th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súle instead of silme in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by ( þ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance asea aranion). When n in a word represents earlier ñ ( ng as in "thing") and should be spelt with the letter noldo rather than númen in Tengwar writing, this is indicated by ( ñ ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance Noldomar). When the word is actually spelt with ñ instead of n in the source, this is indicated by ("ñ") immediately following the word in question (see for instance nande #2).

Wordlist last updated December 25, 2008


a (1) vocative particle "O" in a vanimar "O beautiful ones" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308) ; also attested repeatedly in VT44:12 (cf. 15): A Hrísto *"o Christ", A Eruion *"o God the son/son of God", a Aina Faire *"o Holy Spirit", a aina Maria *"o holy Mary".

a (2) conj. "and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before words in f-, but contrast ar formenna *”and northwards” in a late text, VT49:26). According to PE17:41, “Old Quenya” could have the conjunction a (as a variant of ar) before n, ñ, m, h, hy, hw ( f is not mentioned), PE17:71 adding ty, ny, hr, hl, ñ, l, r, þ, s.See ar #1. It may be that the a or the sentence norne a lintieryanen “he ran with his speed” (i.e. as quickly as he could) is to be understood as this conjunction, if the literal meaning is *“he ran and [did so] with his speed” (PE17:58) .

a (3), also á, imperative particle. An imperative with “immediate time reference” is expressed by á in front of the verb (or “occasionally after it, sometimes before and after for emphasis”), with the verb following in “the simplest form also used for the uninflected `aorist' without specific time reference past or present or future” (PE17:93) . Cf. a laita te, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwe! "may Manwe order it!", literally *"o rule Manwe!" (see laita, vala for reference); cf. also á care *“do[!]”, á rice“try!”, á lire “sing[!]”, á mene“proceed[!]”, a nore “run[!]” (PE17:92-93, notice short a here) , á tula *"come!" (VT43:14) . In the last example, the verb tul- “come” receives an ending -a that probably represents the suffixed form of the imperative particle, this apparently being an example of the imperative element occurring both “before and after” the verbal stem “for emphasis” (PE17:93) . This ending may also appear on its own with no preceding a/á, as in the command queta “speak!” (PE17:138) . Other examples of imperatives with suffixed -a include cena and tira (VT47:31 , see cen-, tir-); the imperatives of these same verbs are however also attested as á tire, á cene (PE17:94) with the imperative particle remaining independent and the following verb appearing as an uninflected aorist stem. This aorist can be plural to indicate a 3rd person pl. subject: á ricir! “let them try!” (PE17:93) . Alye (VT43:17, VT44:9) seems to be the imperative particle a with the pronominal suffix -lye "you, thou" suffixed to indicate the subject who is to carry out the command; attested in the phrase alye anta *"give thou" (elided aly' in VT43:11, since the next word begins in e-: aly' eterúna me, *"do thou deliver us"); presumably other pronominal suffixes could likewise be added. The particle a is also present in the negative imperatives ala, #ála or áva, q.v.

a- (1) prefix occurring in the word Atalante , said to denote "complete". Probably just a prefixed stemvowel; cf. a root like ANÁR, said to be derived from NAR. (TALÁT)

a- (2) a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem (Tolkien first used na-, then changed it). It may be prefixed to verbal stems following a noun that is the object of sense-verbs like "see" and "hear" when the verb it is prefixed to describes what happens to this noun, as in man cenuva lumbor ahosta[ ?] (changed from na-hosta), "who shall see the clouds gather?" ( hosta = "gather").

acas (“k”) noun “neck” (the bony part of the neck, not including throat), pl. axi (“ks”) (and so perhaps general stem-form ax-). Also sg. axe (said to be a “later” form apparently replacing acas). The word is also used geographically of rock ridges. (PE17:92)

acca adv. "too" (= excessively, as in "too big") (PE13:108)

accar- vb. “do back; react; requite, avenge” (PE17:166) . Also ahtar-. (The note containing this form was struck out, but the related Sindarin word acharn “vengeance” appears in the narratives.)

Acairis fem. name, "bride" (LT1:252; in Tolkien's later Quenya, "bride" is rather indis)

acúna see cúna

Ae (Quenya?) noun "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK -ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)

aha noun "rage", also name of tengwa #11, earlier called harma (Appendix E)

ahosta see hosta

ahtar- “do back; react; requite, avenge” (PE17:166) . Also accar-. (The note containing this form was struck out, but the related Sindarin word acharn “vengeance” appears in the narratives.)

#ahya- vb. "change" (intransitive) , only attested in the past tense: ahyane (PM:395)

ai! interjection "Ah!", "Alas!" (Nam, RGEO:66; also twice in Narqelion, untranslated.) In one (abandoned) version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien may seem to use ai as a vocative particle: ai Ataremma ?"o our Father" (VT43:10, 13)

aia interjection "hail", variant of aiya (VT43:28)

aian noun “a holy thing or object or place”, later form of áyan (PE17:149)

aica (1) adj. "sharp" (AYAK) or "fell, terrible, dire" (PM:347; according to PM:363 seldom applied to evil things) . In Aicanáro, q.v.

aica (2) adj. "broad, vast" (LT2:338 - this early "Qenya" form is probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

aicale noun "a peak" (AYAK)

Aicanáro masc. name "Sharp Flame, Fell Fire"; Sindarized as Aegnor . (So in SA:nár and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár. VT41:14, 19 instead gives Ecyanáro as the Q form of Aegnor .)

aicasse (1) noun "mountain peak" (AYAK)

aicasse (2) noun "pinetree" (GL:17; this "Qenya" word is evidently obsoleted by #1 above.)

ailin ("g.sg. ailinen ", in Tolkien's later Quenya dat.sg.) "pool, lake" (AY, LIN1, LT2:339) . Fem. name Ailinel (likely *Ailinell-), perhaps ailin + the feminine ending -el (as in aranel "princess"), hence *"Lake-woman" or similar (UT:210) .

#ailine (nominative uncertain) noun "shore, beach" (in Tolkien's later Quenya rather hresta). Only attested in inflected forms: sg. ablative ailinello"shore-from" (MC:213) , sg. locative ailinisse"on shore" (MC:221) , pl. locative ailissen "on beaches" (for *ailinissen?) (MC:221)

ailo noun "lake, pool" (LT2:339; Tolkien's later Quenya has ailin)

aimenal, aimenel - see lirulin

aina- (1) vb. “to hallow, bless, treat as holy” (PE17:149)

aina (2) adj "holy" (AYAN) , derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. According to VT43:32, the word is "obsolete, except in Ainur ", apparently suggesting that aire or airea (q.v.) was the normal term for "holy" in later Quenya. However, Tolkien repeatedly used aina in his translation of the Litany of Loreto : Aina Faire "Holy Spirit", Aina Neldie "Holy Trinity", Aina Maria "Holy Mary", Aina Wende "Holy Virgin". He also used Aina Eruontari for "holy Mother" in his rendering of the Sub Tuum Praesidium(WJ:399, FS, SA, VT43:32, VT44:5, 12, 17-18)

ainas noun “a hallow, a fane” (PE17:149) . Compare yána #2.

Aini noun feminine form of Ainu(AYAN, LT1:248) ; see Ainu.

ainima adj. “blessed, holy (of things )” (PE17:149)

Aino noun "god", within Tolkien's mythos a synonym of Ainu (but since Aino is basically only a personalized form of aina "holy", hence "holy one", it could be used as a general word for "god") (PE15:72)

Ainu noun "holy one, angelic spirit"; fem. Aini (AYAN, LT1:248) ; "one of the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Ea"; pl. Ainur is attested. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399) . In the early "Qenya Lexicon", ainu was glossed "a pagan god", and aini was similarly "a pagan goddess", but as Christopher Tolkien notes, "Of course no one within the context of the mythology can call the Ainur 'pagan' " (LT1:248). Ainulindale noun "Music of the Ainur" (SA:lin #2) , the First History (WJ:406) , the Song of Creation (AYAN)

aipio noun "plum tree, cherry tree" (GL:18)

aiqua ("q")adj. "steep" (AYAK) . Not to be confused with the pronoun *aiqua “if anything, whatever” that post-Tolkien writers have extrapolated from aiquen (q.v.) on the basis of such pairs as ilquen vs. ilqua (q.v.)

aiqualin ("q")adj. "tall", plural form (???) (MC:216; this is "Qenya" - but cf. aiqua above.)

aiquen pron. "if anybody, whoever" (WJ:372)

aira (1) adj. "red, copper-coloured, ruddy" (GAY)

aira (2) adj . "holy"; see aire #1

aira(3) adj . "old" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

[ aira(4) adj . "eternal" (EY, VT45:13). Changed by Tolkien to oira.]

aire (1) adj . "holy", # Airefea "the Holy Spirit" (VT43:37, dative airefean on the previous page) , airetári or Aire Tári "holy queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário "holy-queen's" ( Nam , RGEO:67). However, according to PM:363, aire is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the adjective "holy". VT43:14 refers to an etymological note of "Sept.-Oct. 1957" where aire is said to be a noun "sanctity, holiness", and the adjective "holy" is given as airea. However, the verb # airita- "hallow" seems to be formed from an adjective aire, airi- "holy". Evidently aire can function as both adjective ("holy") and noun ("holiness"); if so aire as adj. could represent a primitive adjective * gaisi , whereas aire as noun may descend from * gaisē . The former but not the latter would have the stem airi- (as observed in the derived verb # airita-), and compounds like airetári (rather than * airitári) would seem to contain properly the noun "holiness".

aire (2) noun "sea" (the form airen is given, intended as a genitive singular when Tolkien wrote this; in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be a dative sg.) (AYAR/AIR; cf. airon)

[ aire (3) noun "eternity" (EY, VT45:13) ]

airea adj . "holy"; see aire.

#airita- vb. "hallow" (only pa.t. airitáne is attested) (VT32:7)

airon noun “ocean” (PE17:27) . Also earon, q.v.

aista (1) adj . "holy" (VT43:37)

#aista- (2) vb. "to bless", verbal stem isolated from the passive participle aistana "blessed" (VT43:30)

aista- (3) vb. "to dread" (GÁYAS, VT45:14; possibly obsoleted by #2 above)

aiwe noun "(small) bird" (AIWĒ , SA:lin #1) ; Aiwendil "Lover of Birds" (UT:401)

Aiwenor, Aiwenore (read * Aiwenóre?) place-name "Birdland" = lower air (AIWĒ )

aiya interjection "hail", as greeting (LotR2:IV ch. 9, see Letters:385 for translation) , or a call “for help and attention” (PE17:89) , “only addressed to great or holy persons as the Valar, or to Earendil” (PE17:149) . Variant aia (VT43:28)

'al- (1) vb ."thrive" (GALA; the ' simply indicates that the original initial G has disappeared and needs not normally be included, PE17:100) Compare # alála-.

al (2) an assimilated form of the conjunction ar before l( PE17:41, 175) ;see ar #1.

ala, # ála (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation , - la "not" to express a prohibition (VT43:22; see #1). Also with 1st person suffix -lye ( alalye and álalye, VT43:10, 22, VT44:8) and 1st person pl. object suffix - me ( alame and álame, "do not [do something to] us", as in ála me tulya, "do not leadus", VT43:12, 22). In the essay Quendi and Eldar , negative imperatives are rather indicated by áva, q.v., but this form can well coexist with ala, # ála.

ala- (2) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel ( VT42:33 , GALA, VT45:25 ), though the example Alcorin would suggest that al- can sometimes appear before a consonant as well. In a deleted entry in Etym, al( a)- was defined as "not" and said to be a "pure negative" (VT45:5) . In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila, Alcorin.

ala- (3), also al-, a prefix expressing “good” or “well” (PE17:146) , as in alaquenta (q.v.) Whether Tolkien imagined this ending to coexist with the negative prefix of the same form (#2 above) is unclear and perhaps dubious.

ala- (4) vb. “plant, grow” (the first gloss would suggest that the following one is transitive: to “grow” plants) (PE17:100)

ala (4) prep . "after, beyond" (MC:221, 214; however, LotR-style Quenya has han and pella "beyond" and apa "after")

[ ala (5) (also alar! or alla!) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5,14) ]

[ ala (6) noun "day", also alan "daytime". The forms allen, alanen listed after these words could be inflected forms of them: genitive "of day" and instrumental "by day"? However, Tolkien struck out all of this (VT45:13) .]

alaco noun "rush, rushing flight, wild wind" (VT45:5 cf. ÁLAK)

alahasta adj. "unmarred" (MR:254)

alaie, see #1

#alála- vb *"to continually grow" (VT27:20, 25) , maybe the frequentative form of a simpler verb al- or ala- "to grow". Cf. 'al- "thrive".

alalme (1) noun “inflorescence” (PE17:153) , cf. alma #2.

alalme (2) noun "elm, elm-tree" (ÁLAM, LÁLAM, LT1:249) . Cf. alve in a post-LotR source.

alalmino noun? "Elm"-something? (Narqelion)

alalvea adj. “having many elms” (PE17:146) . Cf. alalvinore.

alalvinore noun “land of many Elms” (PE17:153) , read apparently -nóreas in the alternate form alalbinóre (late pronunciation with lb for lv)

#Alamanya pl. Alamanyar noun , name of the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; = Úmanyar (MR:163)

álame, see me

[ alan, alanen – see ala #5]

alanesse, see alenesse

alaquenta adj. “well (happily) said” (PE17:146)

[ alar! (also ala and alla!) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5,14, 26) ]

[ Aláriel, masc. name = "Eadwine", friend of fortune (but this name is elsewhere rendered into Quenya as Herendil, q.v.) (VT45:26) ]

alarca adj. "swift, rapid" (LAK2)

alas ( alast-) noun "marble" (QL:30, GL:39) .

alasaila adj. "unwise" (VT41:13, 18; VT42:33)

alasse (1) noun "joy, merriment" (GALÁS) [VT42:32; a gloss "mirth" was deleted, VT45:14]

[ alasse (2) interjection "hail" or "bless", evidently a synonym of the greeting alar!, q.v. (VT45:26) ]

alat- prefix "large, great in size". (ÁLAT, cf. VT45:5) . In Alataire.

Alataire place-name "Great Sea", name of the Western Ocean between Beleriand and Valinor, called Belegaer in Sindarin (ÁLAT, AYAR/AIR)

[ alatúlie ?noun/?interjection “welcome” (PE17:172) ]

[ alatulya adj. / interjection “welcome” (PE17:172) ]

albe, see alve

alca noun "ray of light" (AKLA-R)

alcantaméren vb. "made it shine" (with a fem.pl. subject; the ending -ren probably means "they" of women, but the ending does not have to be translated here) (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

alcar (so spelt in CO, VT43:37-38, and VT44:32/34; otherwise "alkar")noun "glory, radiance, brilliance, splendour" (WJ:369, CO, VT43:37-38, VT47:13, AKLA-R ; the latter source also lists an alternative longer form alcare, also occurring in VT44:7/10) – Compare Alcarin, Atanalcar.

alcarin adj. “glorious, brilliant” (shorter form of alcarinqua, q.v.) (PE17:24) , hence Alcarin masc. name (or title) "the Glorious", title taken by Atanatar II of Gondor, also name of one of the Kings of Númenor (Appendix A) .

alcarinqua adj. "radiant, glorious" (AKLA-R [there spelt "alkarinqa"], WJ:412, VT44:7/10) , “glorious, brilliant” (PE17:24) , noun Alcarinque, "The Glorious", name of a star/planet (SA:aglar - there spelt "Alkarinque", but the Silmarillion Index has "Alcarinque". The celestial body in question seems to be Jupiter, MR:435) . Cf. also Alcarin, q.v.

alcarain adj.? "shining" (pl - sg * alcara?) (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

alcarissen noun "in light-rays" (a "Qenya" form from MC:221; alcar means "glory" in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Alcorin adj . variant of Ilcorin, q.v. (VT45:5, 25)

alda noun "tree" (GALAD, GÁLAD, SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302, LT1:249, LT2:340, VT39:7) , also name of tengwa #28 (Appendix E) . Pl. aldar in Narqelion ; gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in Namárie . Etymology of alda, see Letters:426 and UT:266-7. The latter source states that primitive ¤ galadā , whence Quenya alda, originally applied to stouter and more spreading trees such as oaks or beeches, while straighter and more slender trees such as birches were called ¤ ornē , Quenya orne - but this distinction was not always observed in Quenya, and it seems that alda became the general word. According to PE17:25, primitive galada (sic) referred to “a plant (large) and was a general term”. Place-name Aldalóme “”tree-night” or “tree-shade-night” (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in PE17:82) ; Aldarion masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees" (Appendix A) , Tar-Aldarion a Númenorean King (UT:210) . Aldaron a name of Orome (Silm) ; aldinga "tree-top" (VT47:28), aldarembina (pl. aldarembine attested) adj. “tree-tangled”, the cognate of Sindarin galadhremmin (PM:17:26). Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D) . The word seems to include * Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The Númenóreans altered the name to Aldea (presumably < * aldajā ), referring to one tree (the White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in Aldudénie "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange word, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this word – perhaps the Vanyarin dialect of Quenya did) (Silm)

Aldalemnar noun "week of the Trees, Midyear week" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK (GÁLAD, YEN) )

Aldaron noun , a name of Orome (GÁLAD)

aldarwa adj "having trees, tree-grown" (3AR) . See - arwa.

Aldea noun ,what the Númenóreans called the fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to Telperion, the White Tree (Appendix D) . The day was originally called Aldúya, referring to both of the Two Trees, but Númenóreans altered the name to Aldea (presumably < * aldajā ), referring to one tree (the White) only. (Appendix D) – Early "Qenya" also has an adjective aldea "tree-shadowed" (LT1:249) .

aldeon noun "avenue of trees" (LT1:249)

alenesse, also alanesse, noun “nicotiana, pipeweed” (tobacco) (PE17:100)

aldinga noun "treetop" (VT47:28)

alima adj. “fair, good” (also alya) (PE17:146)

[ alla! (also alar! or ala) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5, 14) ] PE17:146 cites alla “hail, welcome” as a variant (occurring within the imaginary world) of aiya.

alle prep. with pron. suffix *”beside you” (formal) (VT49:25) ; see ara

[ allen – see ala #5.]

alma (1) noun "good fortune, weal, wealth". In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses were "riches, (good) fortune, blessedness"; in another deleted entry, Tolkien provided the glosses "growth" and maybe "increase" (reading uncertain), also "good fortune, riches" (GALA [ALAM], VT45:5, 13, 14)

alma (2) “flower” (PE17:153) , said to be the “usual Quenya word” or “general Quenya word” (i.e. for flower?), but its coexistence with #1 is problematic. Compare lós, lóte, lotse, indil.

almare noun "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss". In deleted entries in Etym, the glosses provided were "blessedness, prosperity, bliss" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)

almárea adj. "blessed". In a deleted entry in Etym, the gloss provided was "bless", but this would seem to be a mistake, since the word does not look like a verb. Another deleted entry agrees with the retained entry GALA that almárea means "blessed" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)

Almaren place-name, the first abode of the Valar in Arda, apparently related to almare "blessedness" (Silm, LR:357)

Almáriel fem. name, apparently containing almare "blessedness" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)

alme noun “a good thing, a `blessing', a piece of good fortune” (PE17:146) . Cf. alma, almie.

almie noun "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss". In deleted entries in Etym, the glosses were "blessedness, prosperity, bliss" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)

Almiel fem. name , perhaps *"daughter of blessedness": almie + -iel with contraction / haplology.

alqua noun "swan" (ÁLAK [there spelt alqa, as in LT1:249/LT2:335], SA:alqua, UT:265, VT42:7) . The alternative form alque ("q") mentioned in early material (LT1:249) may or may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya.

Alqualonde place-name "Swan-road, Swan-haven", capital of the Teleri (ÁLAK, LOD, KHOP[there spelt Alqalonde ], Silm).

Alquaráme ("q")noun "Swan-wing" (LT2:335)

alta (1) adj . *"large, great in size" (root meaning)(ÁLAT) . Alat- in Alataire, q.v.

alta (2) noun "radiance" (VT42:32, PE17:50) . Cf. variant ñalta.

[ alta- (3) vb. "grow" (VT45:13) or "make grow" (VT45:14) ]

Altariel fem. name "Galadriel", "maiden crowned with a radiant garland" (SA:kal; the form Alatáriel is Telerin; see PM:347) Stem Altariell- seen in the genitive Altariello, occurring in the superscript of the Tengwar transcription of Namárie in RGEO.

alu noun "dressed leather" (QL:30)

alve noun “elm” (PE17:146) , also pronounced albe. In an earlier source, the word for “elm” is given as alalme, lalme.

[ alwa adj. "healthy, strong, flourishing" (+ one gloss not certainly legible: ?"well grown") (VT45:14) ]

alya (1) adj. “fair, good” (PE17:146) , "prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed" (GALA) . In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses provided were "rich, blessed"; another deleted entry defined alya as "rich, prosperous, blessed". (GALA, [ÁLAM], VT42:32, 45:5, 14)

alya- (2) vb. “to cause to prosper, bless (a work), help one” (PE17:146)

alye imperative particle with ending -lye "you"; see a #3.

am- (1) prefix "up" (AM2)

am- (2) prefix used in comparison, “signifying addition, increase” (PE17:90) , or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima “brightest of stars” (PE17:91) . Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, - before c). (PE17:90-92) . Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.

ama adv.? element not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am -, or an alternative form of amba (UNU)

amal noun “mother”; also emel (VT48:22, 49:22) ; the form amil ( emil) seems more usual.

amaldar ??? (Narqelion; may include aldar "trees")

aman adj. "blessed, free from evil". Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399) , though in other versions Tolkien cited an Elvish etymology (cf. VT49:26-27). Place-name Aman the Blessed Realm, from the stem mā n - "good, blessed, unmarred" (SA:mā n ), translated “Unmarred State” (VT49:26) . Allative Amanna (VT49:26) . Adj. amanya "of Aman, *Amanian" ( WJ:411) , nominal pl. Amanyar "those of Aman", Elves dwelling there (with negations Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman"). Also fuller Amaneldi noun *"Aman-elves" (WJ:373) .Masc. name Amandil *"Aman-friend" (Appendix A, SA:mā n) , the father of Elendil; also name of the Númenorean king Tar-Amandil (UT:210) .

? amandi pl. of óman, q.v. ( amandi is evidently a misreading for *omandi, VT46:7) (OM)

amanya adj. “blessed” (VT49:39, 41)

Amarie fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good" with prefixing of the stem-vowel and the feminine ending -ie (Silm)

amarto noun "Fate" (also ambar) (LT2:348; in LotR-style Quenya rather umbar, umbart-)

amatixe ("ks")noun dot or point placed above the line of writing (TIK) . Tolkien rejected the variant amatexe ("ks" ) (VT46:20)

[ amatúlie noun “blessed arrival” (PE17:172) , replaced by alatúlie, q.v.]

[ amatulya adj./?interjection “welcome (of something blessed)” (PE17:172) , replaced by alatulya, q.v.]

amaurea noun "dawn, early day" (Markirya)

amba 1) adv. "up, upwards" (AM2, PE17:157) . Apparently also ama (UNU) .

amba 2) adj. and noun “more”, “used of any kind of measurement spatial, temporal, or quantitative” (PE:17:91) . Cf. adverb ambe.

ambal noun "shaped stone, flag" (MBAL)

Ambalar noun "East" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

ambale noun "yellow bird, 'yellow hammer' " (SMAL)

*ambalotse noun "uprising-flower", referring to "the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to point of a tall [ illegible word: ?archaic] helmet". Curiously, the word is asterisked as unattested (WJ:319)

amban noun "upward slope, hill-side" (AM2)

ambapenda adj . "uphill". Also ampenda. (AM 2 )

ambar (1) ( "a-mbar" ) noun "oikumenē [Greek: the earth as the human habitation], Earth, world" (MBAR) , stem ambar- (PE17:66) , related to and associated with mar "home, dwelling" (VT45:33) ; in VT46:13 the latter glosses are possibly also ascribed to the word ambar itself (the wording is not clear). The form ambaren also listed in the Etymologies was presumably intended as the genitive singular at the time of writing (in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be the dative singular); in the printed version in LR, the misreading "ambaron" appears (see VT45:33). Ambar-metta noun "the end of the world" (EO) ; spelt ambarmetta in VT44:36. The element # umbar in Tarumbar "King of the World" (q.v.) would seem to be a variant of ambar, just like ambar #2 "doom" also alternates with umbar (see below).

ambar (2) noun "fate, doom" (variant of umbar?) in Turambar (SA:amarth) ; stem ambart- (PE17:66) , instrumental ambartanen "by doom" (Silm ch. 21, UT:138, PE17:66) . The early "Qenya" lexicon has ambar "Fate", also amarto (LT2:348)

ambar (3) noun "”breast” (chest), with stem in -s- or -r- (QL:30). The form ambar, translated “in bosom”, occurs in MC:213 (this is "Qenya") . Note: if this word were to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya, we should probably have to read *ambas with stem ambar-; compare olos, olor- “dream” from a late source. However, the form ambos (q.v.) is less ambiguous and may be preferred.

Ambarenya, older [MET] Ambarendya place-name "Middle-earth" (but the more usual word is Endor, Endóre) (MBAR)

ambaron ( ambarón- as in "g.sg. ambarónen ", in LotR-style Quenya this would be a dative singular) noun "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (AM2) . - In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the form ambaron also appears in the entry MBAR , but according to VT45:33 this is an error for ambaren, apparently intended as the genitive singular of ambar (in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be the dative singular).

Ambaróna place-name “Eastern (land)”, possibly basically an adjectival form Ambaróne "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (LotR2:III ch. 4; PE17:82, compare the Etymologies , entry AM2 )

Ambaróne noun "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (AM2)

Ambarto masc. name *"upwards-exalted", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Pityafinwe = Amrod (PM:353, 354)

*ambas, see ambar # 3

ambasse noun “breast-plate, hauberk”

Ambarussa masc. name "top-russet", alternation of Umbarto, mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwe = Amras (PM:353-354)

ambe adv. “more”, “used of any kind of measurement spatial, temporal, or quantitative” (PE:17:91) . As noun or adjective, amba.

ambela adv. “further still beyond, far away beyond” (PE17:91)

ambena adv. “nearer to (to a further point in the motion) towards an object” (PE17:91) . Also amna.

ambo noun "hill, rising ground” (Markirya, PE17:92) , “mount” (PE17:157) , allative pl. ambonnar "upon hills" in Markirya ( ruxal' ambonnar "upon crumbling hills") According to VT45:5, ambo was added to the Etymologies as a marginal note.

ambos( ambost-) noun “breast” (chest). –PE16:82

ambuna adj. “of flat ground dotted with hills etc.” (PE17:93)

ámen, see me

amil noun "mother" (AM1) , also emil (q.v.) Longer variant amille (VT44:18-19) , compounded Eruamille "Mother of God" in Tolkien's translation of the Hail Mary (VT43:32) . If amil is a shortened form of amille, it should probably have the stem-form amill-. Also compare amilye, amya, emya. Compounded amil- in amilesse noun "mothername" (cf. esse "name"), name given to a child by its mother, sometimes with prophetic implications ( amilessi tercenye "mother-names of insight"). (MR:217) .

Amillion noun "February" (LT1:249; LotR-style Quenya has Nénime)

amilye or milye (cited as ( a) milye), noun "mummy", also used as a play-name of the index finger, but Tolkien emended it to emme, emya. (VT48:4) In its basic sense, ( a) milye would be a variant of amil, amille "mother", q.v.

ammale noun "yellow bird, 'yellow hammer' " (SMAL)

amme noun "mother" (AM1)

amna adv. “nearer to (to a further point in the motion) towards an object” (PE17:91) . Also ambena.

#amorta- vb. "heave" (literally "up-rise, rise up", cf. orta-; the prefix am- means "up"). Only attested as a participle amortala "heaving" in Markirya .

ampa noun "hook", also name of tengwa #14 (GAP, Appendix E, VT47:20)

ampano noun "building" (especially of wood), "wooden hall" (PAN; alternative form umpano, VT45:36, which Tolkien in one case altered to ampano, VT46:8) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , ampano was also the name of tengwa #6 (VT46:8) , which letter Tolkien would later call umbar instead (changing its value from mp to mb).

ampenda adj. "uphill". Also ambapenda. (AM2)

ampende noun "upward slope" (PEN/PÉNED)

amu adv. "up, upwards" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya amba)

amu- vb. "raise" (LT2:335; LotR-style Quenya has orta-)

amun ( amund-) noun "hill" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya ambo)

amunte noun "sunrise" (LT2:335; Tolkien's later Quenya has anaróre)

amya (1) noun “my mother”, form used in address (PE17:170) , cf. emya

amya- (2) evidently a prefix corresponding to mai- (q.v.) in meaning (PE17:163, 172)

an (1) conj. and prep. "for" ( Nam , RGEO:66) , an cé mo querne… “for if one turned…” (VT49:8) , also used adverbially in the formula an+ a noun to express “one more” (of the thing concerned: an quetta “a word more”, PE17:91). The an of the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290) however seems to denote motion towards (the speaker): the Eagles are coming. Etym has an, ana "to, towards" (NĀ 1 ). The phrase an i falmalī (PE17:127) is not clearly translated but seems to be a paraphrase of the word falmalinnar “upon the foaming waves” (Nam) , suggesting that an can be used as a paraphrase of the allative ending (and if falmalīis seen as a Book Quenya accusative form because of the long final vowel, this is evidence that an governs the accusative case). In the "Arctic" sentence, an is translated "until". Regarding an as used in Namárie , various sources indicate that it means an “moreover, further(more), to proceed” (VT49:18-19) or (“properly”) “further, plus, in addition” (PE17:69, 90) . According to one late source (ca. 1966 or later), an “is very frequently used after a `full stop', when an account or description is confirmed after a pause. So in Galadriel's Elvish lament […]: An sí Tintalle , etc. [= For now the Kindler, etc…] This is translated by me `for', side an is (as here) often in fact used when the additional matter provides an explanation of or reason for what has already been said”. Related is the use of an + noun to express “one more”; here an is presumably accented, something the word would not normally be when used as a conjunction or preposition.

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára *"very old" or *"oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d , the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. – In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept). (PE17:92)

an- (3) prefix "re" in antúlien, q.v. (LotR-style Quenya shows en- instead.)

ana (1) prep. “to” (VT49:35) , “as preposition ana is used when purely dative formula is required” (PE17:147) , perhaps meaning that the preposition anacan be used instead of the dative ending - n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ 1 ) ; an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)

ana (2) vb. , apparently the imperative "give!", but Tolkien rewrote the text in question (VT44:13) . See anta #1.

anaie vb. “has been”; see #1.

Anamo noun in genitive "of doom" in Rithil-Anamo "Ring of Doom" (q.v.) Since the reference is to a place (a circle) where judgement was passed, this seems to be "doom" in the sense of "juridical decision" or "(legal) justice". The nominative "doom" may be *anan, with stem anam- (since the root would be NAM as in nam- "to judge", námo noun "judge"). Alternatively, but less probably, the nominative may be *anama.

#anan ( anam-), reconstructed nominative of Anamo, q.v.

ananta, a-nanta conj. "and yet, but yet" (FS, NDAN)

Anar noun "Sun" (ANÁR, NAR1, SA:nár; UT:22 cf. 51) ; anar "a sun" (Markirya) ; Anarinya "my Sun" (FS) . See also ceuranar, Úr-anar. (According to VT45:6, Tolkien in the Etymologies mentioned anar "sun" as the name of the short vowel carrier of the Tengwar writing system; it would be the first letter if anar is written in Quenya mode Tengwar.) Compounded in the masc. name Anárion *"Sun-son" (Isildur's brother, also the Númenorean king Tar-Anárion, UT:210); also in Anardil *"Sun-friend" (Appendix A) , a name also occurring in the form Anardilya with a suffix of endearment (UT:174, 418) . Anarya noun second day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Sun (Appendix D) . Anarríma name of a constellation: *"Sun-border"??? (Silm; cf. ríma)

#anarcande noun "petition" (isolated from anarcandemman, "our petitions", possibly an error for *anarcandemmar) (VT44:8) ; Tolkien seems to have abandoned this word in favour of #arcande, q.v.

anat conj. "but" (VT43:23; possibly an ephemeral form)

anaróre noun "sunrise" (ORO)

anca noun "jaws, row of teeth" (ÁNAK [there spelt anca in Etym as printed in LR, but according to VT45:5, Tolkien's own spelling in the Etym manuscript was anka ], NAK [there spelt anka ], Appendix E, SA - despite what Christopher Tolkien says in the entry anca in SA, the Quenya word anca as such does NOT appear in the Sindarin dragon-name Ancalagon , but its Sindarin cognate anc does. See ÁNAK in the Etymologies.) Also name of tengwa #15 (Appendix E). Despite its English gloss, anca is a singular word (in Etym the gloss is indeed "jaw", not "jaws").

Ancale noun "radiant one" or "radiance" = Sun (KAL, VT45:5, 18) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , Ancale was the name of letter #7 (VT45:18), which tengwa Tolkien would later call anga instead – changing its Quenya value from nc to ng. - Another source (VT45:36) cites the word for "radiance, Sun" as incale , but the form Ancale is probably to be preferred.

ancalima adj. "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation) . Ancalima imbi eleni "brightest among stars", also [ ancalima] imb' illi "brightest among all" (VT47:30) . Fem. name Ancalime, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A) . Tar-Ancalime, a Númenorean Queen (UT:210)

anda adj. "long" (ÁNAD/ANDA) , “far” (PE17:90) .In Andafangar noun "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim ) (PM:320) . Compare Andafalasse, #andamacil, andamunda, andanéya, andatehta, Anduine. – Apparently derived from the adj. anda is andave "long" as adverb (“at great length”, PE17:102), suggesting that the ending -ve can be used to derive adverbs from adjectives (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308 )

Andafalasse place-name “Langstrand” (long shore/beach) (PE17:135)

#andamacil noun “long sword” ( anda + macil), attested with the possessive ending -wa ( andamacilwa, PE17:147)

andamunda noun "elephant" ("long-mouth", anda + munda) (MBUD)

andanéya adv. “long ago, once upon a time” (also anda né) (VT49:31)

andatehta noun "long-mark" (TEK, PE17:123) , indicated to be an accent-like symbol ´ used to mark long vowels (VT46:17) . Compare anda, tehta.

andave adv. "long, at great length" (PE17:102) ; see anda

ando (1) noun "gate", also name of tengwa #5 (AD, Appendix E) . A deleted entry in the Etymologies gave Ando Lómen, evidently "Door of Night" (VT45:28; notice "Qenya" genitive in -n rather than -o as in LotR-style Quenya)

ando (2) adv. "long"; maybe replaced by andave; see anda (VT14:5)

- ando masculine agentive suffix, deleted in the Etymologies (VT45:16), but occurring in words Tolkien used later, like # runando "redeemer".

Andolat place-name (name of a hill; = S Dolad ) (NDOL)

andon noun "great gate" ( andond-, as in pl. andondi) (AD)

Andóre noun full form of Andor, "land of gift", name of Númenor (SD:247)

andú-, - “going down, setting (of sun), west” (PE17:18) , element underlying words like the following, and also núna (q.v.)

andúna adj. “western” (PE17:18)

andúne noun "sunset, west, evening" (NDŪ , Markirya, SA) , also in Namárie : Andúne "West" (but the standard Quenya translation of "west" is Númen) ( Nam , RGEO:66) Cf. andu- in Andúnie, Andúril.

Anduine place-name = Sindarin Anduin , Long River (PE17:40)

Andúnie(apparently a variant form of andúne) place-name, a city and port on the western coast of Númenor, said to mean "sunset". (Appendix A , Silm, UT:166, NDŪ /VT45:38)

Andúril noun "Flame of the West", sword-name (LotR1:II ch. 3)

Andustar place-name, the "Westlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

áne, see anta-

# ane-, form of copula “was” when pronominal endings follow: anen “I was”, anel “you were”, anes “(s)he/it was” (VT49:28, 29) ; see #1.

anel noun “daughter” (PE17:170) , possibly intended by Tolkien as a replacement for selde (q.v.). Compare anon.

anesse noun "given (or added) name" (encompassing both epessi and amilessi) (MR:217)

anga noun "iron", also name of tengwa #7 (ANGĀ , Appendix E, SA, PM:347, LT1:249, 268) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , anga was the name of letter #19, which tengwa Tolkien would later call noldo instead (VT45:6). Masc. names Angamaite "Iron-handed" (Letters:347) , Angaráto "Iron-champion", Sindarin Angrod (SA:ar(a) ) . See also Angamando, tornanga and cf. Angainor as the name of the chain with which Melkor was bound (Silm)

angaina adj . "of iron" (ANGĀ )

angaitya noun "torment"(LT1:249) ; rather nwalme in Tolkien's later Quenya

Angamando place-name "Iron-gaol", Sindarin Angband (MR:350) . The Etymologies gives Angamanda "Angband, Hell", lit. "Iron-prison" (MBAD, VT45:33) . In deleted material in the Etymologies , the Quenya name of Angband was Angavanda (VT45:6) ; cf. vanda #2. Older "Qenya" has Angamandu "Hells of Iron" (or pl. Angamandi) (LT1:249) .

angayanda adj. “miserable” (QL:34)

angayasse noun "misery" (LT1:249, QL:34)

ango noun "snake"; stem angu- as in angulóce (q.v.); pl. angwi (ANGWA/ANGU)

angulóce noun "dragon" (LOK)

ánie, see anta-

anna noun "gift" (ANA1, SA) , “a thing handed, brought or sent to a person” (PE17:125) , also name of tengwa #23 (Appendix E) ; pl. annar "gifts" in Fíriel's Song . Masc. name Annatar "Lord of Gifts, *Gift-lord", name assumed by Sauron when he tried to seduce the Eldar in the Second Age (SA:tar) . Eruanna noun "God-gift", gift of God, i.e. "grace" (VT43:38)

anni > arni prep. with pron. suffix *”beside me” (VT49:25) ; see ara

aññol- (sic, read angol-?) noun "strong smell" (VT45:5, cf. ÑOL)

anon noun “son” (PE17:170) , possibly intended by Tolkien as a replacement for yondo.

anquale noun "agony, death" (form Tolkien seems to have intended as a replacement for unquale of similar meaning, VT45:24, 36)

anta- (1) vb. "give" (ANA1, MC:215, 221) , pa.t. antane( antanen “I gave”, VT49:14) or † áne, perfect ánie (PE17:147, cf. QL:31) . According to VT49:14, Tolkien noted that anta- was sometimes often with an “ironic tone” to refer to missiles, so that antanen hatal sena “I gave him a spear (as a present)” was often used with the real sense of “I cast a spear at him”. Usually the recipient of the thing given is mentioned in the dative or allative case (like sena in this example), but there is also a construction similar to English “present someone with something” in which the recipient is the object and the gift appears in the instrumental case: antanenyes parmanen, “I presented him with a book” (PE17:91) . – The verb occurs several times in FS: antalto"they gave"; strangely, no past tense marker seems to be present (see -lto for the ending); antar a pl. verb translated "they gave", though in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be the present tense "give" (pl.); antaróta "he gave it" ( anta-ró-ta "gave-he-it"), another verb occurring in Fíriel's Song , once again with no past tense marker. Also antáva "will give", future tense of anta- "give"; read perhaps *antuva in LotR-style Quenya; similarly antaváro "he will give" (LR:63) might later have appeared as *antuvas (with the ending -s rather than “Qenya” -ro for “he”). Antale imperative "give thou" (VT43:17) , sc. anta "give" + the element le "thou", but this was a form Tolkien abandoned. Apparently ana was at one point considered as another imperative “give”, but Tolkien rewrote the text in question (VT44:13) , and the normal patterns would suggest *á anta with an independent imperative particle.

anta (2) noun "face" (ANA1, VT45:5) . Cf. cendele.

antara adj. "very high, very lofty", the adjective tára "lofty" with the superlative prefix an- (q.v.) We might have expected *antára. Also place-name Antaro (VT45:5, 36) , said to be the "name of a mountain in Valinor south of Taniq[u]etil" (VT46:17)

ante noun "giver" (f.) (ANA1)

[ antil noun "middle finger" (VT47:26) ]

anto (1) noun "mouth", also name of tengwa #13 (Appendix E)

anto (2) noun "giver" (masc.) (ANA1)

antoryame noun "strengthening", used of various manipulations of a stem, such as lengthening vowels or consonants or turning a consonant or a vowel into a "blend" (see ostime ) (VT39:9)

antúlien vb. "hath returned" in the phrase I . cal' antúlien "Light hath returned" (LT1:270) ; note the "Qenya" third person ending -n. In LotR-style Quenya this would perhaps read *i cál' enutúlie or *i cala enutúlie.

#anyára (attested with dative ending: anyáran), see an-, yára

anwa adj. "real, actual, true" (ANA2)

anwe (1) vb . archaic past tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:366)

anwe(2) prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us”, changed to arme (VT49:25) ; see ara.

anwet prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (dual), changed to armet (VT49:25) ; see ara.

#ap- (cited in the form ape, evidently the 3rd person aorist) vb. "touch (one)" in the figurative sense; "concern, affect" (VT44:26)

apa (1) prep. "after" (VT44:36) , attested as a prefix in apacenye and Apanónar, q.v. Variant ep- in epesse, q.v.; see epe for futher discussion. (According to VT44:36, apa was glossed “after” and also “before” in one late manuscript, but both meanings were rejected.) See also apa # 2 below. For Neo-Quenya purposes, apa should probably be ascribed the meaning "after", as in our most widely-published sources. Variants pa, (VT44:36) , but like apa these are also ascribed other meanings elsewhere; see separate entry. Apo (VT44:36) may be yet another variant of the word for "after".

apa (2) prep . denoting "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall). Apa is said to have this meaning in various Tolkien manuscripts (VT44:26) , but apa is also used for "after" (see apa #1 above), and the two were probably never meant to coexist in a single variant of Quenya. The clash may be avoided by consistently using the variants , pa (q.v.) mentioned by Tolkien in the sense of apa #2. Another variant gives apa, “on (above but touching)” (VT49:18) .

apa (3) conj. “but”: melinyes apa la hé “I love him but not him” (another) (VT49:15)

apacenye is translated "foresight" in MR:216; yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates that it is not a noun but actually the pl. form of an adjective *apacenya"of foresight". The noun "foresight" is almost certainly *apacen; cf. tercen"insight". (MR:216) The literal meaning of *apacen is *"aftersight", sc. knowledge of that which comes after. [ Essi] apacenye "[names] of foresight", prophetic names given to a child by its mother (MR:216)

apaire noun "victory" (GL:17)

Apanónar noun "the After-born", an Elvish name of Mortal Men as the Second-born of Ilúvatar (WJ:387)

aparuive, also just ruive, noun “wild fire – fire as conflagration” (PE17:183)

apo prep. ?"after" (see apa #1) (VT44:36)

appa- vb. "touch" (in the literal sense; contrast #ap-, q.v.) (VT44:26)

apsa noun "cooked food, meat" (AP)

apsene- vb. "remit, release, forgive" (VT43:18, 20; it is unclear whether the final -e is somehow part of the verbal stem or is just the final form of the ending -i associated with the aorist, so that "I forgive" would be *apsenin) . Where Tolkien used apsene-, he cited the person(s) forgiven in the dative ( á men apsene "forgive us", literally "for us"), whereas the matter that is forgiven appears as a direct object (VT43:12) . Compare avatyar-.

aqua adv. "fully, completely, altogether, wholly" (WJ:392)

aquapahtie noun "privacy" (literally *"fully-closedness", of a mind that closes itself against telepathic transfers) (VT39:23)

[ aquet noun? vb? ”answer” (PE17:166) ]

ar (1) conj. "and" (AR2, SA , FS , Nam, RGEO:67, CO , LR:47, 56, MC:216, VT43:31, VT44:10, 34; see VT47:31 for etymology, cf. also VT49:25, 40) . The older form of the conjunction was az (PE17:41). Ar is often assimilated to al, as before l, s (PE17:41, 71), but “in written Quenya ar was usually written in all cases” (PE17:71) . In one case, Tolkien altered the phrase ar larmar “and garments” to al larmar; the former may then be seen as representing the spelling , whereas the latter represents the pronunciation (PE17:175). More complex schemes of assimilation are suggested to have existed in “Old Quenya”, the conjunction varying between ar, a and as depending on the following consonant (PE17:41, 71). An alternative longer form of the conjunction, are, is said to occur "occasionally in Tolkien's later writings" (VT43:31, cf. VT48:14) . In the Etymologies , the word for "and" was first written as ar( a) (VT45:6) . – In one source, Tolkien notes that Quenya used ar “as preposition beside , next, or as adverb = and(PE17:145) ; compare ara.

ar (2) noun "day" (PE17:148) , apparently short for áre, occurring in the names of the Valinorean week listed below. Tolkien indicated that ar in these names could also be are when the following element begins in a consonant (VT45:27) . Usually the word for "day" in LotR-style Quenya is rather aure (or ), q.v.

Ar Fanturion noun *"Day of the Fanturi (Mandos and Lorien)" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK). Also Are Fanturion (VT45:27).

Ar Manwen noun *"Day of Manwe" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n.) Also Are Manwen (VT45:27).

Ar Ulmon noun *"Day of Ulmo" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n.)

Ar Veruen noun *"Day of the Spouses" (Aule and Yavanna) (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK; this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n.) Also Are Veruen (VT45:27).

ar- (1) prefix "outside" (AR2) , element meaning "beside" (VT42:17) , “by” (PE17:169; in the same source the glosses “near, by, beside” were rejected) . Cf. ara.

ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima “brightest”, arimelda *”dearest” (PE17:56-57) . In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed “very” or “exceedingly” with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkien's work. See an- #2, am- #2.

ára noun "dawn" (AR1) . According to VT45:6, ára is also the name of the long vowel carrier of the Tengwar system; it would be the first letter of the word ára if spelt in Tengwar.

ara prep.(and adv.?) "outside, beside, besides" (AR2, VT49:57) . According to VT45:6, the original glosses were "without, outside, beside", but Tolkien emended this. Arse“he is out”, VT49:23, 35, 36. As for ar( a), see ar #1. – VT49:25 lists what seems to be ar( a) combined with various pronominal suffixes: Singular anni > arni *”beside me”, astye *“beside you” (informal), alle *“besides you” (formal), arse *”beside him/her”, plural anwe > arme *“beside us” (exclusive), arwe *“beside us” (inclusive), aste > arde *“beside you” (plural), aste > arte *“beside them”; dual anwet > armet *“beside us (two)”. (Here Tolkien presupposes that ara represents original ada -.) The same source lists the unglossed forms ari, arin that may combine the preposition with the article, hence *“beside the” (VT49:24-25)

Ara-, ar- a prefixed form of the stem Ara- "noble" (PM:344) . In the masc. names Aracáno "high chieftain", mothername (amilesse , q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf. 344) , Arafinwe"Finarfin" (MR:230)

Araman place-name "outside Aman", name of a region (SA:ar, mā n)

aran noun "king"; pl. arani (WJ:369, VT45:16, PE17:186) ; gen.pl. aranion "of kings" in asea aranion, q.v.; aranya *"my king" ( aran + nya) (UT:193) . Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369) ; aran Ondóreo, “a king of Gondor” (VT49:27) . Also in arandil "king's friend, royalist", arandur "king's servant, minister" (Letters:386) ; Arantar masc. name, *"King-Lord" (Appendix A) ; Arandor "Kingsland" region in Númenor (UT:165) ; the long form Arandóre appears as a name of Arnor in PE17:28 (elsewhere Arnanóre, q.v.) Othercompounds ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran, q.v.

aranel noun "princess" (likely * aranell-) (UT:434)

# aranie noun "kingdom" ( aranielya "thy kingdom") (VT43:15) . Cf. # aranye in Ardaranye “the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

aranus (# aranuss-), also aranusse, noun “kingship” (PE17:155)

Aranwe masc. name *"Kingly Person" (Silm) ; Aranwion patronymic "son of Aranwe" (UT:50 cf. 32)

aranya, also ranya, adj. "free". Another gloss was not certainly legible, but the editors suggest "uncontrolling" (VT46:10)

# aranye noun “kingdom”, isolated from Ardaranye “the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

Aratan masc. name *"Noble Adan" (Silm)

arata adj. “high, lofty, noble” (PE17:49, 186) . Also used as a a noun with nominal pl. form Aratar "the Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:402) . Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity" (WJ:369) . In one source, Aratar is translated as a singular: “High One” (PE17:186)

arato noun “a noble” (PE17:147) , in PE17:118 given as aratōand there glossed “lord” (often = “king”). Cf. aráto. The form cited in the latter source, aratō with a long final vowel, is evidently very archaic (compare Enderō under Ender); later the vowel would become short. (PE17:118)

aráto noun "champion, eminent man" (SA:ar(a) )

arauca adj. "swift, rushing" (LT2:347) . Compare arauco.

arauco noun "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature; demon" (variant of rauco). Tolkien's earlier "Qenya" has arauce "demon" (WJ:415, LT1:250)

arca (1) adj. “narrow” (AK)

arca- (2) vb. "pray" (VT43:23, cf. VT44:8, 18) ; evidently this basically means "to petition" or “to ask for”, compare arcande below.

#arcande noun "petition" (isolated from arcandemmar "our petitions") (VT44:8)

Arciryas masc. name (evidently derived from *arcirya "royal ship") (Appendix A)

arda noun "realm" (GAR under 3AR) . It is said that arda, when used as a common noun, "meant any more or less bounded or defined place, a region" (WJ:402) , or "a particular land or region" (WJ:413) . Capitalized Arda "the Realm", name of the Earth as the kingdom of Manwe (Silm ), "the name given to our world or earth...within the immensity of Ea"( Letters: 283),once translated "Earth" (SD:246) . Also name of tengwa #26 (Appendix E). Masc. name Ardamíre "Jewel of the World" (PM:348) , shorter form Ardamir (UT:210) Ardaranye “the Kingdom of Arda” (PE17:105)

arde prep. with pron. suffix *”beside you” (pl), changed from aste (VT49:25) . See ara.

are conj. "and", longer form of ar, q.v. (VT43:31)

áre noun "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight" (SA:arien) . Stem ári- (PE17:126, where the word is further defined as “warmth, especially of the sun, sunlight”). Also name of tengwa #31; cf. also ar # 2. Originally pronounced áze; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was re-named esse (Appendix E) . Also áre nuquerna *" áre reversed", name of tengwa #32, similar to normal áre but turned upside down (Appendix E) . See also ilyázea, ilyárea under ilya. – In the Etymologies , this word has a short initial vowel: are pl. ari (AR1)

Arfanyaras, Arfanyarasse place-name, a "variant or close equivalent" of Taniquetil (WJ:403)

arie noun "daytime" (AR1)

Arien fem. name "the Sun-maiden", the Maia of the Sun (AR1; Silm) ; cf. áre "sunlight"

ari, arin prep. *”beside the”? See ara.

arin noun "morning" (AR1)

arinya adj. "morning" in the adjectival sense (e.g. *arinya áre "morning sun") and hence "early" (AR1, VT45:6)

arma (1) noun “a ray of sunlight” (PE17:148)

[ arma (2) noun "possessions, goods, property" (VT45:14) , "a piece of goods or property" (VT45:16) ]

armar noun "goods" (pl.) (3AR) . Compare the sg. arma "a piece of goods or property" mentioned above, though Tolkien struck out that text.

armaro noun "neighbour"; also asambar, asambaro (VT48:20, VT49:25)

arme prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (exclusive), changed from anwe (VT49:25) ; see ara.

armet prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (dual), changed from arwet (VT49:25) ; see ara.

Armenelos place-name, City of the Kings in Númenor ( ar-menel-os( to) "royal-heaven-city"???) The stem should possibly be *Armenelost- (compare Mandos, Mandost-).

Arnanóre, Arnanor place-name "Arnor", Royal Land (so #arna = "royal"?) (Letters:428) . Cf. Arandóre.

arni < anni prep. with pron. suffix *”beside me” (VT49:25) ; see ara

arquen noun "a noble" (WJ:372) , “knight” (PE17:147)

arse prep. with pron. suffix *”beside him/her” (informal) (VT49:25) ; see ara. Arse“he is out” (VT49:23, 35, 36)

arta (1) adj . "exalted, lofty" (PM:354) , “high, noble” (PE17:118, 147) ; cf. names like Artaher, Artanis.

arta (2) noun "fort, fortress" (GARAT under 3AR)

arta (3) adv. ”etcetera” (PE17:71) ; see ta #4.

arta (4) prep . "across, athwart" (LT2:335) , perhaps rather olla in Tolkien's later Quenya.

Artaher ( Artahér-) masc. name "noble lord" (Sindarin Arothir ) (PM:346)

Artamir masc. name *"Noble jewel" (Appendix A) ; cf. míre.

Artanis fem. name ”noble woman” (PM:347)

artarindo noun “bystander” (one standing beside another as a supporter) (PE17:71) . Also astarindo.

artaure noun “realm” (PE17:28) . Cf. turmen.

arte prep. with pron. suffix *”beside them”, changed from aste (VT49:25) . See ara.

artuile noun "dayspring, early morn" (TUY)

Arvalin place-name, "outside Valinor" (AR2)

Arvernien place-name, “(the land) beside the Verna(PE17:19) . It is unclear what “Verna” refers to.

Arveruen noun third day of the Valinorian week of 5 days, dedicated to Aule and Yavanna (BES)

arwa (1) adj. "in control of, possessing" (followed by genitive, e.g. *arwa collo, "having a cloak [ colla]"). Also suffix -arwa"having", as in aldarwa "having trees, tree-grown" (3AR) . In a deleted entry in the Etymologies , -arwa was glossed "having, possessing, holding, controlling" (VT45:14)

[ arwa (2) noun "possessions, belongings, wealth (VT45:14) ]

arwe(1) prep. with pron. suffix *”beside us” (inclusive) (VT49:25) ; see ara.

[ arwe (2) noun "possessions, wealth; treasure" (VT45:14, 16) ]

arya (1) adj. “excelling”, used as the comparative form of mára “good”, hence *“better” (PE17:57) . The superlative (*“best”) is i arya with the article, with genitive to express *“the best of…” Cf. mára.

arya- (2) vb. “to excel” (PE17:56) . Cf. #1 above.

arya (3) noun "twelve hours, day" (AR1 ; compare aure). In deleted notes this word was also used as an adjective: "of the day, light" (VT45:6). Still according to VT45:6, arya is also the name of Tengwa #26 in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , but Tolkien would later call #26 arda instead (indeed arya was changed from arda in the source; Tolkien would later change his mind back again). The abandoned name arya suggests that the letter was to have the value ry (rather than rd as in the classical system outlined in LotR Appendix E). – Since the word for “day” (daylight period) is given as aure in later sources, and arya is assigned other meanings in late material (see #1, 2 above), the conceptual validity of arya “day” is questionable.%

[ arya- (4) vb. "to possess" (VT45:14) ]

Aryante noun "Daybringer" (AR1, ANA1)

aryon noun "heir" (GAR under 3AR) . In a deleted entry in the Etymologies , the word was given as aryo, aryon and defined as "son of property = heir" (VT45:14) , whereas in VT45:16 (reproducing deleted material from the Etymologies ), the word is defined as "heir, prince". Alternative form haryon.

as prep. "with" (together with), also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselye "with thee" (VT47:31, VT43:29) . The conjunction ar “and” may also appear in assimilated form as before s; see ar #1.

asa ( þ) prefix denoting easiness in doing, cf. asalaste. The prefix often appears in reduced form as- before p, t, c, q, s (PE17:148) , cf. ascene.

asalaste (*aþa-) adj. “easily heard” (PE17:148)

asambar, asambaro noun "neighbour"; also armaro (VT48:20) . Since the ending -o is associated with the masculine gender, the form asambar may be gender-neutral whereas the other forms are gender-marked as masculine.

[ asanóte] ) ?adj. (not glossed, perhaps *”easily counted” (PE17:172)

asar ( þ) (Vanyarin athar) noun "fixed time, festival". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399) Pl. asari is attested (VT39:31)

ascene, ascénima( þ) adj. “visible, easily seen” (PE17:148)

asea ( þ) 1) adj. “beneficial, helpful, kindly” (so according to a late note where the word is derived from * ATHAYA ) ; hence also: 2) asea ( þ) noun ,name of the healing plant called in Sindarin athelas(PE17:148) , in English (representing Westron) called “kingsfoil”, cf. longer Quenya name asea aranion ( þ) " asea of kings" (LotR3:V ch. 8) . Cf. aran.

asie( þ) noun “ease, comfort” (PE17:148)

#ascat- vb. "break asunder", only attested in the past tense: ascante (SD:310)

assa "hole, perforation, opening, mouth" (GAS)

assari noun "bones" (?) (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

asya- ( þ) vb. “to ease, assist, comfort” (PE17:148)

asta (1) noun "month", a division of the year (VT42:20) . Pl. astar is attested (Appendix D) . According to VT48:11, the basic meaning of asta is "division, a part", especially one of other equal parts: "of the year, a month or period". According to VT48:19, asta is also used in Quenya as a group suffix (see quentasta).

asta- (2) vb. “to heat, bake (by exposure to sun)” (PE17:148)

astar noun “faith, loyalty ( not belief)” (PE17:183) . Not to be confused with the pl. form of asta #1.

astarindo noun “bystander” (one standing beside another as a supporter) (PE17:71) . Also artarindo.

astarmo noun “bystander”, mainly used in the sense of “witness” (PE17:71)

aste prep. with pron. suffix (1) *”beside you”, in this sense changed to arde; (2) *”beside them”, in this sense changed to arte (VT49:25) . See ara.

Astaldo noun "the Valiant", a title of Tulkas (Silm, MR:438) ; replaced Poldórea.

asto noun "dust" (ÁS-AT) . According to VT45:6, asto was the name of tengwa #13 in the pre-classical system presupposed in the Etymologies , but Tolkien would later change the name of this letter to anto (its Quenya value changing from st to nt).

astye prep. with pron. suffix *”beside you” (informal) (VT49:25) ; see ara

ata adv. "again", also prefix ata-, at- "back, again, re-; second time, double" (AT(AT), PE17:166) or “two” (PE17:166) , also “ambi-“ as in ataformaite, q.v.

ataformaite adj. “ambidextrous” (VT49:9, 10, 42) , pl. ataformaiti (VT49:9, 11) . Spelling was changed from attaformaite in one case (VT49:9) . Cf. #ataformo.

#ataformo (pl. ataformor is attested), noun “ambidexter”. Spelling changed from attaformor. Cf. adj. ataformaite (VT49:9, 32)


atalante noun "downfall, overthrow, especially as name [ Atalante] of the [downfallen] land of Númenor" (DAT/DANT, TALÁT, Akallabêth, SD:247, 310; also LR:47, VT45:26) . Variant atalantie "Downfall", said to be a normal noun-formation in Quenya (Letters:347, footnote) . Also common noun atalante "collapse, downfall", from which noun is derived the adj. atalantea "ruinous, downfallen", pl. atalantie in Markirya (changed to sg. atalantea – this change does not make immediate sense, since the adjective undoubtedly modifies a plural noun, but Tolkien does not always let adjectives agree in number).

atalantea adj. "ruinous, downfallen"; see atalante

atalta- vb. "collapse, fall in" (TALÁT) , pa.t. ataltane "down-fell, fell down" in LR:47 and SD:247; atalante "down-fell" in LR:56

Atan pl. Atani noun "the Second Folk", an Elvish name of Mortal Men, the Second-born of Ilúvatar. Cf. also Núnatani (WJ:386) , Hróatani (PE17:18) , q.v. Atanalcar masc. name, *"Man-glory" (UT:210, cf. alcar). Atanamir masc.name, *"Edain-jewel"? (Appendix A) . Atanatar masc. name, "Father of Men" (Appendix A) , also common noun atanatar, pl. Atanatári, "Fathers of Men", a title that "properly belonged only to the leaders and chieftains of the peoples at the time of their entry into Beleriand" (PM:324, SA:atar)

ataquanta- vb. “refall, fall second time, double fall” (sic in PE17:166) . The correct gloss must be “ref ill, f ill second time, double f ill”, which would connect with the verb quanta- “fill” and also make rather better sense.

ataque ("q")noun "construction, building" (TAK)

ataquetie noun (or gerund of verb ) “saying again, repetition” (PE17:166) . Cited as at( a) quetie, implying an alternative form atquetie.

atar noun "father" (SA; WJ:402, UT:193, LT1:255, VT43:37, VT44:12) . According to the Etymologies ( ATA ) the pl. is atari, but contrast #atári in Atanatári "Fathers of Men" (q.v.); possibly the word behaves differently when compounded. Atarinya "my father" (LR:70) , atar( inya) the form a child would use addressing his or her father, also reduced to atya (VT47:26) . Diminutive masc. name Atarince "Little father", amilesse (never used in narrative) of Curufinwe = Curufin (PM:353). Átaremma, Ataremma "our Father" as the first word of the Quenya translation of the Lord's Prayer, written before Tolkien changed -mm- as the marker of 1st person pl. exclusive to -lm-; notice -e- as a connecting vowel before the ending -mma "our". In some versions of the Lord's Prayer, including the final version, the initial a of atar "father" is lengthened, producing #átar. This may be a contraction of *a atar "o Father", or the vowel may be lengthened to give special emphasis to #Átar "Father" as a religious title (VT43:13) . However, in VT44:12 Atar is also a vocative form referring to God, and yet the initial vowel remains short.

atarme dative (?) pron. "for us" (VT44:18; Tolkien apparently considered dropping this curious form, which in another text was replaced by rá men, rámen; see #1)

ataryo, also taryo (cited as ( a) taryo), noun "daddy", also used as a name for the thumb in children's play, but Tolkien emended it to atto/ atya (VT48:4) . Compare atar "father".

atatya vb? adj.? "double" (VT42:26)

atendea noun "double-middle", name of the two enderi or middle-days that occurred in leap-years according to the calendar of Imladris (Appendix D, first edition of LotR)

atsa noun "catch, hook, claw" (GAT)

atta (1) cardinal "two" (AT(AT), Letters:427, VT42:26, 27, VT48:6, 19) . Elen atta “two stars” (VT49:44) ; notice how a noun is indeclinable before this numeral, and any case endings are “singular” and added to the numeral rather than the noun, e.g. genitive elen atto “of two stars” (VT49:45) . Attalyar "Bipeds" (sg. *Attalya) = Petty-dwarves (from Sindarin Tad-dail ) (WJ:389).A word atta "again" was struck out; see the entry TAT in Etym and cf. ata in this list.

[ atta- (prefix) (2) "back again, re-" (TAT) ]

[ atta, (3) variant of atto (VT48:19) . The dual form attat was retained.]

atta ( ata-) (4) prep. “across, over, lying from side to side” (VT49:32; it is not quite clear whether this is a Quenya word or not)

attaformaite, see ataformaite

#attaformo, see #ataformo

attalaite adj. “biped” (having two feet) (VT49:42, PE12:88)

attea ordinal "second", replacing the archaic form tatya (VT42:25)

atto noun "father, daddy" (hypocoristic)(ATA, LR:49) , supposedly a word in "actual 'family' use" (VT47:26) , also used in children's play for "thumb" and "big toe" (VT47:10, 26, VT48:4, 6) . The dual form attat listed in VT48:19 seems to be formed from the alternative form atta, though attat was changed by Tolkien from attot. - Compare atya.

atquetie, see ataquetie

#atya (1) adj. "second" in Atyarussa "Second russa " (VT41:10)

atya (2) noun "daddy", supposedly a word in "actual 'family' use" (VT47:26, PE17:170) , also used in children's play for "thumb" and "big toe" (VT47:10, 26, VT48:4, 6) ; reduction of at( an) ya "my father" (or, as explained in VT48:19, reduction of at-nya of similar meaning). Compare atto.

atwa adj. "double" (AT(AT) )

au- (1) a verbal prefix "off, *away", as in auciri "cut off" (so as to get rid of or lose a portion); contrast hóciri (WJ:366, 368) . Compare au as a variant of the stem awa “away from” (VT49:24) and the adverb au (see #2 below).

au (2) adv. “away”, of position rather than movement (compare oa). –PE17:148

au- (2) privative prefix, = "without" (AWA)

aule (1) noun "invention" (GAWA/GOWO) ; evidently connected to or associated with Aule, name of the Vala of craft (GAWA/GOWO, TAN) , spouse of Yavanna; the name is adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399)

aule (2) adj. "shaggy" ( LT1:249; this "Qenya" word may have been obsoleted by # 1 above)

Aulendil masc. name *"Friend of Aule" (UT:210)

Aulendur masc. name "Servant of Aule", applied especially to those persons, or families, among the Noldor who actually entered Aule's service and in return received instruction from him (PM:366)

Auleonnar (sg. #Auleonna) noun "Children of Aule", a name of the Dwarves (PM:391) . See onna.

aure noun "sunlight, day" (SA:ur) , “day (of light), a day of special meaning or festival” (VT49:45) . locative auresse "in (the) morning" in Markirya , allative aurenna *”on the day” (VT49:43-45) . Also compare amaurea.

Aurel ( Aureld-, e.g. pl. Aureldi) noun "Elf who departed from Beleriand to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there) (WJ:363) . Also Oarel, q.v. Earlier Auzel.

ausa ( þ) noun "a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition" (VT42:10, cf. 9) . Compare faire.

ausie noun "wealth" (LT2:336; rather alma in Tolkien's later Quenya)

auta- (1) vb. "go away, leave" (leave the point of the speaker's thought); old "strong" past tense anwe, usually replaced by váne, perfect avánie – but when the meaning is purely physical "went away (to another place)" rather than "disappear", the past tense oante, perfect oantie was used. Past participle vanwa "gone, lost, no longer to be had, vanished, departed, dead, past and over" (WJ:366)

auta- (2) vb. "invent, originate, devise" (GAWA/GOWO) This could be obsoleted by # 1 above; on the other hand, the verbs would be quite distinct in the past tense, where auta- #2 would likely have the straightforward form *autane.

aute noun "prosperity, wealth", also adj. "rich" (LT2:336; rather alma, and as adj. alya or lárea, in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Auzelpl. Auzeldi noun Vanyarin form (and original form) of Aureldi (WJ:374) ; see Aurel

#av- vb. "depart" (cited in the form avin "he departs", read "I depart" in LotR-style Quenya), pa.t. ambe (QL:33) . The word may perhaps be used to translate "leave" with a direct object, since "depart" is at least vaguely transitive in English.

áva, avá (the latter stressed on the final syllable) "Don't!", negative imperative particle (compare ala, #ála). Cf. ávan "I won't" (also ván, ványe); áva care! "don't do it!" (WJ:371)

ava (1) adv.? noun? prep.? "outside, beyond" (AWA, VT45:6)

ava- (2) prefix indicating something forbidden: avaquétima "not to be said, that must not be said", avanyárima "not to be told or related" (WJ:370)

ava- (3) prefix "without" (AR2, AWA) . In some cases apparently used as a mere negation prefix: The form avalerya in VT41:6 is seemingly a negated form of the verb lerya- "release, set free"; the verb avalerya- is suggested to have the same meaning as the root KHAP = "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty". Likewise, the verb avalatya- from the same source seems to mean "to close, shut", this being a negated form of a verb *latya- "open" (q.v.)

ava- (4) vb with pa.t. avane. This verb is not clearly glossed; apparently meaning refuse or prohibit(WJ:370) . Cf. áva, Avamanyar. What is seems to be more or less the same verb has its principal tenses listed (with the ending -n “I”) in VT49:13: aorist avan, present ávan ( ávean), future auvan for older avuvan, past avanen or auvan, perfect avávien. In one version of the paradigm, the present tense ávean and past avanen are marked as archaic/poetic forms. One text seemingly uses the pa.t. aune in the sense “was not”, as a negative verb, but this may have been a short-lived idea of Tolkien's (the text was revised).

Avacúma place-name, "Exterior Void beyond the World" (AWA, (OY) )

avahaira adj. "remote, far" (KHAYA)

Avallóne place-name; haven and city on Tol Eressea. In the Akallabêth the city is said to be so named because it is "of all cities the nearest to Valinor", but the etymology is not further explained. The Etymologies gives Avalóna "the outer isle" = Tol Eressea (LONO, (AWA), VT45:28)

Avamanyar noun Elves that refused to go to Aman (= Avari) (WJ:370) . Sg. Avamanya (PE17:143)

avánie, pl. avánier, perfect tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:366)

avanir noun "unwill" (VT39:23)

avanóte adj. "without number, numberless" (AWA, AR2, VT49:36)

avanwa adj. “refused, forbidden, banned” (PE17:143) , blended in meaning with vanwa, q.v.

avanyárima adj. "not to be told or related" (WJ:370) , “unspeakable, wahat one must not tell” (PE17:143)

avaquet- ("q")vb. "refuse, forbid" (KWET)

avaquétima adj. "not to be said, that must not be said" (WJ:370)

avar noun "recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded"; pl. Avari Elves that refused to join in the westward march to Aman (WJ:371, singular Avar in WJ:377 and VT47:13, 24) .The Etymologies gives Avar or Avaro, pl. Avari "Elves who never left Middle-earth or began the march" (AB/ABAR)

Avathar place-name denoting the land between the southern Pelóri and the Sea, where Ungoliant dwelt; said to be "not Elvish" in WJ:404 and must be thought of as an adaptation from Valarin; on the other hand, MR:284 states that it is "ancient Quenya" and offers the interpretation "The Shadows". Whatever the case, it must have become *Avasar in Exilic Quenya.

#avatyar- vb. "forgive" (VT43:18) ; the form ávatyara (VT43:10) seems to include the imperative particle á (the two-word phrase *á avatyara "forgive!" merging into ávatyara). Plural aorist avatyarir (VT43:20) . Where Tolkien used avatyar-, he cited the person(s) forgiven in the ablative ( ávatyara me llo "forgive us", literally "from us"), whereas the matter that is forgiven appears as a direct object (VT43:11) . Compare apsene.

avestalis noun "January" (LT1:252; LotR-style Quenya has Narvinye)

awalda adj. “move[d], stirred, exited” (PE17:189) ; perhaps archaic Quenya for later *oalda.

axa ("ks") (1) noun "narrow path, ravine" (AK)

axa ("ks") (2) noun "waterfall" (LT1:249, 255 - this "Qenya" word may have been obsoleted by # 1 above)

axan noun "law, rule, commandment". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399) Pl. axani is attested (VT39:23, defined as "laws, rules, as primarily proceeding from Eru" in VT39:30) . Apparently compounded in the name Axantur *"Commandment-lord" (= lord who respects and/or rules in accordance with God-given commandments?) (UT:210)

axe (“ks”)noun “neck” (the bony part of the neck, not including throat), pl. axi given. Also sg. acas (the alternative form axe is said to be “later” and seems to be an analogical back-formation from the pl. axi). The word is also used geographically of rock ridges. (PE17:92)

axo noun "bone"; pl. axor in Markirya

áya noun "awe" (PM:363)

áyan (later form aian) noun “a holy thing or object or place” (PE17:149)

az, archaic form of the conjunction ar “and”; see ar #1.

áze see áre


ca, cata, cana prep? "behind, at back of place" (VT43:30)

("kâ") "jaw" noun (GL:37; later sources give anca )

caila adj. (and noun???) "lying in bed, bedridden, sickness" (KAY, VT45:19) . It may be that the gloss "sickness" applies only to the "Noldorin"/Sindarin form cael listed before Quenya caila, since cael could be both an adjective and a noun (the ancient adjective * kailā "bedridden" merging with the noun * kailē "sickness"). In Quenya the form caila < * kailā would probably be an adjective only.

caima noun "bed" (KAY)

caimasan noun "bedchamber" ( caimasamb-, as in pl. caimasambi) (STAB)

caimasse noun "lying in bed, sickness" (KAY)

caimassea adj. "bedridden, sick" (KAY)

[ caina, see cea, cean]

caine "lay", pa.t. of caita- "lie", q.v.

[ cainen] cardinal "ten" (KAYAN/KAYAR) . According to VT48:12, Tolkien eventually rejected this word ( cainen would only mean "I lay", sc. the pa.t. caine with the ending -n "I"). See quain, quean.

caire vb. "lay" (pa.t. of "lie") (MC:221; this is "Qenya" - in LotR-style Quenya caine pa.t. of caita?) An word caire with no clear definition appears in PE17:101; see cea, caire.

[ caista] , fraction "one tenth" (1/10), also cast, an unusual Quenya form since the language does not normally tolerate two consonants finally (VT48:11) . Compound caistanótie "decimal system" (in counting) (ibid.) However, Tolkien later rejected the root KAYAN "ten" in favour of KWAYA(M) , changing the cardinal "ten" from cainen to quain, quean (VT48:13) . Apparently we must therefore read *quaista as the new fraction "one tenth".

caita- vb. "lie" (= lie down, not "tell something untrue"), aorist tense "lies" in the sentences sindanóriello caita mornie "out of a grey land darkness lies" (Nam, RGEO:67) , caitas lá/ palla i sír “it is [lit. lies] (far) beyond the river” (PE17:65) ; the latter example demonstrates that caita can also be used of a geographical feature that “lies” in a certain place. According to PE17:72 and VT48:12-13, the pa.t. is caine or ceante rather than **caitane. The "Qenya" form kakainen, translated "were lying", may seem to be related (VT27:7, 21)

caivo noun "corpse" (MC:221; Tolkien's later Quenya has loico or quelet)

caivo-calma noun "corpse-light" = corpsecandle (MC:214; this is "Qenya": Tolkien's later Quenya has loicolícuma)

#cal- vb. "shine", future tense caluva "shall shine" (UT:22 cf. 51). Compare also early "Qenya" cala- "shine" (LT1:254) . It is possible that the verbal stem should have a final -a in later Quenya as well, since this vowel would not appear in the future tense caluva (compare valuvar as the pl. future tense of vala-, WJ:404).

cala noun "light" (KAL ). Concerning the "Qenya" verb cala-, see #cal- above.

Calacilya place-name "Pass of Light", in which Kôr was built (KIL, KAL) . Evidently a variant of Calacirya.

Calacirya place-name "Light-cleft", Calacirya, the great ravine in the mountains of Valinor, the passage leading from Valmar to the region where the Teleri lived. Genitive Calaciryo in Namárie (Nam, RGEO:67)

Calaciryan place-name "the Cleft of Light", the pass in the Pelóri, apparently a variant of Calacirya (WJ:403, SA:kal-, kir-). Calaciryan, Calaciryande, "the region of Eldamar (Elvenhome) in and near the entrance to the ravine, where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful" (RGEO:70)

Calainis noun "May" (LT1:252, 254; in Tolkien's later Quenya Lótesse )

Calamando masc. name "Light Mando" = Manwe (MBAD, (KAL, MANAD), VT45:18, 33)

calambar (“k”) adj.? *”light-fated” (VT49:41, 42)

Calamor (Q? - not Sindarin!) pl. noun *"Light-Ones" = Light-Elves? Sg. *Calamo (KAL)

calasse noun "clarity, brilliance" (GL:39)

Calaquendi pl. noun "Elves of the Light, Light-elves" (SA:kal-, SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:361, WJ:373) ; spelt Kalaqendi in Etym (KAL) . Sg. *Calaquende.

calar noun "lamp" (VT47:13)

calarus ( calarust-) noun "polished copper" (VT41:10)

Calavéne noun "Sun" (lit. *"light-vessel", *"light-dish") (LT1:254)

Calavente noun "Sun" (LT1:254)

calca noun "glass" (VT47:35) ; compare hyelle, cilin.

cále noun "light" ( Markirya; in early "Qenya", cále meant "morning", LT1:254)

calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32) ; cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative “brightest” (see ar- #2).

Calimehtar masc.name, *"Bright Swordsman" (Appendix A)

Calimmacil masc. name, *"Bright Sword" (for *Calimamacil?) (Appendix A)

calina adj. "light" (KAL) , "bright" (VT42:32) “(literally illumined ) sunny , light” (PE17:153) – but apparently a noun "light" in coacalina, q.v.

Calion, Tar-Calion , masc. name, the Quenya name of King Ar-Pharazôn "the Golden". Calion would seem to be connected to cal- "shine", cále "light". (Silm)

Caliondo, masc. name, maybe a longer form of Calion above (unless Caliondo contains ondo "rock") (UT:210)

calliére pa.t. vb. "shone" (MC:220; this is "Qenya" - in LotR-style Quenya *calle, *caltane.)

callo noun "noble man, hero" (KAL)

calma noun "lamp, a light, device for shining light” (Appendix E, KAL, PE17:123, 180) , also name of tengwa #3 (cf. calmatéma) , which was also already its name in the mostly pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies(VT45:18, there spelt "kalma") . In early "Qenya", calma meant"daylight" (LT1:254; in MC:213, the word is translated "light"). Plural instrumental calmainen "lights-by", by lights (MC:216)

Calmacil masc. name, *"Light-sword" or possibly (if haplology of *Calmamacil) *"Lamp-sword" (Appendix A) . Cf. cále, cala, calma, macil.

calmatan noun “lampwright” (PE17:96)

calmatéma noun " k -series", velar series: the third column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E)

calpa (1) noun "water-vessel" (KALPA) , "bucket, vessel" (QL:47)

calpa- (2) vb. "draw water, scoop out, bale out" (KALPA)

calta- vb. "shine" (KAL)

calwa adj. "beautiful" (LT1:254)

calya- vb. "illuminate" (KAL, VT45:18)

#cam- vb. "receive" (attested in the past tense #camne with pronominal endings added: camnelyes "you received it") (VT47:21)

cáma noun “guilt, responsibility” (QL:43)

camba noun "the whole hand, but as flexed, with fingers more or less closed, cupped, in the attitude of receiving or holding" (VT47:7)

cambe noun "hollow (of hand)" (KAB) . In the deleted first version of the entry KAB , this word was glossed "closed hand" (VT45:18) . Cambeya (“k”) colloquial Quenya for “his hand” (the formally correct form being *camberya) (VT49:17)

camta- vb. "to (make) fit; to fit, accommodate" (VT44:14; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and it is not explicitly stated in the source that this is a Quenya word. Cf. PE17:91, where mt is shown to become nt in Quenya words.)

can- (1) (prefix) "four" (KÁNAT)

*can- (2) vb. "command, order" (give an order) or (with things as object) "demand" (PM:361-362; where various derivatives of the stem KAN - are listed; the verb *can- is not directly cited, but seems implied by the statement "in Quenya the sense command had become the usual one". The undefined verb canya- listed elsewhere [PE17:113] may also be taken as the actual verbal derivative that Tolkien here refers to.)

cana, see ca

Canafinwe masc. name "strong-voiced or ?commanding Finwe"; his Sindarin name was Maglor (see Macalaure). Short Quenya name Cáno. (PM:352)

canaque ("k, kw") cardinal "fourteen" (VT48:21) .The spelling "kanakwe" occurring in the primary source could suggest that this is really a Common Eldarin form; if so, one could theorize that the Quenya form would be *canque with syncope of the middle vowel (the same source lists "minikwe" as a word for 11, and the Quenya form is known to be minque rather than **minique). On the other hand, in the same source "tolokwe" as a word for 18 is listed together with definite Quenya forms and is apparently an unorthodox spelling of *toloque (as observed by the editor): Here no syncope producing *tolque occurs.

canasta fraction "one fourth" (1/4). Also cansat, casta (VT48:11)

cáne noun "valour" (KAN)

cáno noun "commander", usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank (PM:345, SA:káno – PM:362 indicates that cáno originially meant "crier, herald") ; "ruler, governor, chieftain" (UT:400) , “leader” (PE17:113) .Masc. name Cáno, see Canafinwe. The word cáno also occurred in the Etymologies with the gloss "chief", but Tolkien changed it to cáne "valour" (VT45:19) .

cansat fraction "one fourth" (1/4). Also canasta, casta (VT48:11)

canta (1) cardinal "four" (KÁNAT, VT42:24, VT48:6) . In the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word was cited with a final hyphen (as if it were a verb), but the hyphen does not actually appear in Tolkien's manuscript (VT45:19) . Ordinal cantea "fourth" (VT42:25) Compare cantil.

canta (2) noun“shape” (PE17:175) , also used as adj. "shaped", also as quasi-suffix - canta "-shaped" (KAT)

canta- (3) an undefined verb (?) cited in PE17:113. See canya- #2.

cantea ordinal "fourth" (VT42:25)

[ cantil noun "fourth finger" (VT47:26) ]

canuva "leaden" (LT1:268; if this "Qenya" word is used in a LotR-style Quenya context, it must not be confused with the future tense of can-)

canwa (1) noun "announcement, order" (PM:362)

#canwa (2) noun “face”, isolated from canwarya (“k”) *”his face”, evidently an ephemeral form Tolkien abandoned in favour of cendele, q.v. (VT49:21; see VT49:34 regarding uncertainties as to the manuscript reading)

*canwe, see #caw-

canya (1) adj. "bold" (KAN) .

canya- (2) verb (pa.t. canyane given), undefined form occurring in PE17:113 (together with the seeming variant canta-). See *can- #2 for a conjecture regarding its meaning.

cap- (“k”) vb. “jump, leap”, pa.t. campe (QL:45, PE16:134)

capalinda noun "spring of water" (LT1:257; ehtele may be preferred in LotR-style Quenya)

cár ( cas-) noun "head" (KAS) .The given stem-form appears doubtful within the phonological framework of LotR-style Quenya. Probably we should read cas with stem car- (PE14:69 indeed reads “ kas `head', pl. kari ”, and VT49:17 quotes the sg. “ kas ” from a post-LotR source). Compare other forms found in late sources: hlas “ear” with stem hlar- (PE17:62) and olos “dream”, pl. olori, in a late source (UT:396) In Tolkien's early “Qenya”, post-vocalic -s became -r at the end of words but was preserved when another vowel followed. His later scheme either lets -r appear in both positions, or reverses the scenario altogether (hence olos, olor-). It would seem that the forms cár, cas- were distractedly carried over into the Etymologies from the Qenya Lexicon ( kar , kas -, QL:45) even though they presuppose an earlier version of the phonology. An apparent variant form in late material, cára from earlier cáza (“k”) , however fits the later phonology since intervocalic s would become z > r (PE17:188) .

car- (1) vb. "make, do, build, form" (1st pers. aorist carin "I make, build"; the aorist is listed with all pronominal endings in VT49:16, also in pl. and dual forms carir, carit). Regarding the form carize- (PE17:128) , see -s #1. Pa.t. carne (KAR, PE17:74, 144) . The infinitival aorist stem care (by Patrick Wynne called a “general aorist infinitive” in VT49:34) occurs in ece nin care sa “I can do it” (VT49:34) , also in áva care "don't do it" (WJ:371) and uin care (PE17:68) ; in the last example Tolkien calls care an example of the “simplest aorist infinitive”, the same source referring to carie as the “general infinitive” of the same verb. Pl. aorist carir "form" in the phrase i carir quettar (“k”) "those who form words" (WJ:391, cf. VT49:16) , continuative cára, future caruva (PE17:144) , carita , infinitive/gerund "to do" or "doing" (VT42:33) , with suffixes caritas "to do it" or "doing it", caritalya(s) "your doing (it)" in VT41:13,17, VT42:33. Past participle #carna, q.v.; VT43:15 also gives the long form carina , read perhaps *cárina. ( Carima as a passive participle may be a mistake, VT43:15.) PE17:68 refers to a “simple past passive participle” of the form carinwa(“ kari-nwa ”). “Rare” past participle active (?) cárienwa (“k”) *”having done” (PE17:68) , unless this is also a kind of passive participle (the wording of the source is unclear). Some alternative forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense cáre ("káre") "made"; this may still be an alternative to the better-attested form carne (LR:362) even in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. ohtacáre “war-made”, made war (see #ohtacar-). Also *cárie with various suffixes: cárier ("kárier") is translated "they made"; in LotR-style Quenya this could be seen as an augmentless perfect, hence *"they have made", "they" being simply the plural ending -r. The literal meaning of cárielto must also be *"they made" (cf. -lto). – Derived adjectives urcárima and urcarne “hard to make / do”, urucarin “made with difficulty” (PE17:154) , saucarya “evil-doing” (PE17:68) .

#car- (2) prep. "with" ( carelye "with thee"), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)

car ( card-) (3) noun "deed" (rewritten >) "building, house" (KAR) . Cf. carda.

carampe, pa.t. of carpa-, q.v.

carasse noun “a built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks” (PE17:84)

carasta- vb . “build” (PE17:84)

cari pl. noun “heads”; see cár

caraxe ("k, ks")noun "jagged hedge of spikes"; compare Helcaraxe (KARAK)

carca noun "tooth" (KARAK) or "fang" (SA:carak-) . In a deleted version of the entry in question, the glosses were "tooth, spike, peak" (VT45:19) . When referring to a normal tooth, not necessarily sharp, the word nelet is probably to be preferred. – Cf. also pl. carcar ("karkar") in Markirya , there translated "rocks", evidently referring to sharp rocks. Already the early "Qenya Lexicon" has carca "fang, tooth, tusk" (LT2:344) . Collective carcane, q.v.

carcane noun "row of teeth" (KARAK; this may be a misreading for *carcare). In early "Qenya", carcane meant "snarling", adj. (MC:213)

carcaras, carcasse noun "row of spikes or teeth" (LT2:344 - Tolkien's later Quenya has carcane [read ? carcare], but these words, especially carcasse, may still be valid)

[ carco noun "crow" (KARKA) ] (Changed to corco.)

carda noun “deed” (PE17:51) . Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.

carma (1) noun “tool, weapon” (PE17:114)

carma (2) noun "helm" (helmet) in Carma-cundo "Helm-guardian" (PM:260) . Note that in PE17:114, Tolkien indicated that he rather wanted carma to mean “tool” or “weapon”, leaving the status of carma “helmet” uncertain. Possibly shortened to -car in the names Eldacar (Elfhelm?), Hallacar (Tall-helm?) Cf. also cassa in Etym.

Carme noun "art" (UT:459)

carna passive participle *"built, made" in Vincarna "newly-made" (MR:408) , also struck-out alacarna “well-done, well-made” (PE17:172) . Carna would seem to be the passive participle of car-, though a longer form carina (read *cárina?) is also attested (VT43:15) .

carne adj. "red", “scarlet, red” (SA:caran, PE17:154, MC:214, KARÁN - spelt with a k in the two latter sources) , not to be confused with the past tense of car- "do, make". Stem carni- as in Carnimírie, Carnistir.

carneambarai "red-???" (Narqelion; very early "Qenya")

carnevaite noun "red sky" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

carnevalinar "red-???" (Narqelion; very early "Qenya")

Carnil name of a star (or planet), identified with Mars (MR:435)

carni-mírea adj. “red-jewelled” (PE17:83) , whence the name Carnimírie "[one] having red gems, Red-jewelled", the rowan-tree in Quickbeam's song (LotR2:III ch. 4, SA:caran, PE17:83) , also translated "with adornment of red jewels" (Letters:224; where the reading "carnemírie" occurs)

Carnistir masc. name "red-face", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Morifinwe = Caranthir (PM:353)

[ cáro] noun "doer, actor, agent" (KAR; replaced by tyaro) . In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the accent of the word cáro was omitted (VT45:19) .

carpa (“k”) (1) noun “mouth”, including lips, teeth, tongue etc. (PE17:126) ; also used for “language”, in particular the phonetic system.Cf. náva and páva.

carpa- (“k”) (2) intransitive vb. “talk, speak, use tongue” (pa.t. carampe given). (PE17:126)

carpasse (“k”) noun ”mouth-system”, i.e. ”full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre etc.” (PE17:126) ; probably replaced by pahta (2), q.v.

carrea (for cas-raya) noun "tressure" (net for confining the hair). (VT42:12)

#carva noun "womb" (isolated from carvalyo "of thy womb") (VT43:31; Tolkien seems to have abandoned this form in favour of #móna, q.v.)

cas (“k”) “head” (VT49:17) , cf. also deleted [ cas] noun "top, summit" (VT45:19) . This noun should evidently have the stem-form car-. See cár.

Casar noun "Dwarf", pl. Casari or Casári, partitive plural Casalli. Adapted from Dwarvish Khazâd . Casarrondo place-name "Khazad-dûm", Moria (WJ:388, 389; pl. Casári also in WJ:402)

cassa noun "helmet" ( KAS ; though spelt cassa also in the Etymologies as printed in LR, VT45:19 indicates that Tolkien's own spelling was kassa). Cf. carma in a later source.

[ cast] , fraction "one tenth", but the form is apparently obsolete; see caista. (VT48:11)

casta (1) fraction "one fourth" (1/4). Also canasta, cansat (VT48:11)

casta (2) noun "cause" (reason) (QL:43)

Castamir masc. name, " casta [?]-jewel" (Appendix A)

castol noun “helmet”, synonyms tholon (q.v.), sól (q.v), also variant castolo (“k”)(PE17:186, 188)

cata, see ca

cauca adj. "crooked" (LT1:257; cf. #caw-)

cauco noun "humpback" (LT1:257)

cauma (”k”)noun ”protection or shelter natural or otherwise, sc. against sun, or rain, or wind – or against darts; shield” (PE17:108)

caure noun "fear" (LT1:257)

caurea adj. "timid" (LT1:257)

cautáron adj.? "bent" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

*cav-, see #caw-

#caw- vb. "bow" (1st pers aorist cawin "I bow") (LT1:257; cf. cauca, cauco) . In Tolkien's later Quenya, a verbal stem with w in this position does not seem to fit the general phonology well; intervocalic w would become v. We should perhaps read *cav- whereever the second consonant of the root follows a vowel, but the nasal-infixed past tense could be *canwe with the original quality of the consonant preserved. (Compare such a past tense form as anwe, q.v.) However, Tolkien's later verb luhta- may be preferred for intransitive “bow”.

[-cca (“k”) ?“your”, apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural or dual possessive (VT49:49) . Compare -lca.]

, also ce (“k”) “may be” (VT49:19, 27) , particle indicating uncertainty (VT42:34; ce in Bill Welden's note is a misspelling, VT44:38, but the short form ce does occur in other texts, cf. VT49:18-19). In VT42, Welden wrote that Tolkien altered to kwí (or kwíta, q.v.), but Welden later noted that "it does not follow that because the form was changed in another sentence it would necessarily have been corrected in the examples cited" (VT44:38). So / may still be a conceptually valid form. (The forms in kw- rather than qu- seem abnormal for Quenya, at least as far as spelling is concerned.) In another conceptual phase, was also used = “if” (VT49:19) , but this conjunction appears as qui elsewhere. Examples of , cemeaning “if” (said to be “usually [used] with aorist”) include cé mo quete ulca (“k”, “q”) *”if one speaks evil”, cé tulis, nauvan tanome (“k”) *”if (s)he comes, I will be there” (VT49:19) , cé mo… *“if one…”, ce formenna *“if northwards” (VT49:26)

[ cea, cean cardinal "ten", forms Tolkien later abandoned in favour of quain or quean. An adjectival form caina was also listed, but must likewise be considered obsolete. (VT48:12-13, VT49:54) ]

cea (k”) , caire noun ?“fence” (PE17:101) ; or numeral “ten”? The source is obscure; cf. cea above.

cectele noun "fountain" (LT1:257, LT2:338. In LotR-style Quenya rather ehtele.)

Celec-orna noun “Swift-tall”, Quenya form of Celegorn (PE17:112)

celma noun "channel" (KEL)

celu noun "stream" (LT1:257; rather celume in LotR-style Quenya)

celume noun "stream, flow" (KEL, LT1:257) ; locative pl. celumessen in Markirya ( ear-celumessen is translated "in the flowing sea", lit. *"in sea-streams").

celusindi noun "river" (LT1:257; hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, where the terms síre and sirya appear instead)

celusse noun "freshet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring" (UT:426, VT49:30)

celvar (sg. # celva) noun "animals, living things that move" (Silm)

cemen ( cén) (spelt "kemen" in some sources, "cemen" in others)noun "earth" (VT44:34), Cemenye "and Earth" (VT47:11) . Cemen refers to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel , the heavens (SA:kemen) ; "soil, earth" (KEM,LT1:257). At one stage, Tolkien intended cemen to be the genitive of cén; later cemen became the nominative, and the status of cén is uncertain. See Kementári. Locative cemesse, cemenze (really spelt with c rather than k in one version, but also kemenze) in the Quenya Lord's Prayer; later changed to kemende, cemende (VT43:17)

[ cemenáro, see cemnaro]

Cemendur masc. name *"Earth-servant" (i.e. farmer?) (Appendix A, UT:210)

cemi noun "earth, soil, land"; Cémi "Mother Earth" (LT1:257; the "Qenya" word cemi would correspond to cemen in LotR-style Quenya)

**cemina , see cemna

cemna adj. "of earth, earthen" (In Etym as printed in LR:363 s.v. KEM, this word is cited as cemina, but according to VT45:19 Tolkien's manuscript actually reads cemna.)

cemnaro noun "potter" (TAN) . First written as cemenáro (VT45:19) .

cén ( cem-) noun "soil, earth"; see cemen (KEM)

cen- vb. "see, behold", future tense cenuva ("kenuva") "shall see" in Markirya. Imperative cena , VT47:31.Also #cen = noun "sight" as the final element of some nouns (*apacen, tercen, q.v.) Compare the root KHEN -, KEN -, KYEN - "look at, see, observe, direct gaze" (VT45:21)

cenai (“k”) conj. “if it be that” (VT49:19) . This word presupposes ce = “if”; other sources rather make qui the word for “if”, whereas ce or is used = “maybe”.

cenasit, canasta (“k”)adv. “if it be so, may be, perhaps” (VT49:19) . Compare cenai.

cenda- vb. "watch" (not "guard", but observe to gain information), also used = "read". Cenda = also noun "reading", as in sanwecenda "thought-inspection, thought-reading". (VT41:5, PE17:156)

cende noun ”point” (PE16:96)

cendele noun “face” (VT49:21)

cenima (“k”) adj. “visible” (PE17:175) ; cf. cen- “see”. Read possibly *cénima; see -ima and cf. hraicénima “scarcely visible” (PE17:154) .

centa noun "communication, enquiry, *essay"; Ósanwe-centa "Communication of Thought", an appendix to Pengolodh's Lammas or "Account of Tongues" (VT39:23, MR:415) ; cf. also essecenta, q.v.

centano noun "potter" (TAN, VT45:19)

Cermie noun seventh month of the year, "July" (Appendix D)

certa noun "rune" (pl. certar given), adapted from Sindarin certh (a "true" or inherited Quenya form of primitive ¤ kirtē would have been * cirte, but this word did not occur). (WJ:396)

ces- ( Þ) (“k”) , “to search (for something), to examine (something) in order to find (something)”; the root meaning is given as “enquire of, question, examine” (something). Cese parma “to look in a book” (for a passage or information required); here the aorist stem cese is used as infinitive. Notice that ces- here takes a simple direct object parma (not locative *parmasse, despite the translation). Past tense cense ( Þ) given, replacing the phonologically expected form cente (also cited). (PE17:156)

cesta- (“k”) vb. “to seek, search for” (PE17:156)

ceula, see quea

ceule (k) , probably noun *"renewal" (VT48:8)

ceura , probably adj. "renewed" (VT48:8) . Also in the form ceure (VT48:7) , but ceura seems to be the form that would fit Tolkien's general principles best: there are many adjectives in -ra, whereas forms in -re would normally be taken to be the plural form of such adjectives.

ceuran- noun "new moon" (compare Rána "moon"). The word is cited with a final hyphen, as if some final element is missing, but Rána could very well be reduced to -ran at the end of a compound. (VT48:7)

ceuranar noun "new sun after solstice" (VT48:7) , apparently a compound ceuraor ceure + anar, q.v.

ceure adj. "renewed" (emended from a noun ceura "renewal") (VT48:7) . See ceura and compare ceuranar.

ceuta- vb. "renew, refresh" (VT48:7, 8)

céva adj. "fresh, new" (VT48:7, 8)

cilde pa.t. vb.? *"saw" (???) The phrase úri kilde hísen níe nienaite is translated "the Sun with wet eyes dropped tears of mist", literally perhaps something like *"the Sun saw (through) misty tears tearfully"??? (MC:221; this is "Qenya"; cf. cildo)

cildo vb. "one saw" (MC:220; this is "Qenya"; cf. cilde, ciluva)

cilin noun “glass” (“often used as in English (“often used as in English for any thing or implement made of glass”) (PE17:37) . Compare calca, hyelle.

cilintilla or cilintír noun “looking-glass” (i.e. mirror?) –PE17:37

cilinyul noun “drinking-vessel” (made of glass) –PE17:37

#cilme noun "choosing" (isolated from Essecilme"name-choosing", q.v.) (MR:214) ; also in #cilmessepl. cilmessi "self-names", literally names of personal choice (PM:339) ( cilme + essi, hence *"choice-names").

ciluva vb. "shall see" (MC:213, 214; this is "Qenya")

cilya noun "chasm", allative cilyanna "in-Chasm" (sc. "into [the] chasm") (LR:47, 56). In MR:471, cilya is defined as "cleft, gorge". Spelt kilya in Etym, there defined as "cleft, pass between hills, gorge" (KIL)

cim- vb. "heed" (GL:39)

cinta adj. “small” (PE17:157)

#cir-, see círa

círa vb. "sail" (apparently the continuative stem of #cir-) ( Markirya)

circa noun "sickle" (KIRIK)

círier pa.t. vb. "clove" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

cirinci , sg. *cirince, noun: a species of birds, "no bigger than wrens, but all scarlet, with piping voices on the edge of human hearing" (UT:169) . The word seems to incorporate the diminutive ending -ince.

ciris noun "cleft, crack" (LT2:337 - obsoleted by cirisse?)

cirisse noun "slash, gash" (KIRIS; the glosses "cleft" and maybe ?"crevasse" occurred in deleted material, VT45:23)

*cirte see certa

cirya noun "ship" (MC:213, 214, 220, 221) , "(sharp-prowed) ship" (SA:kir-, where the word is misspelt círya with a long í; Christopher Tolkien probably confused it with the first element of the Sindarin name Círdan. It seems that Círyon, the name of Isildur's son, is likewise misspelt; read Ciryonas in the index and the main text of the Silmarillion. Cf. also kirya in Etym, stem KIR.) Also in Markirya . In the Plotz letter, cirya is inflected for all cases except plural possessive (*ciryaiva). The curious dual form ciriat occurs in Letters:427, whereas Plotz gives the expected form ciryat. Locative ciryasse"upon a ship" (MC:216) . Compounded in ciryaquen "shipman, sailor" (WJ:372) , also ciryando (PE17:58) , cf. also ciryamo “mariner” (UT:8) . Masc. names Ciryaher *"Ship-lord" (Appendix A) , Ciryandil *"Ship-friend" (Appendix A) , Ciryatan *"Ship-builder" (Appendix A) , also Tar-Ciryatan, name of a Númenórean king, "King Shipbuilder" (SA:kir-)

ciryamo noun "mariner", nominative and genitive are identical since the noun already ends in -o, cf. Indis i-Ciryamo "the Mariner's Wife" (UT:8)

ciryando (“k”)noun “sailor” (PE17:58) .

ciryaquen (“k”) “shipman, sailor” (WJ:372)

#cíta- (“k”) vb. “suppose”, cited in the 1st pers. aorist: cítan “I suppose” (VT49:19)

coa ("koa")noun "house" (VT47:35, with etymology) ; coarya "his house" (WJ:369) , allative coaryanna (“k”) “to/at his house” (VT49:23, 35) , quenderinwe coar (“koar”) “Elvish bodies” ( PE17:175) . Notice how coa “house” is here used metaphorically = “body”, as also in the compound coacalina "light of the house" (a metaphor for the soul [ fea] dwelling inside the body [ hroa]) (MR:250)

coi "life" (LT1:257; in Tolkien's later Quenya cuile)

[ coace, see quáce]

coimas noun "life-bread" = Sindarin lembas(SA:cuivie, PM:395) ; coimas Eldaron "the coimas of the Eldar" (PM:395)

coina adj. "alive" (LT1:257; Tolkien's later Quenya also has cuina, though coina may still be a valid word: properly, the root of words for “life” is coi- rather than cui-, the latter referring to “awakening” instead)

coire noun "stirring", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days (Appendix D) , but translated "the first day of Spring" in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA:cuivie) . Early "Qenya" has coire "life" (LT1:257; in Tolkien's later Quenya, the word for "life" is cuile or coivie; however, cf. the adj. coirea from a late source) .

coirea adj. "living" (glossed "alive" in LT1:257); coirea quenya "living speech" (PM:399, VT49:42)

coite noun "living being" (LT1:257)

coiva adj. "awake" (LT1:257 - read *cuiva in LotR-style Quenya? Cf. coivie becoming cuivie. On the other hand, the elements cui- and coi- having to do with life and awakening cannot be wholly separated.

coivie noun “life” ( coivierya, *“his/her life”, VT49:41, 42). In early material, the word is glossed “awakening" instead (LT1:257; in LotR-style Quenya cuivie, as in Cuiviénen)

#Coivienéni place-name, "Qenya" form of Cuiviénen, the Waters of Awakening (VT14:5)

#col- vb. "bear, carry", not attested by itself by suggested by colindo and colla, q.v.; also compare Tancol.

colca noun "box" (QL:47)

#colindo noun "bearer", pl. #colindor in cormacolindor “ring-bearers” (q.v.)

colla passive participle "borne, worn" (compare #col- "bear"); also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak" (MR:385) . Variant form collo "cloak" (SA:thin(d) ) in the name Sindicollo (q.v.), sc. colla with a masculine ending.

[ colma noun "ring (on finger)" (VT45:23) . See corma.]

cólo noun "burden" (VT39:10)

combe (“k”) noun “gathering, assembly, assemblage, collection”. Also ocombe (PE17:158)

comya- (“k”)vb. “gather, assemble” (transitive)(PE17:158)

condo (“k”) noun “prince, leader; lord” (PE17:113,117) ; possibly replaces cundu, q.v.

[ cópa] noun "harbour, bay" (KOP; changed to hópa , KHOP) . Early "Qenya" likewise has cópa (also cópas) "harbour" (LT1:257) .

coranar noun "sun-round", solar year (Appendix D; pl. coranári in PM:126)

corco noun "crow" (KORKA, see KARKA)

corda noun "temple" (LT1:257)

cordon noun "idol" (LT1:257)

corima adj. "round" (LT1:257; rather corna in Tolkien's later Quenya)

corin noun "circular enclosure" (KOR) . In the early "Qenya Lexicon", this word was defined as "a circular enclosure, especially on a hill-top" (LT1:257) . ( Con-) alcorin *"blessed garth (in the centre)" (VT27:20, 23, 24)

Corlaire , place-name, apparently shortened from Corollaire, Coron Oiolaire (MR:107)

#corma noun "ring", isolated from #cormacolindo "Ring-bearer", pl. cormacolindor (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308 ); Cormare "Ringday", a festival held on Yavannie 30 in honour of Frodo Baggins (Appendix D)

corme noun *"circular enclosure, garth", or possibly *mound" (VT27:20, 24, 25)

cormen noun literally *"a round(ed) place" = *"circular enclosure" or *"mound" (VT27:20, 24, 25)

corna adj. "round, globed" (KOR)

corne noun "loaf" (LT1:257)

[ Coroloisi] , noun: possibly an empheral name of the Elves "not of Kor" in the Blessed Realm. Tolkien changed this plural from Coroloiti (VT45:29) . It is not quite clear what the intended singular is.

Corollaire ("Korollaire") , place-name; see Coron Oiolaire.

[ Corolóra] , possibly a synonym of Ilcorin, q.v. (VT45:29)

coromindo noun "cupola, dome" (KOR)

coron (1) noun "mound" (SA) ; Coron Oiolaire ("Koron") , place-name: the "Mound of Eversummer" where the Two Trees grew. Also contracted Corollaire (WJ:401) and Corlaire (MR:107) ; both are spelt with an initial k in the sources.

coron (2) ( corn-, as in dat. sg. cornen) noun "globe, ball" (KOR)

Cosmoco masc. name "Gothmog" (LT2:344)

costa- vb. "quarrel" (KOT > KOTH)

#cotto (“k”)noun “enemy”, isolated from Moricotto “Dark Enemy”, a Quenya form of Morgoth(VT49:25) . Compare *notto.

cotumo noun "enemy" (KOT > KOTH)

cotya adj. "hostile" (KOT > KOTH)

noun "arch, crescent" (KU3) ; "crescent Moon" (LT1:271; the long vowel was denoted by a circumflex rather than an accent in the early "Qenya" lexicon) . In Sindarin, the same word can be used for a “bow” as used to shoot arrows (but possibly this is only quinga in Quenya).

cua, see cucua

cucua noun "dove" (KŪ ; in the Etymologies as printed in LR, Tolkien's manuscript was misread as two distinct words ** cu and ** cua ; see VT45:24. According to the same source, an ephemeral word for "dove" was indeed cua , but Tolkien changed it to cucua .)

cuile noun "life, being alive" (KUY)

cuina adj. "alive" (KUY) . See coina.

*cuiva, see coiva

cuive noun "awakening" (KUY)

cuivea adj. "wakening" (KUY).

cuivie noun "awakening" (early "Qenya" coivie, q.v., but this word Tolkien later used = *“life”). In Cuiviénen, "Water of Awakening" (SA:cuivie, SA:nen, KUY; spelt with a k in the Etymologies ) . Somewhat surprisingly, cuivie is used to mean "life" in cuivie-lancasse , literally 'on the brink of life' ("of a perilous situation in which one is likely to fall into death") (VT42:8) The form coivie is used for “life” elsewhere.

culda adj. "flame-coloured, golden-red" (KUL) ; maybe it can also be translated “scarlet”, since this gloss was listed for the possible “Noldorin”/Sindarin cognate coll(VT45:24) , though it was struck out

culina adj. "flame-coloured, golden-red" (KUL; cullina in VT45:24 would seem to be a variant)

cullo noun "red gold" (KUL, VT45:24)

[ culo, culu noun "gold" (substance)] (KUL, VT49:47; the word culu also occurred in early "Qenya" [LT1:258], but in the Etymologies it was struck out; the regular Quenya word for "gold" is apparently malta. In another version, culo meant "flame" [VT45:24], but this is apparently also a word Tolkien abandoned.)

culucalmalínen noun in instrumental case: "with golden lights" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

culuina (1) adj. "orange" (colour not fruit) (KUL)

[ culuina (2) (misread as **culuinn in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT45:24) ] adj. "of gold" (KUL; this word was struck out, and culuina became the adjective "orange" instead.)

culuma noun "orange" (fruit not colour)(KUL)

culumalda noun: a kind of tree (evidently orange-tree, culuma + alda) (SA:mal-)

Culúrien another name of Laurelin; apparently derived from the stem KUL- "golden-red" (Silm; LR:365)

culuvai ??? (Narqelion)

cúma noun "the Void" (KUM, (GAS) )

cumbe noun "mound, heap" (KUB)

cumna adj. "empty" (KUM)

cúna 1) adj. "bent, curved", from which is derived 2) cúna- vb. "bend", occurring with a- prefix (changed by Tolkien from a na-prefix) in Markirya . Here cúna- is intransitive; we do not know whether it can also be transitive "bend".

cundo noun "guardian" (PM:260) , “lord” (PE17:117)

cundu noun "prince" (KUNDŪ ; the " " indicating that this word is poetic or archaic was omitted in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT45:24). Cf. condo.

cúne noun "crescent, bow" (LT1:271) . Cf. .

cunta, also cunya, vb. (or less likely noun) “rule” (PE17:117)

curo ( curu-) noun "a skillful [?device ­ - Tolkien's handwriting was illegible ]". (VT41:10)

curu noun "skill" in names like Curufinwe (q.v.) and Sindarin Curufin , Curunir . (SA; possibly the same as curo , curu - above – but there was a word curu ["k"] in Tolkien's early "Qenya", glossed "magic, wizardry" [LT1:269]).

Curufinwe (so spelt in Silm; "Kurufinwe" in PM) , masc. name *"Skillful Finwe", a name of Feanor (PM:343) ; also the origin of the Sindarin name Curufin ; Feanor named his favourite son after himself. Short Quenya name Curvo. (PM:352)

Curumo masc. name *"Cunning One", "Saruman" (UT:401)

curuni noun "witch" (of the good magic) (LT1:269)

curuvar noun "wizard" (LT1:269 – but Gandalf, Saruman etc. were istari)

Curvo, see Curufinwe

curwe noun "craft" (KUR) , "skill of the hand" (VT41:10) , Curwe "technical skill and invention" (PM:360 cf. 344)


-da suffix used to derive nouns denoting the result of an action, like yulda “draught, the amount drunk” (the stem YUL is here given the meaning “drink”). (PE17:68) Cf. also carda “deed” (q.v.) vs. the verb car- “do”.

-dil, -ndil, ending that Tolkien likened to Old English "-wine", sc. "-friend" as part of names, e.g. Elendil, Earendil (NIL/NDIL) ; see the entry -ndil. Also long -dildo (VT46:4) , and possibly -( n) dilme as the corresponding feminine form (see Vardilme).

-duine, see nuine, Nunduine

-dur see -ndur


é adverbial particle "indeed" that may be prefixed to a sentence (VT45:11) . Short e in the sentence e man antaváro? "what will he give indeed?" (LR:63) .

ea (1) (sometimes "ea")vb. "is" (CO) , in a more absolute sense ("exists", VT39:7/VT49:28-29) than the copula . Ea "it is" (VT39:6) or "let it be". The verb is also used in connection with prepositional phrases denoting a position , as in the relative sentences i or ilye mahalmar ea “who is above all thrones” (CO) and i ea han ea *“who is beyond [the universe of] Ea” (VT43:14) . Ea is said to the be “pres[ent] & aorist” tense (VT49:29) . The past tense of ea is enge (VT43:38, VT49:29; Tolkien struck out the form eane, VT49:30) , the historically correct perfect should be éye, but the analogical form engie was more common; the future tense is euva (VT49:29) . See also eala. – Ea is also used as a noun denoting "All Creation", the universe (WJ:402; Letters:284, footnote) , but this term for the universe "was not held to include [souls?] and spirits" (VT39:20) ; contrast ilu. One version of Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer includes the words i ea han ea, taken to mean "who is beyond Ea" (VT43:14) . Tolkien noted that ea “properly cannot be used of God since ea refers only to all things created by Eru directly or mediately”, hence he deleted the example Eru ea *”God exists” (VT49:28, 36) . However, ea is indeed used of Eru in CO ( i Eru i or ilye mahalmar ea “the One who is above all thrones”) as well as in various Átaremma versions (see VT49:36) , so such a distinction may belong to the refined language of the “loremasters” rather than to everyday useage.

Ea (2) noun “the universe”, so called because Ilúvatar used the command “ Ea! Let these things be!” when he gave independent being to the Music of the Ainur ( Ainulindale ). See ea #1 for references.

ea (3) "eagle" (LT1:251, LT2:338) , a “Qenya” word apparently superseded by soron, sorne in Tolkien's later forms of Quenya.

eala noun "being, spirit" (pl. ealar is attested), spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, like Balrogs (MR:165) . The word apparently originates from the participle of ea, q.v.

Eambar noun ”dispositions and will of Eru , with regard to Creation as a whole” (PE17:105)

ear noun "sea" (AYAR/AIR [gives also dat. sg. earen ], WJ:413; see Letters:386 for etymology) . Not to be confused with the pl. form of the verb ea “be, exist”. Pl. eari "seas" (FS, LR:47) ; Ear "the Great Sea" (cf. earon“ocean”), ablative Earello "from the Great Sea", et Earello "out of the Great Sea" (EO) . Eare noun "the open sea" (SD:305) . Compound earuile noun "seaweed" (UY) . Found in proper names like Earendil "Sea-friend", Earendur masc. name, *"Sea-servant"; in effect a variant of Earendil (Appendix A). Earendur was also used ="(professional) mariner" (Letters:386) .Fem. name Earwen "Sea-maiden" (Silm) ; Earráme "Sea-wing", "Wings of the Sea", name of Tuor's ship (RAM, AYAR/AIR, SA)

earen noun "eagle" or "eyrie" (LT1:251; this early "Qenya" word is evidently no more valid than ea "eagle" in LotR-style Quenya.)

Earendil, masc. name; see ear. Earendilyon noun "son of Earendel" ("used of any mariner") (LT1:251)

Earnil masc. name, contraction of Earendil (Appendix A)

Earnur masc.name, contraction of Earendur (Appendix A)

earon noun “ocean” (PE17:27) , also airon. Cf. ear.

ec- (“k”) verb denoting an opportunity, with the one having the opportunity in dative: ece nin care sa “I can do it” (it-is-open for-me to-do it), ece nin? “please, may I?”, ecuva nin care sa noa “I may do [have a chance of doing] do that tomorrow”. This construction is said to denote “have chance, opportunity or permission” (VT49:20, 34)

ecca (“k”)noun “hole”, apparently associated with Sindarin torech “secret hole, lair” (PE17:188)

eccaira adj. "remote, far" (KHAYA)

ecces- (“k”) ( þ) vb. “to find out, bring out by examining, or eyeing[?]” (PE17:156) . Pa.t. probably *eccense; compare ces-.

eces, see exa

ecco noun "spine". (In the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry EK / EKTE , the gloss is given as "spear", but according to VT45:12 this is a misreading of Tolkien's manuscript.)

#eccoita- vb. "awake" (VT27:10)

ecet noun "short broad-bladed sword" (UT:284)

ectele noun "fountain", also cectele (LT1:257, LT2:338; in LotR-style Quenya ehtele)

#ecya adj. "sharp" in Ecyanáro "Sharp Flame", masc. name, Sindarin Aegnor(VT41:14, 19) . The Quenya form of Aegnor is elsewhere given as Aicanáro instead.

#effírie noun "death" (isolated from effíriemmo "of our death"). A verbal stem *effir- "expire, die" seems to be implied. (VT43:34)

[ ehtar] noun "spearman" (EK/EKTE, VT45:12) ]

ehte (stem *ehti-, given the primitive form ekti ) noun "spear" (EK/EKTE) . Another word for “spear” is hatal.

ehtele noun "issue of water, spring" (SA:kel-, KEL, ET) . Compare “Qenya” ectele "fountain" (LT1:257, LT2:338; in LotR-style Quenya ehtele) .

ehtyar noun "spearman" (EK/EKTE) . According to VT45:12, Tolkien at one point also meant ehtyar to be the name of Tengwa #15 with overposed dots to indicate a palatal sound; the letter would thus have the value hty. However, according to the classical Tengwar spelling of Quenya as outlined in LotR Appendix E, such a letter would rather have the value **ncy (since #15 is there assigned the value nc in Quenya), but since **ncy is not a possible Quenya combination, a palatal variant of #15 would not occur in the classical Quenya mode.

Ekkaia place-name, denoting the outer ocean: for * et-gaya "out-sea"? (Silm)

él noun "star", pl. éli given (WJ:362, EL)

ela! interjection "behold!" (directing sight to an actually visible object) (WJ:362)

Elatan, masc. name *"Star-man", cf. atan (UT:210)

elda 1. originally adj . "of the stars", but wholly replaced (WJ:362) by: 2. noun ( Elda) = one of the people of the Stars, (high-)elf, an Elf (SA:êl, elen, Letters:281, ELED, ÉLED; notice that Tolkien abandoned a former etymology with "depart") , chiefly in the pl. Eldar (WJ:362, cf. GAT(H), TELES) .The primitive form Tolkien variously cited as¤ eledā / elenā (Letters:281, PE17:152) and¤ eldā (WJ:360) .Partitive pl. Eldali (VT49:8) , gen. pl. Eldaron (WJ:368, PM:395, 402) ;dative pl. eldain "for elves", for Eldar (FS) ; possessive sg. Eldava "Elf's" (WJ:407) ; possessive pl. Eldaiva (WJ:368) , Eldaive governing a plural word (WJ:369) . The word Eldar properly refers to the non-Avari Elves only, but since Eldar rarely had any contact with the Avari, it could be used for "elves" in general (in LT1:251, Elda is simply glossed "Elf"). See also Eldo. – The plural form Eldar should not require any article when the reference is to the entire people; i Eldar refers to a limited group, “(all) the Elves previously named”; nevertheless, Tolkien in some sources does use the article even where the reference seems to be generic ( i Eldar or i-Eldar, VT49:8).

Eldacan masc. name "Ælfnoth", Elf-bold (KAN)

Eldacar masc. name, *"Elfhelm". Compare carma "helmet". (Appendix A)

Elda-lambe noun "the language of the Eldar" (WJ:368)

Eldalie noun "the Elven-folk" (often used vaguely to mean all the race of Elves, though it properly did not include the Avari) (WJ:374, ÉLED; possessive Eldaliéva in the name Mindon Eldaliéva, q.v.)

Eldamar place-name "Elvenhome" (ÉLED; found already in Narqelion) , according to MR:176 another name of Tirion (see tir-).

Eldameldor noun "Elf-lovers" (WJ:412) , sg. #Eldameldo

Eldandil (pl. Eldandili in WJ:412) noun "Elf-friend" (by the Edain confused with Elendil, properly "Star-friend") (WJ:410)

Eldanor place-name "Elvenland", regions of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen (MR:176)

Eldanyáre noun "History of the Elves" (LR:199, there with the definite article: I·Eldanyáre) . See nyáre.

Eldarin adj . derived from Elda: "Eldarin, Elvish" (Silm, ÉLED) . Also in the longer form Eldarinwa (pl. Eldarinwe in VT47:14, in the title Eldarinwe leperi ar notessi, "The Eldarin fingers and numerals")

Eldarissa, Eldaquet ("q")noun , apparently other names of Qenya (LT2:348)

Eldavehte noun *”Elf-haunt”, description of Beleriand as “a habitation, haunt or place occupied by Eldar . See vehte. (PE17:189)

Eldo noun , archaic variant of Elda, properly one of the "Marchers" from Cuiviénen, but the word went out of use (WJ:363, 374)

éle noun "flashing of [?starry] light" (VT45:12; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible)

Elemmíre noun *"Star-jewel" ( elen + míre, notice assimilation nm > mm), name of a star/planet (possibly Mercury, MR:435, where the spelling used is Elemmire); also name of an Elf. (SA:mîr)

elen noun "star" (SA:êl, elen, EL, VT49:39) ; pl. eleni (occasionally in verse: eldi) (WJ:362, PE17:127) ; partitive pl. elelli for * elenli (PE17:127) , gen. pl. elenion in the phrase Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation) ; elen atta“two stars” (VT49:44) , gentive elen atto (VT49:45) , eleni nelde “three stars”, archaic elenion nelde = *“of stars three”. Genitive “of 3 stars” = elenion nelde (for archaic elenion neldeo) (VT49:45) . Allative elenna "starwards" used as name of Númenor (Silm; see Elenna ) ; ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in Markirya . Nai elen siluva*”may a star shine”, VT49:38.

elena adj . "of the stars" (SA:êl, elen) ; also elenya

Elenarda place-name "Star-kingdom", upper sky (3AR) . Deleted material in the Etymologies defined elenarda as "star-realm", "upper air or sky" (VT45:16) . Compare elen, ( h) arda.

Elende (1) place-name "Elvenhome", regions of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen (MR:176, ÉLED) . Plural ablative elendellor in the phrase et elendellor, evidently *"out of the elf-lands" (VT45:13) .

elende (2), pa.t. of lelya- #1

Elendil masc. name"Star-friend", "Lover or student of stars", applied to those devoted to astronomical lore. However, when the Edain used this name they intended it to mean "Elf-friend", confusing elen "star" and elda "elf" (WJ:410) . (This idea that the name was misapplied seems to be late; Tolken earlier interpreted the name as an ancient compound Eled + ndil so that the meaning really was "Elf-friend"; see Letters:386. See also NIL/NDIL in the Etymologies, where Elendil is equated with "Ælfwine", Elf-friend.) Allative Elendilenna "to Elendil" (PM:401) ; Elendil Vorondo genitive of Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Steadfast" (CO) Pl. Elendili the Númenórean Elf-friends (Silm) ; the variant Elendilli in SD:403 would seem to presuppose a stem-form Elendill- not attested elsewhere. Tar-Elendil a Númenorean king, UT:210.

Elendur masc. name, *"Star-servant", probably intended to mean *"Elf-servant"; in effect a variant of Elendil(Appendix A) . The name was also used in Númenor (UT:210) .

Elenna place-name "Starwards", a name of Númenor: Elenna-nóre *"Starwards-land", "the land named Starwards", genitive Elenna-nóreo in CO .

Elentári noun "Star-queen", title of Varda (EL, SA:tar)

Elenwe fem. name *"Star-person" (Silm)

elenya adj. *"stellar" (only defined as an adjective referring to stars by Tolkien) (WJ:362) . Cf. Elenya, name of the first day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the stars (Appendix D) .

Elerína adj. used as noun: "star-crowned", a name of Taniquetil (EL, RIG) , spelt Elerrína in Silm

*Elerondo masc . name “Star-vault”, Sindarin Elrond . Extrapolated from Elerondiel"daughter of Elrond“, patronym of Arwen (PE17:56) ; cf. Elerosse, rondo.

Elerosse masc. name, "star foam", starlit foam, Sindarin Elros(PM:348)

Elerrína adj. used as noun: "Crowned with Stars" ( elen + rína), a name of Taniquetil (Silm) ; spelt Elerína in the Etymologies ( EL , RIG ).

Elessar masc. name "Elf-stone" ( Elen + sar, actually *"Star-stone", cf. Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean "Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8) . Genitive Elesarno (VT49:28, read *Elessarno?) indicates that the stem is -sarn-. As a common noun, elessar or “elf-stone” may signify “beryl” (in the chapter Flight to the Ford in the LotR, Aragorn finds “a single pale-green jewel” and declares: “It is a beryl, an elf-stone”). Elessar as a name may also be seen as a pun or variant of Elesser "Elf-friend".

Elesser masc. name, = Old English Ælfwine , Elf-friend. (SER)

Ellaire alternative name of June (PM:135) ; evidently incorporating laire "summer"; the el- part is probably an assimilated form of er-, an element meaning one or first , June being the first summer month.

elle vb. "came", pl. eller with a plural subject (MC:215; this is "Qenya"; in later Quenya, elle could be the emphatic pronoun "you", pl., corresponding to singular elye "thou" – at least in the conceptual phase where -lle was the ending for plural "you".)

-ello ablative ending (VT45:28) ; see -llo

[ ello] noun "call, shout of triumph" (GYEL (< GEL) )

*elme, see emme #2

elmenda noun "wonder" (PE13:143)

Elpino noun "Christ", Tolkien's attempt to render this title into Quenya; the intended etymology of the Quenya word is uncertain (VT44:15-16; Tolkien apparently dropped this form and replaced it with a phonological adaptation of "Christ": Hristo or Hrísto.)

elvea adj. "starlike, like stars", pl. elvie in Markirya

Elwe masc. name, *"Star-person" (PM:340, WJ:369, WEG, VT45:12) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , Elwe was also the name of a Tengwa similar in form to Roman c , which in a full-vowel mode denoted a (short) e. (VT45:17; in the Sindarin "Mode of Beleriand", exemplified in the LotR itself, this letter has the value a instead. Elsewhere in the Etymologies itself, this symbol is called Osse [q.v.] and is assigned the value o.)

elwen noun "heart" (LT1:255; rather hón or enda in LotR-style Quenya)

elye pron. "even thou", emphatic 2. person sg. pronoun (Nam, RGEO:67, VT43:26, 27, 28, 30)

emel noun “mother”; also amal (VT48:22, 49:22) ; the form amil ( emil) seems more usual.

emenya, see emya

emerwen noun "shepherdess" (UT:209, 434)

emil noun "mother", emilinya "my mother" (also reduced to emya) the terms a child would use in addressing his or her mother (VT47:26) . Emil would seem to be a variant of amil. Also compare emel.

emma noun *“picture” (compounded in indemmar “mind-pictures”) (PE17:179)

emme (1) noun "mummy", hypocoristic form of "mother", also used in children's play for "index finger" and "index toe" (VT47:10, 26, VT48:4, 6, 17, 19) . Also emya.

emme (2) pron. "we", emphatic pronoun; dative emmen (VT43:12, 20) . In the source this pronoun is intended as the 1st person plural exclusive; later Tolkien changed the corresponding pronominal ending from -mme to -lme, and the plural emphatic pronoun would likewise change from emme to *elme. Since the ending -mme was redefined as a dualexclusive pronoun, the form emme may still be valid as such, as a dual emphatic pronoun "we" = "(s)he and I".

*empanya- vb. "plant" (deduced from the "Qenya" pl. past tense empannen, VT27:20-22)

emya noun "mummy", also used in children's play for "index finger" and "index toe" (VT47:10, 26, VT48:4, 6) . Said to be a reduction of emenya *"my mother", seemingly presupposing #eme as a word for "mother" (but this word normally appears as emil or amil, incorporating a feminine ending). In VT48:19, emya is explained as deriving from em-nya "my mother". Compare emme # 2.

en (1) interjection "there, look! yon (yonder)" (EN, VT45:12)

en (2), also ena, adv. “still”; quetir en “they still say” (PE17:167)

en(3) particle that may be inserted before a past tense form to indicate that it refers to a remote past (VT45:12) , apparently twice attested in Fíriel's Song (LR:72) , e.g. en cáre "made" (long ago). This particle may have been obsoleted by en “still” from a later source.

en- (4) prefix "again-", “re-“ (PE17:68) , in enquantuva "shall refill", entuluva, "shall come again", Envinyatar "Renewer", envinyanta "healed, *renewed", enyalie "to recall" (Nam, RGEO:67, LotR3:V ch. 8, VT41:16, MR:405, UT:317; as for the etymology of en-, see comments on Common Eldarin base EN "again, once more" in VT48:25)

-enca suffix “without, -less” (PE17:167) , cf. nec-, q.v.

ence, see enque

enda noun "heart", but not referring to the physical organ; it literally means "centre" (cf. ende) and refers to the fea (soul) or sáma (mind) itself. (VT39:32)

Endamar place-name "Middle-earth" (EN, MBAR, NDOR) . However, Middle-earth is normally called Endor, Endóre.

endaquet- vb. “answer” (gloss uncertain) (PE17:167)

ende noun "core, centre, middle" (NÉD, EN, VT48:25)

# endea adj . "middle" in atendea, q.v. Compare enya.

Ender noun "bridegroom", surname of Tulkas (NDER, TULUK, VT45:11) . The form Enderō (VT45:11) is defined as "[?virile] young bridegroom"; Tolkien's gloss was not entirely legible. But this would seem to be an archaic form, because of the long final - ō (later Quenya * Endero).

enderi noun "middle-days" (sg. * endere), in the calendar of Imladris three days inserted between the months (or seasons) yávie and quelle (Appendix D)

Endien noun , alternative term for "autumn" (PM:135) . In the Etymologies , the word Endien was assigned a quite different meaning: "Midyear, Midyear week", in the calendar of Valinor a week outside the months, between the sixth and seventh months, dedicated to the Trees; also called Aldalemnar (YEN, LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK)

Endor place-name "Middle-earth" (SA:dôr, NDOR) , "centre of the world" (EN) ; also long form Endóre "Middle-earth" (Appendix E) ; allative Endorenna "to Middle-earth" in EO. The form Endór in MR:121 may be seen as archaic, intermediate between Endóre and Endor (since long vowels in a final syllable are normally shortened: Endór> Endor). Endór functions as an uninflected genitive in the source: Aran Endór, "King of Middle-earth".

endya > enya adj. "middle" (ÉNED)

enel prep. "between" = "at the central position in a row, list, series, etc. but also applied to the case of three persons" (VT47:11) . This preposition refers to the position of a thing between others of the same kind; compare imbe.

[ enelde, enelle, enestil noun "middle finger" (VT47:26) ]

enelmo noun "a go-between, intervener, intermediary [as noun] , mediator" (VT47:14)

enenque cardinal "sixteen" (VT48:21)

enetya, see entya

enga prep. "save" (= except) (FS)

enge vb. "was", "existed", past tense of ea, q.v. (VT43:38, VT49:29)

engie vb. “has been”, “has existed”, perfect tense of ea, q.v. (VT49:29)

engwa adj. "sickly"; nominal pl. Engwar "the Sickly", Elvish name of Mortal Men (Silm, GENG-WĀ )

engwe noun "thing" (VT39:7, VTV9:28) . – Extrapolation may also point to *engwe as an emphatic dual inclusive pronoun “we” (thou and I), corresponding to the ending -ngwe.

[ enna adj. "first" (VT45:12) ]

enquanta- vb. “refill” (PE17:167) , enquantuva vb. "shall refill" (Nam) ; cf. see en-, quat-, quanta-

enque ("q") cardinal "six" (ÉNEK, VT48:4, 6, 9, VT49:57) ; enquea ordinal "sixth" (VT42:25) ; see also enquie. According to VT48:8, the word for "six" may have been ence in very early Quenya (the form is asterisked by Tolkien), but this was altered to enque under the influence of yunque "twelve" (perceived as meaning "2 times 6", * yú-enque , with the prefix - "twi-").

enquesta fraction "one sixth" (1/6) (VT48:11)

enquete- vb. “repeat, say again” (PE17:167)

enquie noun , Eldarin six-day week, pl. enquier (Appendix D) . Cf. enque "6". Compare lemnar, otsola.

enta demonstrative "that yonder" (EN) . In VT47:15, enta is defined as "another, one more" (but it may seem that Tolkien also considered the word exe for this meaning).

Entar place-name "Thither Lands, Middle-earth, Outer Lands, East" (seen from Aman) (EN)

Entarda place-name "Thither Lands, Middle-earth, Outer Lands, East" (seen from Aman) (EN, VT45:12)

ente (1) conj. "moreover, further, furthermore, what is more" (VT47:15, VT48:14) . Compare yunquente as a variant of yunquenta, q.v.

ente (2) noun "center" (VT41:16; ende is perhaps to be preferred, see entya)

ento adv. "next" (Arct)

entulesse noun "return" (UT:171)

entya, enetya adj . "central, middle" (VT41:16; these forms, as well as the noun ente "centre", come from a late, somewhat confused source; the adjective #endea and the noun ende from earlier material may fit the general system better, and #endea is even found in the LotR itself as part of the word atendea, q.v.)

Enu masc. name, "the Almighty Creator who dwells without the world" (LT2:343 - in Tolkien's later Quenya, the divine name appears as Eru instead)

Envinyatar noun "the Renewer" (LotR3:V ch. 8)

envinyanta passive participle "healed" (MR:405) , pointing to a verbal stem #envinyata- "heal", literally "renew"; cf. Aragorn's title Envinyatar "the Renewer" (LotR3:V ch. 8) .

enwa adv. "tomorrow" (QL:34)

enwina adj. "old" ( Markirya)

enya < endya adj. "middle" (EN) . Compare #endea.

#enyal- vb. "to recall", "to commemorate", gerund/infinitive enyalie with infinitival ending -ie; dative enyalien "for the re-calling", "[in order] to recall" in CO .

enyáre adv. "in that day" (pointing to the future) (FS)

Eonwe masc. name, a Maia, herald of Manwe; a name evidently adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:417) . In some sources the same character is called Fionwe, which would seem to be an Elvish form.

epe prep . "before" (“in all relations but time ”, VT49:32), though the word was glossed "after" when first published (VT42:32; Bill Welden, the writer of the article in question, later presented this correction in VT44:38) . The preposition can indeed express “after” when used of time, since the Eldar imagined future time (time that comes after the present) as being “before” them (VT49:12, 32) ; epe is in this respect a variant of apa, q.v. (Cf. VT49:22.) Compare epesse, q.v. Epe "before" may also be used in comparison, apparently in much the same way as #2 (q.v.) (VT42:32)

epesse noun "after-name", nickname, mostly given as a title of admiration or honour (PM:339, UT:266, VT49:12) . Cf. esse "name" and epe above.

epeta adv. “following that, thereupon, thence, whereupon” ( epe + ta #1). Also epta. (VT49:12)

epetai adv. “consequently” (VT49:11) . Since this is to contain tai “that which” ( epe-ta-i “before that which”), a form Tolkien may later have abandoned, the less problematic synonym etta should perhaps be preferred. Compare potai.

epta = epeta, q.v.

eque vb. "say/says" or "said" (a tenseless pseudo-verb used to introduce quotations or a "that"-construction); with affixes equen "said I", eques "said he/she" (WJ:392, 415)

eques ( equess-, as in pl. equessi) noun "a saying, dictum, a quotation from someone's uttered words, a current or proverbial dictum" (WJ:392) ; I Equessi Rúmilo "the Sayings of Rúmil" (WJ:398)

er cardinal "one, alone" (ERE, VT48:6, VT49:54) , in an early source also adv. "only, but, still" (LT1:269) ; Eru er "one God" (VT44:17; er was here emended by Tolkien from erea, which seems to be an adjectival form *"one, single".)

#er- "remain", verb (LT1:269; given in the form erin and glossed "remains"; erin would have to mean "I remain" in Tolkien's later Quenya, if this word is to be adapted. However, the later synonym lemya- may be preferred.)

erca (1) noun "prickle, spine"

erca- (2) vb. "to prick" (ERÉK)

Ercambo masc. name "one-hand Man" (VT47:7) , the equivalent of Sindarin Erchamon , Erchamion as a title of Beren

ercasse noun "holly" (ERÉK)

Ercoire noun , alternative name of February (PM:135)

erda adj. "solitary, deserted" (LT1:269)

erde (1) noun "seed, germ" (ERÉD, VT45:12)

erde (2) noun "singularity", the person as a whole (MR:216)

erde (3) noun "repose" (marked by Tolkien with an "X", perhaps indicating that he considered dropping this form to eliminate homophones)(VT46:12)

ere, eren noun "iron" or "steel"; Eremandu variant of Angamandu (Angband) (LT1:252; "iron" should be anga in LotR-style Quenya, but ere, eren may still be used for "steel". See also yaisa.)

erea adj.? "one" or *"single", apparently an adjectival form (see er) (VT44:17)

Eremandu place-name "Hells of Iron", a name of Angband (LT1:249)

eresse noun "solitude" (ERE) . In early "Qenya", eresse was an adjective or adverb: "singly, only, alone" (LT1:269) .

eressea adj. "lonely" (ERE, LT1:269) , “solitary” (cf. Letters:386). Eressea place-name "Lonely (One)", often used by itself for Tol Eressea, the Lonely Isle (Silm) or Solitary Isle (Letters:386, footnote)

erinqua adj. "single, alone" (VT42:10)

Erintion noun , second half of the month of avestalis (January) (LT1:252)

erma noun "physical matter" (MR:338, 470)

Erquelle noun , alternative name of September (PM:135)

Erríve noun , alternative name of November (PM:135)

Ertuile noun , alternative name of April (PM:135)

Eru divine name "the One" = God (VT43:32, VT44:16-17) , "the One God" (Letters:387) , a name reserved for the most solemn occasions (WJ:402) . Often in the combination Eru Ilúvatar, "Eru Allfather" (cf. MR:112). Genitive Eruo (MR:329, VT43:28/32) , dative Erun (VT44:32, 34). The adjectival form Eruva "divine" ( Eruva lisseo "of divine grace", VT44:18) would be identical to the form appearing in the possessive case. Compound nouns: Eruhantale "Thanksgiving to Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436) , Eruhin pl. Eruhíni "Children of Eru", Elves and Men (WJ:403; SA:híni ), Eruion *"son of God" (or "God the Son"?) (VT44:16) , Erukyerme "Prayer to Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436) , Erulaitale "Praise of Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436) , Eruamille "Mother of God" (in Tolkien's translation of the Hail Mary, VT43:32, see also VT44:7), Eruontari, Eruontarie other translations of "Mother (Begetter) of God" (VT44:7, 18) , Erusén "the children of God" (RGEO:74; this is a strange form with no plural ending; contrast the synonym Eruhíni.) #Eruanna and #erulisse, various terms for "grace", literally "God-gift" and "God-sweetness", respectively (VT43:29; these words are attested in the genitive and instrumental case, respectively: Eruanno, erulissenen) .

Eruman place-name; this is a word to which various meanings are ascribed, but it always denotes some region . In the earliest phases of Tolkien's mythology, it was a region south of Taniquetil (LT1:91, 252-253). In the Etymologies , entry ERE , Eruman is a "desert north-east of Valinor". In the final version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, where the locative form Erumande appears, Tolkien appears to have moved Eruman out of this world entirely, making it the abode of God (Eru); Erumande translates "in heaven".

erume noun "desert" (ERE)

erúmea adj. "outer, outermost" (LT1:262)

Eruva, see Eru

erya adj. "single, sole" (ERE)

es unidentified word in the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290); possibly an assimilated form of en, that may function as a kind of deitic particle here: *"Behold the Eagles..."

[ esce] noun "rustle, noise of leaves" (EZGE)

esse (1) noun "name", also later name of Tengwa #31, originally (MET) called áre ( áze). (Appendix E) . With a pronominal ending esselya "thy name" (VT43:14) . Pl. #essi in PM:339 and MR:470, gen.pl. #esseron "of names" in the compound Nómesseron (q.v.); we would rather have expected *ession, given the nom.pl. essi; perhaps #esser is a valid alternative plural form. Essecarme noun "name-making" (MR:214, 470) , Eldarin ceremony where the father announces the name of his child. Essecenta noun *"Name-essay" (see centa) (MR:415) ; Essecilme noun "name-choosing", an Eldarin ceremony where a child named him- or herself according to personal lámatyáve (q.v.) (MR:214, 471) . – The meaning Tolkien originally assigned to the word esse in the Etymologies was "place" rather than "name" (VT45:12) .

esse (2) pron? “he” (and also “she, it”?), possible emphatic 3rd sg. emphatic pronoun, attested in the sentence esse úpa nas “he is dumb” (PE17:126)

esse (3) noun "beginning" (ESE/ESET) . This entry was marked by a query in Etym, and a word in the appendices to LotR suggests that it was emended to * YESE/YESET ; we may therefore read *yesse for esse. (See esta #2.) However, for the purposes of writing the form yesta “beginning” from PE17:120 may be preferred.

essea adj. ?"primary" (gloss not certainly legible) ; read probably *yessea in LotR-style Quenya; see esta #2 below (ESE/ESET) . The meaning Tolkien originally assigned to the word essea in the Etymologies was "in place, local" (VT45:12) .

[ Esselda], noun?adj.? , deleted form which Tolkien never clearly glossed: *"first-elf"? Or an old comparative (in -lda) denoting something like "elder"? The word occurs in a context where Tolkien is considering terms for the Elves as the "Firstborn", aka "Elder Kindred" (VT45:12, cf. ESE-, ESET-)

esta- (1) vb. "to name" (ES, VT45:12) . In an earlier form of the relevant entry in the Etymologies , Tolkien let esta- mean "to place, set, plant" (VT45:12) ; a deleted entry SET also had esta- "precede" (VT46:13)

esta (2) adj. "first" (ESE/ESET) ; this entry was marked with a query. The word Yestare (q.v.) *"Beginning-day" in LotR suggests that Tolkien decided to change the stem in question to *YESE/YESET . We could then read *yesta for esta (but later this became a noun “beginning” rather than an adj. “first”, PE17:120) and also prefix a y to the other words derived from ESE/ESET ( esse > *yesse, essea > *yessea). Estanosse noun "the firstborn", read likewise *Yestanosse (*Yestanessi?) – but in a later text, Tolkien used Minnónar (q.v.) for "the Firstborn" as a name of the Elves, and this form may be preferred. (In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the word Estanosse is cited as "Estanesse", but according to VT45:12, the second-to-last vowel is actually o in Tolkien's manuscript.)

estat-, see etsat-

Este fem. name "Repose, Rest" (WJ:403, EZDĒ , SED), only used as name of a Valie (WJ:404)

estel noun "trust, hope" (WJ:318-319, MR:320)

esto emphatic pronoun (?), apparently 3rd person dual, *“even the two of them” (VT49:48) . The word comes from a conceptual phase where Tolkien let dual pronouns end in the vowel - o, an idea that was apparently abandoned; also, - st- is associated with the second rather than the third person dual in later sources (see - ste). The ending may have been conceived as *- sto at an earlier stage (VT49:49) .

et prep. (and adv.?) "out", when followed by ablative "out of" (VT45:13) or literally "out from", as in EO : et Earello "out of the Great Sea"; cf. also et sillumello "from this hour" in VT44:35. Et i pe/ péti, untranslated phrase, perhaps *"out of the mouth" (VT47:35) . Prefix et- "forth, out" (ET) , also in longer form ete- (as in etelehta, eteminya); verb ettuler *"are coming forth" ( ettul- = et + tul-). (SD:290; read probably * ettulir or continuative * ettúlar in Tolkien's later Quenya) . The forms etemme and etengwe (VT43:36) seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"out of us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun - mme denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual exclusive instead (see - mme). Second person forms are also given: etelye, etelle ?"out of you", sg. and pl. respectively (Tolkien would later change the ending for pl. “you” from - lle to - lde).

et-henta vb. “read aloud” (PE17:77) .Compare henta-.

etelehta- vb. "deliver" (= "save") (VT43:23)

etelye, see et

etelle, see et

eteminya adj. "prominent" (VT42:24)

etemme, see et

etengwe, see et

eterúna- vb. (also etrúna-, though the cluster tr seems unusual for Quenya) "deliver" (= "save"). Tolkien may have abandoned this verb in favour of etelehta-, q.v. (VT43:23; VT44:9) , but the root also appears in #runando "redeemer", so maybe eterúna- can stay with the meaning "redeem".

etsat- vb. "distribute in even portions" (apparently et- "out" + the base sat "divide, apportion"). Not cited with a final hyphen in the source (VT48:11) , but some ending would obviously be required in Quenya; the verb should probably be treated as a consonant stem (primary verb). Alternative form estat-, but as pointed out in VT48:12, the transposition ts > st is not regular in Quenya.

etse noun "outside, exterior", glosses changed from ?"issuing" and ?"spring" (VT45:13)

etsir noun "mouth of a river" (ET)

etta adv. “therefore” (VT49:12)

ette noun(and/or adv.?) "outside" (ET)

ettele noun "outer lands, foreign parts" (ET, VT45:13)

ettelea adj. "foreign", perhaps also noun ?"stranger"; the reading of the second gloss is uncertain. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, even the former gloss is presented as an uncertain reading and the Quenya word is given as ettelen. According to VT45:13, the gloss "foreign" is certain and the Quenya word may also be read as ettelea, which normal Quenya morphology would also suggest to be the correct reading of Tolkien's manuscript.

#ettul- vb. "come forth", attested in the form ettuler *"are coming forth" ( ettul- = et + tul-). Read probably *ettulir or continuative *ettúlar in Tolkien's later Quenya. (SD:290)

#etya adj. initial element of Etyangoldor “Exiled Noldor”, literal meaning likely something like “outer” or “outside” as adjective; compare preposition et.

Etyangoldi ("ñ")noun "Exiled Noldor" (WJ:374). Sg. probably *Etyangol (with stem *Etyangold-).

euva vb. “will be, will exist”; see ea

evandilyon noun "gospel" (QL:36)

exa adj.? "other" (apparently as adjective) (VT47:10, VT49:33) . Also eces (“k”) , unless this is intended as the stem underlying exa (the root KES with prefixed stem-vowel) rather than a Quenya word (VT49:33) .

exe noun "the other, *another" (VT47:40, VT49:33). Though Tolkien included the article "the" in his gloss, this may be simply to indicate that exe is a noun, not to suggest that it is inherently definite and does not require the definite article i. Used in an indefinite sense, without i preceding, exe would likely translate as *"another".

éye, rare perfect of ea, q.v.

ezel, ezella adj. "green" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)

Ezellohar noun "the Green Mound" where the Two Trees grew; adopted and adapted from Valarin; also translated as Coron Oiolaire, Corollaire (WJ:401) . The name must have become *Erellohar in Exilic (Noldorin) Quenya.


faica adj. "contemptible, mean" (SPAY)

faila adj. "fair-minded, just, generous" (PM:352)

faina- vb. "emit light" (PHAY)

fainu- vb. "release" (LT1:250) . Rather lerya- or sen- in Tolkien's later Quenya.

faire(1) noun "phantom, disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape" (pl. fairi in Markirya ); compare ausa. The noun faire was also used = "spirit (in general)", as a kind of being (MR:349, PE17:117) . In VT43:37 and VT44:17, faire refers to the Holy Spirit ( faire aista or Aina Faire)

faire (2) noun "natural death" (as act) (PHIR)

faire (3) noun "radiance" (PHAY)

faire (4) adj. "free" (LT1:250) (rather léra, lerina or mirima in LotR-style Quenya)

fairie noun "freedom" (LT1:250; since this is an abstract formation based on faire "free", a meaning only ascribed to this word in early "Qenya" whereas faire has a string of other meanings in Tolkien's later Quenya, the conceptual validity of fairie "freedom" may be questioned).

Falanyel ( Falanyeld-, as in pl. Falanyeldi), noun , (in the pl.) a name of the Teleri, apparently *"Shore-singers" (PHAL/PHÁLAS)

falas ( falass-), falasse noun "shore, beach" (LT1:253, LT2:339) ; falasse "shore, line of surf" (SA:falas) , "shore – especially one exposed to great waves and breakers" (VT42:15) , "beach" (PHAL/PHÁLAS) ; Falasse Númea place-name "Western Surf" (LT1:253) , Andafalasse “Langstrand” (PE17:135)

falasta- vb. "to foam", participle falastala "foaming, surging" in Markirya

falastane participle (?) "surging", falastanéro vb. "was loud with surf" (MC:213, 220; this is "Qenya" - the participle "surging" is falastala in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Falastur masc. name, *"Shore-lord" (Appendix A)

falle noun "foam" (PHAL/PHÁLAS)

falma noun "(crested/foaming) wave" (PHAL/PHÁLAS) , "a wave-crest, wave" (VT42:15) , “foam wave” (PE17:127) , “a breaker” (PE17:62) , partitive pl. falmali “many waves” (PE17:73) , allative falmalinnar "on the foaming waves" in Namárie (Nam, RGEO:67) ; the phrase an i falmalī (PE17:74) seems to be a paraphrase of this with an independent preposition instead of the allative ending - nna (see an #1). Compounded in Falmari, a name of the Teleri, and Mar-nu-Falmar, "Home/Land under Waves", a name of Númenor after the Downfall. (SA:falas) Falmari "wave-folk", a name of the Teleri (PM:386) . – In earlier "Qenya", falma was glossed "foam" (LT1:253, cf. MC:213) . Compare also the early "Qenya" words falmar "wave as it breaks" (LT1:253) , pl. falmari "waves" (MC:216)

falmar, falmarin ( falmarind- or simply falmarin- as in pl. falmarindi [or falmarini]) noun "sea-spirit, nymph" (PHAL/PHÁLAS)

falqua ("q") noun "cleft, mountain pass, ravine" (LT2:341)

falquan ("q")noun "large sword" (LT2:341)

fána, fáne (1) adj. "white" ( Markirya -fáne as a sg. form in may be a misreading) . Compare fanya.

fána (2) noun "cloud" (SPAN, VT46:15). Cf. fana.

fana noun term denoting the "veils" or "raiment" in which the Valar presented themselves to physical eyes, the bodies in which they were self-incarnated, usually in the shape of the bodies of Elves (and Men) (RGEO:74, PE17:173-180) . According to PE17:26, fana may be said to mean “shape” with “added notion” of light and whiteness, “it is thus often used where we might use `a vision' – of something beautiful or sublime”, yet with no connotation of “uncertainty or unreality”.

fáne, strong past tense of fanta, q.v.

fanga noun "beard" (SPÁNAG)

fange noun "long beard" (GL:34)

fanta- vb. "to veil, cloak, mantle" (VT43: 22) , mainly used of veils cast over things that shone, or that were brighter and more vivid (PE17:174) ; according to Tolkien usually the strong past tense fáne and perfect afánie were used, but later also fantane in the past tense (and then perhaps * afantie in the perfect?) (PE17:179-180) Cf halya- (q.v.), the stem of which Tolkien contrasted with the stem of this verb (PE17:184) .

fantarcenya (“k”) adj. “perspicacious, penetrating of sight or understanding” (PE17:176)

Fantur masc. name "lord of cloud", surname of Mandos (SPAN, TUR)

fanwa noun “veil, screen” (PE17:176, 180)

fanwos noun “mind-picture of apparition in dream”, possibly ephemeral variant of indemma (q.v.) (PE17:174) ; normally Quenya phonology seems to prohibit a combination like wo .

fanya noun "(white) cloud" (translated "sky" in FS) ; pl. fanyarin Namárie (Nam , RGEO:67) . ) . Used “only of white clouds, sunlit or moonlit, or clouds gilded or silvered at the edges by light behind them”, not “of storm clouds or cloud canopies shutting out the light” (PE17:174) . Cf. lumbo, q.v.According to VT46:15, fanya was originally given as an adjective "white" in the Etymologies ; the printed version in LR wrongly implies that fanya and fána both mean "cloud", whereas actually the first was at this stage meant to be an adjective "white" whereas fána is both noun "cloud" and adj. "white". However, Namárie and later emendations to the entry SPAN in Etym indicate that Tolkien would later think of fanya as a noun "cloud", perhaps giving it the same double meaning as fána: "cloud" as well as "white". According to PE17:26, fanya was originally an adjectival form “white and shining” that was however often used as a noun “applied to various things, notably to white clouds lit by sun or moon”. In Namárie , the word is used poetically with reference to the hands of Varda (she lifted her hands ve fanyar“like clouds”).

Fanyamar place-name referring to the "upper air" (SPAN) , literally *"Cloudland"

fanyare noun "the skies" (not heaven or firmament - the upper airs and clouds). Note that despite its English gloss, fanyareis a singular word and therefore takes a singular adjective/participle, as in fanyare rúcina "ruined skies" in Markirya (see MC:220, note 8 for this translation)

fára noun "beach, shore" (VT46:15)

fáre noun "sufficiency, plenitude, all that is wanted" (also farme) (PHAR)

faren, adv . "enough" (VT46:9)

fárea adj.? "enough" (presumably adjective, whereas the adverb is faren); ufárea "not enough" (FS). Etym has farea "enough, sufficient" (PHAR)

farinye, a pa.t. of farya-, q.v.

farma noun ?"carpet" (reading of gloss very uncertain; another gloss occurring in the manuscript cannot be certainly interpreted, though the editors suggest "string" or "stray") (VT46:15)

farme noun "sufficiency, plenitude, all that is wanted" (also fáre) (VT46:9)

farne (1) noun "foliage", archaic fazne (VT46:9) . Not to be confused with farne as the pa.t. of the verb farya-, q.v.

#farne (2) noun "dwelling", in orofarne(as translated in Letters:224, but in other notes of Tolkien's the word was interpreted “any growing thing or plant”, PE17:83)

farya- vb. "suffice", pa.t. farne (PHAR) . An additional pa.t. form, farinye, was published in VT46:9; this is a most unusual formation.

fas (? fats-), fatse noun "tassel" (GL:34)

fáse noun "gap, gulf" (GL:36)

fasse noun "tangled hair, shaggy lock" (PHAS)

fasta- vb. "tangle" (PHAS)

fatanyu noun "hell" (GL:51)

fatse, fas (with stem *fats-?) noun "tassel" (GL:34)

fauca adj. "thirsty" (PHAU; original glosses "thirsty, parched; lit. open-mouthed", VT46:9)

fauta- vb. *"to snow" (actually glossed fauta = "it snows") (GL:35)

fáwe vb. "snow" (GL:35; rather losse in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Fayanáro archaic form of Feanáro, q.v. (PM:343)

fazne, archaic form of farne, q.v.

fea noun "spirit" (pl. fear attested, MR:363). The Incarnates are said to live by necessary union of hroa (body) and fea (WJ:405). In Airefea noun "the Holy Spirit", Feanáro masc. name "Spirit of Fire" (Quenya-Sindarin hybrid form: Feanor), Feanturi noun "Masters of Spirits", name of the two Valar Mandos and Lórien (SA:tur) , feafelme noun "spirit-impulse" (impulses originating with the spirit, e.g. love, pity, anger, hate) (VT41:19 cf. 13, VT43:37) . In one source it is said to mean specifically a “spirit indwelling a body”, i.e. “soul” (PE17:124) , which contradicts such uses as Airefea or Feanturi. Cf. faire.

fealóce noun "spark-dragon" (LOK)

Feanáro masc. name "Spirit of Fire", in Sindarized form Feanor (SA:nár, PHAY) . The word apparently includes the masculine ending - o. Compare fea, nár.

# fel-, see felme

felca, see felco

felco noun “cave, mine, underground dwelling” (PE17:118) ; also felca, felehta

felehta, see felco

felya noun "cave" (PHÉLEG) , “mine, boring, tunnel, underground dwel[ling]” (PE17:118)

felme noun "impulse, emotion" (VT41:19; this suggests a verb # fel - "to feel") . Compounded in feafelme, hroafelme.

felu noun “bad magic” (QL:38)

fen ( feng-) noun "reed" (QL:38, stem feng- also in GL:34) .

fenda noun "threshold" (PHEN)

fenna noun “door” (PE17:45, 181)

fenume noun "dragon" (LT2:341 – but lóce is the normal word in LotR-style Quenya)

feren (stem fern-, as in pl. ferni) noun "beech, beech-tree". Also ferne. (BERÉTH, PHER/PHÉREN)

férima, also ferina, adj. “ready to hand, (quickly) available” (PE17:181)

ferinya adj. "beechen" (PHER/PHÉREN)

ferna noun "mast, beechnuts" (PHER/PHÉREN)

ferne noun "beech-tree" (pl. ferni given). Also feren. (PHER/PHÉREN)

ferya- vb. “make ready (promptly)” (PE17:181)

feuya- adj. "feel disgust at, abhor" (PHEW, VT46:9)

fifíru- vb. ; this is evidently the frequentative (see sisíla-) form of fir-; according to MC:223 it means "slowly fade away"; participle fifírula in Markirya (translated "fading")

filit ( filic- , as in pl. filici) noun "small bird" (PHILIK)

*fimbe (stem fimbi-) adj. “slender” (PE17:23)

finca adj. “clever” (in petty ways) (PE17:119) . A form finca is also mentioned as the cognate of Sindarin fineg , but neither form is clearly glossed. The word-group under consideration has to do with hair(PE17:17) .

finda (1) adj. "having hair, -haired" (Tolkien's gloss "-haired" evidently means that finda may be used in compounds, like *carnifinda "red-haired") (PM:340)

finda (2) adj. “fine & delicately made” (PE17:181)

Findaráto masc. name *"Hair-champion", Sindarized as Finrod(SA:ar(a) )

finde (1) noun "hair" (especially of the head) (PM:340) , "a tress or plait of hair" (PM:345) , "tress, braid of hair, lock of hair" (SPIN)

finde (2) noun? (less likely adj.) "cunning" (LT1:253; this "Qenya" word is possibly obsoleted by # 1 above)

Findecáno ("-káno") masc. name *"Hair-commander"; Sindarized as Fingon (PM:344)

findel adj. “having beautiful hair” (PE17:119) ; it is possible that this is intended as Sindarin.

findele noun “tress, lock” (PE17:119); apparently a synonym of finde #1, q.v.

findesse noun "a head of hair, a person's hair as a whole" (PM:345) . Compare findile.

findile noun “a head of hair”. Compare findesse. (PE17:17)

findl noun "lock of hair, tress" (but findil elsewhere – in LotR-style Quenya, no word can end in - dl). (LT2:341)

fine (1) (stem * fini-, given the primitive form¤ phini ) noun "a hair" (PM:340, PE17:17) or "larch" (SPIN)

fine (2) noun “dexterity” (PE17:119, related to words for skill )

fínea adj. “dexterous” (PE17:119) , also finwa, q.v.

finie noun? "cunning" (LT1:253)

finta- (1) vb. “to make, finish off, or decorate a thing with delicate work” (PE17:17)

finta (2) vb. “show skill” (PE17:119)

#fintale noun “trick”, given as pl. fintaler (PE17:119)

finwa adj. “dexterous; `clever', fine, delicate” (PE17:119, 181) , a similar word is glossed "sagacious" in very early material (LT1:253)

Finwe masc. name, apparently displaying the frequent ending -we suffixed to a stem normally having to do with hair, but the name is obscure (see Tolkien's discussion in PM:340-341). Also in Etym (PHIN, WEG) . According to VT46:9, Finwe was also the name of tengwa #10 in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , but Tolkien would later call #10 formen instead.

finya (1) also leptafinya, adj. “clever(-fingered)” (PE17:17)

finya- (2) vb. ”to do a thing / make a thing (with fine work)” (PE17:181)

fion (1) ( fiond- or simply fion-, as in pl. fiondi or fioni) noun ?"hawk" (reading of gloss uncertain; according to Christopher Tolkien the most natural interpretation would be "haste", but this word would have no plural form) (PHI, VT46:9) .

fion (2) “bowl, goblet” (LT1:253)

Fionwe masc. name; a Maia; also called Eonwe, q.v. (PHI, (WEG) )

fir- vb. "die, fade" (cf. fifíru-); aorist (?) fíre "expire"; augmentless perfect fírie, translated "she has breathed forth"(but no explicit element meaning "she" seems to be present) (MR:250, 470, VT43:34)

firie noun "dying, death" (gerund of fir-) (VT43:34)

fire noun "mortal man" (PHIR) , pl. firi given (the latter is not clearly glossed and may also be the archaic form from which fire is derived, since word-final short * i became e in Quenya – but since we would rather expect the spelling * phiri if it were an archaic form, it is best taken as the pl. of fire.)

Fíriel fem. name "She that sighed" or "She that died", later name of Míriel (MR:250)

fírima adj. "mortal" (PHIR; firima with a short i in VT46:4) ; also used as noun: Fírima pl. Fírimar "those apt to die", "mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387) . This adj. is also the source of an explicit noun, personalized #Fírimo = mortal, mortal man. Pl. Fírimor (VT49:10-11) , dative pl. fírimoin "for men" in Fíriel's Song ; cf. also the pl. allative fírimonnar in VT44:35.

#Fírimo noun “mortal”, see fírima

firin adj. "dead" (by natural cause) (PHIR) .This may obsolete the earlier "Qenya" word firin "ray of the sun" (LT2:341)

firinga noun "carcanet, necklace" (LT2:346, GL:36)

Firya pl. Firyar noun "Mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387). Etym has firya "human", literally *"mortal" (PHIR)

Firyanor place-name, other name of Hildórien , the place where mortal men first awoke, like the Elves did at Cuiviénen (PHIR)

interjection “nay, no”; the stem √ PHŌ/Ū is itself defined as an “interjection of displeasure/dissent” (PE17:181)

foa (1) noun "breath, puff of breath" (VT47:35, 36)

foa (2) noun "hoard, treasure" (LT2:340; perhaps obsoleted by #1 above)

foalóce noun "name of a serpent that guarded a treasure" (LT2:340)

foina adj. "hidden" (LT2:340)

fóle noun "secrecy, a secret" (LT2:340; "Qenya" spelling fôle )

fólima adj. "secretive" (LT2:340; "Qenya" spelling fôlima)

Follondie, see Forolondie

forma noun "right hand" (VT47:6) . Compare formaite, forya.

formaite adj. "righthanded, dexterous" (PHOR, VT49:9, 31) . Compare ataformaite.

Formen noun "north" (SA:men) , also name of tengwa #10 (Appendix E, PHOR, MEN; replacing the rejected form Tormen) . In Formenos, place-name "Northern Fortress" (SA:formen) . Allative formenna, VT49:26.

formenya adj. "northern" (PHOR)

forna adj. “northern” (PE17:18)

Forolondie (also shortened and assimilated Follondie) place-name “North-harbourage”, old name for Arnor, in full Turmen Follondiéva “Realm of the North-harbourage” (PE17:28) . Compare Hyaralondie.

Forostar place-name, the "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

forte (stem *forti- given the primitive form ¤ phoroti ) adj . "northern" (PHOR)

forya adj. "right" (PHOR) , "dexter" (VT46:10)

Fui noun "Night" (PHUY) - variant Hui, which form is probably to be preferred in light of Tolkien's later insight that the related word fuine (see below) is actually Telerin, the proper Quenya form being huine.

fuine noun "deep shadow" (PHUY; cf. "Qenya" fuin "night" in MC:221) . According to VT41:8, fuine is not a Quenya form at all, but Telerin for Quenya huine (but unquestionably, fuine is quoted as a Quenya form in certain earlier sources; cf. also Fuinur below - perhaps we may assume that fuine was borrowed into Quenya from Telerin and thus came to co-exist with huine?

Fuinur (misprint "Fuinar" in the Silmarillion Index) masc. name, evidently derived from fuine "shadow" (Silm; cf. the stem PHUY in the Etymologies)

fúme noun "sleep" (LT1:253) . Read perhaps *húme in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya, since Tolkien later decided that fu- tended to become hu-.

fúmella noun "poppy" (also fúmellot) (LT1:253) . Read perhaps *húmella in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya, since Tolkien later decided that fu- tended to become hu-.

fúmellot noun "poppy" (also fúmella) (LT1:253) Read perhaps *húmellot in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya, since Tolkien later decided that fu- tended to become hu-.

#funda- stem of uncertain meaning occurring in a “Qenya” text, but possibly meaning “thunder” (see the comments of the editor in PE16:59). If the word survived (in Tolkien's conception), it would appear as *hunda- in Third Age Quenya, since Tolkien decided that fu- tended to become hu-. This could result in such words as *hunda- vb. “to thunder”, gerund *hundie (which could then express “thunder, thundering” as a noun).

fur- vb. "to conceal, to lie" (LT2:340) Read perhaps *hur- in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya, since Tolkien decided that fu- tended to become hu-.

furin adj. "hidden, concealed" (also hurin, which form may be preferred in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya) (LT2:340)

furu noun "a lie" (LT2:340, GL:36) Read perhaps *huru in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya, since Tolkien decided that fu- tended to become hu-.


haca- vb. "squat" (GL:47)

hácala participle "yawning" occurring in the Markirya poem, derived from an (otherwise unattested) verb #hac- "yawn". Compare yanga-.

hacca noun "buttocks, hams" (GL:47)

hahta noun "pile, mound" (KHAG)

haime noun "habit" (KHIM)

haira adj. "remote, far" (KHAYA)

haiya adj. "far" (SD:247) . Also háya.

hala (1) noun "(small) fish" (KHAL1, SKAL2, VT45:20)

hala (2) noun ”a cast shadow” (PE17:184)

halatir ( halatirn-, as in dat.sg. halatirnen), also halatirno, noun "kingsfisher", etymologically "fish-watcher" (TIR, SKAL2, KHAL1)

halcin adj. "frozen" (LT1:254)

halda adj. "veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady" (opposed to helda "stripped bare") (SKAL1, VT46:13)

halla (1) adj. "tall" (Appendix E, footnote)

[ halla (2) adj. "naked" (VT46:14) , changed by Tolkien to helda]

Hallacar masc. name , apparently "tall helmet": halla + car (cf. Eldacar for the latter element) (UT:210)

Hallatan masc. name , apparently "tall man": halla + atan (UT:210)

[ halma], see helma

haloisi noun "the sea (in storm)", cf. haloite (LT1:254)

haloite adj. "leaping" (LT1:254)

halta- vb. "to leap" (LT1:254)

halya- vb. "veil, conceal, screen from light" (SKAL 1 , VT46:13) Tolkien noted that “√ SKAL applied to more opaque things that cut off light and cast shadows over other things” (PE17:184) , contrasting it with √ SPAN, the rejected stem of fanta-, q.v.

ham- (1) vb. "sit" (KHAM)

#ham- (2) vb. "judge", attested in the aorist form hamil "you judge". (VT42:33; notice the pronominal ending -l "you". See neme. The verb #ham- with the meaning "judge" may seem to be an ephemeral form in Tolkien's conception.)

hamma noun "chair" (VT45:20)

hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept” (PE17:68)

han prep . "beyond" (compare the post position pella of similar meaning) (VT43:14)

[ hanaco noun "giant" (VT45:21) ]

handa (1) adj . "understanding, intelligent" (KHAN)

[? handa] (2) noun "chair"; the reading is uncertain and the word was in any case deleted (VT45:20) . In the Etymologies , Tolkien likewise abandoned the root KHAD from which this word was derived, but he may seem to have restored this root later (see har-).

handasse noun "intelligence" (KHAN)

hande noun "knowledge, understanding, intelligence" (KHAN) . Note: *hande is (probably) also the past tense of the verb har- "sit".

handele noun "intellect" (another gloss, "intelligence", Tolkien transferred to handasse) (KHAN, VT45:21)

[ hando] noun "agent" (male; fem. [ yendi]) (VT45:16)

háno noun "brother", colloquially also hanno (VT47:12, 14) . It is unclear whether Tolkien, by introducing this form, abandoned the older (TLT) word toron (q.v.)

hanno noun "brother" (a colloquial form, cf. háno) , also used in children's play for "middle finger" (VT47:12, 14, VT48:4, 6)

hanquenta vb.? noun? “answer” (PE17:176)

hantale noun "thanksgiving", isolated from Eruhantale (UT:166; see also VT43:14) . A verbal stem #hanta- "thank, give thanks" may apparently be isolated from this word.

hante, pa.t. of hat - , q.v. (SKAT)

hanu noun "a male (of Men or Elves), male animal, man" (3AN, VT45:16)

hanuvoite adj.? "male" (prob. adj. rather than noun; the word as such is not clearly glossed, but connects with hanu "a male") (INI)

hanwa noun "male" (INI)

hanya- vb. "understand, know about, be skilled in dealing with" (KHAN, VT45:21)

har, hare adj.?adv.? "near" (LT1:253)

har- vb. "sit, stay", pl. present hárar in CO ( i hárar "those who sit, those who are sitting"). Imperative hara in the phrase ( hara) máriesse “(stay) in happiness” (PE17:162) . According to VT45:20, har- "sit" is derived from a stem KHAD which Tolkien abandoned in the Etymologies , but since CO is later than Etym, he may seem to have restored KHAD . If so, the past tense of har- would be *hande.

haran (# harn-, as in pl. harni) noun "king, chieftain" (3AR, TĀ /TA3, VT45:17; for "king", the word aran is to be preferred in LotR-style Quenya) . In a deleted entry in the Etymologies , haran was glossed "chief" (VT45:17)

haranye noun , last year of a century in the Númenórean calendar (or possibly the word for "century" itself; Tolkien's wording is unclear) (Appendix D)

harda noun "realm, region" (VT45:12, 16, 17; the word also occurs, unglossed, in the entry EN in the Etymologies) . Changed to arda later?

* harin adj. “marred” (PE17:150) . The word is given as arin, where the initial Greek chi presumably represents [x]; in later [MET] pronunciation and spelling, this would become * harin.

harma (1) noun "treasure, a treasured thing" (3AR) , also name of tengwa #11, later (MET) called aha (Appendix E) .

[ harma (2) noun "wolf" (3ARAM) . The gloss "hound" was inserted, but then deleted (VT45:17) ]

[ Harmen] noun "south" (MEN) (Changed to hyarmen .)

harna (1) adj. "wounded"

harna- (2) vb. "to wound" (SKAR)

harna (3) noun "helmet" (VT45:21)

harpa noun "helmet" (VT45:21)

harwe (1) noun "wound" (SKAR)

harwe (2) noun "treasure, treasury" (3AR)(For clarity, harma may be used for "treasure")

harya- vb. "possess" (3AR)

haryon noun "(heir), prince" (3AR) . Alternative form aryon.

#hasta- vb. "mar" (verbal stem isolated from the passive participle hastaina "marred"). (MR:254)

hat- (1) vb. “fling” (cited as hatin “I fling”, first person sg. aorist), pa.t. hante (QL:39) . The apparently related noun hatal “spear” occurring in late material (VT49:14) suggests that Tolkien eventually decided to maintain hat- “fling”, though in the meantime, a distinct verb hat- “break asunder” had occurred in his writings.

hat- (2) vb. "break asunder", pa.t. hante (SKAT) . Compare ascat-, terhat-. It may be that Tolkien eventually restored the verb hat- “fling” occurring in early material (see above), leaving the conceptual status of hat- “break asunder” uncertain (for “break”, late material has rac-).

hatal noun “spear” (VT49:14, 33) . Another word for “spear” is ehte.

hatse noun “headlong movement” (VT49:33, QL:39)

haura adj. “huge” (PE17:115)

hauta- vb. "cease, take a rest, stop" (KHAW)

háya adj. "far off, far away" (KHAYA) . Also haiya.

“him (the other, etc.)” in the sentence melin sé apa la hé “I love him but not him” (another) (VT49:15) . It may be that covers both genders (“her” as well as “him”), like ( se) is known to do.

heca! vb. in imperative "be gone! stand aside!", also with pronominal suffixes hecat sg. (but see -t#3) and hecal pl. (WJ:364)

Hecel ( Heceld-, e.g. pl. Heceldi, WJ:371), noun with same meaning as hecil, q.v., but reformed to match Oarel, especially applied to the Eldar left in Beleriand. Helcelmar and Heceldamar *"Land of Forsaken Elves", the name used by the loremasters of Aman for Beleriand. (WJ:365)

hecil (masc. hecilo, fem. hecile) noun "one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw" (WJ:365)

hehta- (pa.t. hehtane) vb. "put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake" (WJ:365)

hela conj. “or”, apparently an ephemeral form, replaced by hya (VT49:14-15) . The editor theorizes that hela literally meant “other than” (VT49:15)

helca adj. "icy, ice-cold" (misprint "helk" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry KHELEK ; both the Silmarillion Appendix and LT1:254 have helka , and VT45:21 finally confirmed that there is a final -a in Tolkien's Etymologies manuscript as well). In Helcar, the Inland Sea in the north-east of Middle-earth, and Helcaraxe, the Grinding Ice between Araman and Middle-earth (SA; spelt "Helkarakse" in the Etymologies , stem KARAK)

helce noun "ice" (KHELEK, LT1:254)

helcelimbe noun *"ice-drop"? (LIB1, cf. KHELEK)

helda (1) adj. "naked, stripped bare" (SKEL, SKAL1)

[ helda (2) adj. "friendly, having love (for)" (VT46:3) ]

[ heldo, also helmo, fem. helde, noun "friend" (VT46:3) ]

[ helme noun "friendship" (VT46:3) ]

helin noun "violet" or "pansy" (LT1:262)

Helinyetille noun "Eyes of Heartsease", a name of the pansy (LT1:262)

helle noun "sky" (3EL; a distinct word helle "frost" was struck out, see KHEL.)

helma noun "skin, fell" (SKEL) , changed by Tolkien from halma (VT46:14)

helwa adj. "(pale) blue" (3EL)

helyanwe noun "rainbow", lit. "sky-bridge" (3EL)

hen ( hend-, as in pl. hendi) noun "eye" (KHEN-D-E) ; possibly dual #hendu in hendumaica, q.v. Noun henfanwa “eye-screen, veil upon eyes” (PE17:176) , adj. henulca "evileyed" ( SD:68 ; cf. ulca).

hendumaica noun? adj.? "sharp-eye" (read *"sharp-eyed"?) (WJ:337)

henfanwa, see hen

henta- vb. “to eye, to examine (with the eyes), scan; to read (silently)” (for “read aloud”, et-henta is used). Forms cited: Aorist henta, present continuative hentea, “aorist past” hentane, perfect ehentanie. Gerund #hentie “reading”, isolated from parmahentie “book reading” (PE17:77, 156) .

hententa- vb. “spot with eye” (direct the eye toward something) (VT49:24) . Cf. tenta-, leptenta-.

henulca, see hen-

hequa prep. "leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except" (WJ:365)

hér noun "lord" (VT41:9) , also heru, q.v.

héra adj. "chief, principal" (KHER)

hére noun "lordship" (LT1:272)

heren (1) noun "order"; Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards" (UT:388)

heren (2) noun "fortune", etymologically "governance" ("and so what is in store for one and what one has in store") (KHER) . Herendil masc. name *"Fortune-friend" = Eadwine , Edwin , Audoin(LR:52, 56, cf. the Etymologies , stems KHER-, NIL/NDIL)

herenya adj. "fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich" (KHER)

heri noun "lady" (KHER, LT1:272)

hérince noun *"little lady" (UT:195) . Concerning the diminutive ending, cf. Atarince, cirinci.

heru (also hér) noun "lord, master" (PM:210, KHER, LT1:272, VT44:12) ; Letters:283 gives hér ( heru); the form Héru with a long vowel refers to God in the source where it appears ( i Héru "the Lord", VT43:29). In names like Herumor *"Black Lord" and Herunúmen "Lord of the West" (SA:heru) . The form heruion is evidently a gen.pl. of heru "lord": *"of the lords" (SD:290); herunúmen "Lord-of-West" (LR:47), title of Manwe. Pl. númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" (*"West-lords") in SD:246, a title of the Valar; does this form suggest that #heruvi is the regular plural of heru?

heru- vb. "to rule" (LT1:272; rather tur- in LotR-style Quenya)

Hescin noun "winter one" (???) (LT1:255)

Hesin noun "winter" (LT1:255; LotR-style Quenya has hríve instead)

hessa adj. "dead, withered" (LT1:255)

hesta vb. "wither" (LT1:255)

hesto noun "captain" (VT45:22; the word is not explictly identified as Quenya but can hardly be any other language)

adv. “here” (VT49:34)

hilcin vb. , glossed "it freezes" (LT1:254) ; if this word is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya, it would have to mean "I freeze", but the shape of this word seems somewhat alien to Tolkien's later forms of Quenya (verbs with 1st person aorists in -in never have a consonant cluster immediately preceding this ending)

hildi, -hildi noun "followers" (used = mortal men, the Second-born of Ilúvatar) (KHIL) (also Hildor, q.v.). Dat. pl. hildin "for men", a dative pl. occurring in Fíriel's Song . Cf. hildinyar "my heirs", evidently *hilde, hildo "follower, heir" + -inya "my" + -r plural ending ( EO )

Hildor pl. noun "the Followers", an Elvish name of Mortal Men as the Second-born of Ilúvatar (WJ:387) ; sg #Hildo. Hildórien place-name: the land where Men first awoke, like the Elves did at Cuiviénen (Silm, KHIL, PHIR)

hilya- vb. "to follow" (KHIL)

himba adj. "adhering, sticking" (KHIM)

himya- vb. "to stick to, adhere, cleave to, abide by" (KHIM, VT45:22)

hína noun "child", also hina used in the vocative to a (young) child (also hinya "my child", for hinanya) (WJ:403) . Pl. híni (surprisingly not **hínar) in Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" (Silmarillion Index ); dative hínin in VT44:35. In compounds -hin pl. -híni (as in Eruhíni, "Children of Eru", SA:híni ). According to one source, the word is hín( i) and solely plural (PE17:157) , but this is obviously contradicted by some of the sources quoted above.

hir- vb. "find", future tense hiruva in Namárie ( hiruvalye "thou shalt find") ( Nam, RGEO:67, VT49:39) ; Hirilonde "Haven-finder", name of a ship (UT:192)

hir( hird-), pl. hirdi, noun "entrails, bowels" (PE13:161)

híse ( þ) (stem # hísi- because of the primitive form¤ khī thi , cf. hísilanya, Hísilóme) (1) noun "mist, fog" (KHIS/KHITH) . According to VT45:22, híse is also the name of Tengwa #11 in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , but Tolkien would later call #11 harma/ aha instead.

híse (2) noun "dusk" (LT1:255) . A "Qenya" form possibly obsoleted by #1 above.

híse (3) adj.? "blinking" (?) (MC:214) A "Qenya" form possibly obsoleted by #1 above.

hísen noun in pre-classical genitive? "of mist" ( þ) (MC:221; this is "Qenya", but it connects with híse #1.)

hísie ( þ) noun "mist, mistiness" (Nam, SA:hîth, PE17:73) , also híse.

hísilanya ( þ noun “mist thread”, warp (Sindarin hithlain ). Cf. híse. –PE17:60

Hísilóme ( þ) place-name "Hithlum", “Land of Mist”, more literally *”Mist-night” (SA:hîth, LUM, [VT45:28])

Hísilumbe ( þ) place-name, variant of Hísilóme (LUM)

Hísime ( þ) noun , eleventh month of the year, "November" (Appendix D, SA:hîth) . The Quenya word seems to mean "Misty One".

histane pre-classical participle? "fading" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

histe noun "dusk" (LT1:255)

hiswa ( þ) adj. "grey" (KHIS/KHITH, Narqelion)

hiswe ( þ) noun "fog" (KHIS/KHITH)

hiuta- vb. "wink, hint" (VT46:6)

hlaiwa, see laiwa

hlapu- noun "blow; fly or stream in the wind", participle hlápula "blowing" in Markirya

hlar- noun "hear", future tense hlaruva "shall hear" in Markirya

hlas noun “ear”, stem hlar- as in the dual form hlaru (PE17:62) . Compare lár #2.

hlíne, see líne

hlíve, see líve

hloa ("hloa") , noun that "would have been" the product of primitive ¤ sloga (Sindarin lhô ), a word used of rivers that were "variable and liable to overflow their banks at seasons". However, the wording "would have been" may seem to suggest that this word did not actually occur in Quenya. (VT42:9)

hlóce noun "snake, serpent", later lóce (SA:lok-)

hloima noun ”poison”, ”a poisonous substance” (PE17:185)

hloire noun “venom, poison, poisonousness” (PE17:185)

hloirea adj. “venomous” (PE17:185)

hloita- vb. “to poison, envenom, fill with poison” (PE17:185)

hlón noun "sound", "a noise" (VT48:29) . Also hlóna. The stem of hlón is apparently hlon- if hloni "sounds" in WJ:394 is its plural form.

hlóna (1) noun "a noise" (VT48:29, PE17:138) . Also hlón.

[ hlóna (2) noun "a river, especially given to those at all seasons full of water from mountains" (VT48:27; the word is marked with a query and the note containing it rejected; it was apparently replaced by lón, q.v.) ]

hlonite adj. "phonetic", apparently a close variant of hlóníte below (VT48:29, PE17:138)

#hloníte adj. "phonetic", only attested in the pl. in the phrase hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs" (sg. #hloníte tengwe) (WJ:395) . The sg. form hlonite with a short i occurs in VT48:29 and PE17:138. The form #hlonítewas changed by Tolkien from hlonaite, as in hlonaite tengwesta "a tengwesta [q.v.] employing phonetic signs" (VT39:4) , hlonaiti tengwi "phonetic signs" (VT39:4) .

hlussa-, hlusse; see lussa-, luste

ho prep. "from" (3O) ; cf. -

- verbal prefix; "away, from, from among", the point of view being outside the thing, place, or group in thought (WJ:368)

hoa (“hoa”) adj. “big, large” (PE17:115)

hóciri- vb. "cut off" (cut of a required portion, so as to have it or use it) (WJ:366, 368) (Normal aorist probably * hócire, present/continuative tense * hócíra, past tense * hócirne)

[ holme] noun "odour" (ÑOL; according to VT46:6, Tolkien struck out the initial h -, thus changing the word to olme )

holya, also holta-, vb. “shut, close” (PE17:98)

holwe noun "stink" (or *"stench"), * holwea adj. "stinking". PE13:162 gives holwe "stink", derived from 3olwē ; PM13:145 however gives the Q word as olwe and the adj. "stinking" as olwea, though primitive forms with initial 3 - (the spirant gh ) are presupposed also there. Tolkien later used a system where primitive words in 3 - yield Quenya forms in h-, as demonstrated by relevant entries in the Etymologies , so we prefer holwe to olwe (which would also clash with the later personal name Olwe, unlikely to mean "stink"), and we similarly read * holwea rather than olwea as the adj. "stinking". – In Etym, the root ÑOL seems to represent a later experiment with similar words having to do with smell, and once again we observe shifting conceptions as to whether the Quenya words should show initial h- or not; in this conception the initial consonant in Primitive Elvish was ñ - rather than 3 -.

noun “spirit, shadow” (PE17:86)

hón noun "heart" (physical) (KHŌ -N) ; hon-maren "heart of the house", a fire (LR:63, 73; this is "Qenya" with genitive in - en , not - o as in LotR-style Quenya – read * hon-maro ?)

hondo-ninya noun "my heart", changed to indo-ninya (FS, earlier version)

hópa noun "haven, harbour, small landlocked bay" (KHOP)

hopan, see hopasse

hopasse noun "harbourage", changed by Tolkien from hopan (KHOP, VT45:22)

hóre noun "impulse" (KHOR) , hórea "impulsive" (KHOR; VT45:22 confirms that "impulsive" is the correct gloss, misread "impulsion" in the Etymologies as printed in LR)

horma noun "horde, host" (LT2:341)

horme noun "urgency" (confused with orme"rushing") (KHOR; originally glossed "encouragement, comfort", VT45:22)

horro (also orro) interjection "ugh, alas! ow!" (said to be an interjection "of horror, pain, disgust") (VT45:17)

horta- vb. "send flying, speed, urge" (KHOR; originally glossed "urge, encourage", VT45:22)

hortale noun "speeding, urging" (KHOR)

horya- noun "have an impulse, be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do" (VT45:22)

hos noun "folk" (LT2:340)

hosse noun "army, band, troop" (LT2:340)

hosta- vb. "gather, collect, assemble" ( Markirya) , “gather hastily together, pile up” (PE17:39) , hostainiéva "will be gathered", future tense of the stative verb *hostainie, derived from *hostaina "gathered", past participle of hosta- "gather". Such stative verbs are probably not conceptually valid in Tolkien's later Quenya; see -ie. (FS)

hosta noun "large number", verb hosta- "to collect" (KHOTH)

hostar noun "tribe" (LT2:340)

hrá, see

hrai- prefix denoting difficulty (PE17:154, 185) , cf. ur( u)-

hraia adj. “awkward, difficult” (PE17:154) , ephemerally meant “easy” (PE17:172)

hraicénima adj. “scarcely visible, hard to see” (PE17:154) . Also hraicene.

hranga- (1) vb. “thwart” (said to be a weak verb) (PE17:154)

hranga (2) adj. “awkward, hard” (PE17:154) , “stiff, awkward, difficult” (PE17:185)

hráva adj. “wild” (PE17:78) ; see ráva #1.

hravan noun “wild beast”; pl. Hravani "the Wild", used as a name of non-Edain Men (PE17:78, WJ:219) . PE17:18 has Hrávani with a long á, glossed “Wild-men, Savages”.

hráve noun "flesh" (MR:349)

hresta noun "shore, beach", ablative hrestallo *"from (the) shore" in Markirya

*hrir- vb. likely Third Age form of hriz-, q.v.

hrisse noun “fall of snow” (PE17:168) , possibly also the past tense of #hriz-, q.v.

hristil noun “snow [?peak]” (PE17:168)

Hristo noun "Christ", Tolkien's phonological adaptation of this word to Quenya (VT44:18; also Hrísto with a long vowel, VT44:15-16)

[ hrisya- < hriþya vb. “it snows”, pa.t. hrinte or hrisinye (PE17:168) . Tolkien replaced this verb by #hriz-, q.v.]

hríve noun "winter", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D) . Yá hríve tene, ringa ná “when winter comes (arrives, is with us), it is cold” (VT49:23; Tolkien changed tene to mene, p. 24).

#hriz- vb. “to snow”, impersonal, given in the form hríza “it is snowing” ( z would turn to r in Exilic Quenya: *hríra). Past tense hrinse (with s from the original root SRIS ) and another form which the editor tentatively reads as hrisse (the development ns > ss is regular).

hroa (sometimes spelt "hroa")noun "body" (changed by Tolkien from hrondo, in turn changed from hrón). The word hroa comes from earlier ¤ srawa(VT47:35) . Pl. hroar is attested (MR:304, VT39:30) . In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroais "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body' " (as opposed to "soul"). The Incarnates live by necessary union of hroa (body) and fea (soul) (WJ:405) . Hroafelme "body-impulse" (impulses provided by the body, e.g. physical fear, hunger, thirst, sexual desire) (VT41:19 cf. 13)

Hróatani noun *“Eastern Men” (PE17:18) , as opposed to the Núnatani (Dúnedain, Westmen).

hrómen noun “east”, variant of the more common Rómen, q.v. (PE17:18)

hrón noun “flesh/substance of Arda”, “matter” (PE17:183) , also at one point used = hroa “body”, q.v.

hrondo noun “a corporeal form or body (especially of the Elves)” (PE17:183) . Tolkien replaced this word by hroa, q.v.

hróna adj. “eastern” (PE17:18) , apparently a variant of róna, q.v. (itself not clearly glossed).

hróta noun "dwelling underground, artificial cave or rockhewn hall" (PM:365)

hróva adj. “dark, dark brown”, used to refer to hair (PE17:154)

hru-, hrú, ru- prefix implying wickedness or evil, only occasionally used, e.g. hrúcare, q.v.

hrúcare, also rúcare, noun “evil-doing” (PE17:170)

hruo noun “troll” (PE17:115)

noun “hound” (PE17:86) , cf. huan, huo

[ hu- or -, negative prefix (VT45:17) ; Tolkien settled on ú- instead.]

huan ( hún-, as in dat. sg. húnen) noun "hound" (KHUGAN, KHUG) . Cf. , huo.

hue “Qenya” cardinal “nine” (in Tolkien's later Quenya nerte) (VT49:54)

Hui noun "Night" (PHUY) , in earlier "Qenya" defined as "evening" (MC:214) or"fog, dark, murk, night" (LT1:253).

huine noun "deep shadow" (PHUY) , "gloom" (VT41:8) , "gloom, darkness" (SA:fuin) , also used for "shadow" = Sauron (LR:56) . Possessive (adjectival) form huinéva in the name Taure Huinéva, q.v. In earlier sources, huine is quoted as a variant of fuine, but according to VT41:8, huine is the proper Quenya form and fuine is Telerin.With prefix nu- "under" and allative ending -nna in nuhuinenna (SD:246) ; also unuhuine "under-shadow" (LR:47) .

huiva adj. "murky" (LT1:253)

[#hum- vb. "not to do" (cited as 1st person aorist: humin "I do not"; pa.t. húme. (VT45:17) . See #um-.]

húme (1) numeral "thousand" (PE13:50) . Pl. húmi is attested (used in connection with other numbers, as in "two thousand", i.e. "two thousands").

*húme(2), see fúme

húna 1) adj. “cursed, accursed”. Cf. húta-. (PE17:149)

[ húna- 2) vb. "howl" (VT46:6) ]

*hund-(*hunda-, *hundie etc.), see fund-

húnen dat. sg. of huan , q.v. (KHUGAN, KHUG)

hunte, huntane, vb. , the pa.t. of húta, q.v.

huo noun "dog" (KHUG, see KHUGAN ; cf. , huan). Also roa.

Huore masc. name "Heart-vigour, courage" (KHŌ -N)

* hur-, see fur-

hurin adj. "hidden, concealed" (also furin) (LT2:340)

húro noun "storm" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

huru, see furu

húta- vb. “curse”, pa.t. hunte or huntane. It is unclear whether the word húna “cursed, accursed” should be regarded as the passive participle of this verb, or only as an independent (though obviously related) adjective. (PE17:149)

[ húvanimor, see úvanimo]

hwan ( hwand-, e.g. pl. hwandi) noun "sponge, fungus" (SWAD)

hwarin adj. "crooked" (SKWAR)

hwarma noun "crossbar" (SKWAR)

hwerme noun "gesture-code" (WJ:395, VT39:5)

hwesta (1) noun "breeze, breath, puff of air" (SWES) , also name of tengwa #12 (Appendix E, VT46:17) ; hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw ", name of tengwa #34 (Appendix E) .

hwesta- (2) vb. "to puff" (SWES)

hwinde (1) noun “birch” (PE17:23)

hwinde noun (2) "eddy, whirlpool" (SWIN) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , hwinde was also the name of tengwa #34, which letter Tolkien would later call hwesta sindarinwa instead.

hwinya- vb. "to swirl, eddy, gyrate" (SWIN)

hya conj. “or” or noun “other thing” (VT49:14)

hyá adv.? "here by us" (Narqelion, QL:xiv)

hyalin noun “paper” (PE16:133)

Hyallondie, see Hyaralondie

hyalma noun "shell, conch, horn of Ulmo" (SYAL) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , hyalma was also the name of tengwa #33 (VT46:16) , which letter Tolkien would later call hyarmen instead.

#hyam- vb. "pray" (aorist hyame attested, VT43:34)

hyan- vb . “to injure” (PE16:145)

hyana adj. “other”, cf. hya (VT49:14)

hyanda noun "blade, share" (LT2:342)

*hyande, see hyar-

hyapat noun "shoe" (SKYAP; in the Etymologies as printed in LR the gloss appears as "shore", but according to http://www.elvish.org/errata/VT-Errata.pdf this was a misreading of Tolkien's manuscript)

hyar noun "plough" (LT2:342)

#hyar- vb. "cleave" (1st pers. aorist hyarin "I cleave") (SYAD) . Pa.t. probably *hyande since the R of hyar- was originally D; cf. rer- "sow", pa.t. rende, from the root RED .

Hyaralondie (also shortened and assimilated Hyallondie) place-name “South-harbourage”, old name for Gondor, in full Turmen Hyallondiéva “Realm of the South-harbourage” (PE17:28) . Compare Forolondie.

Hyarastorni place-name , region in Númenor, apparently including hyar- "south" and perhaps orni "trees" (UT:210)

hyáre noun used as adv. (older hyáze) "this day", a form Tolkien apparently abandoned in favour of síra, q.v. (VT43:18)

hyarma noun "left hand" (VT47:6, VT49:12) . Compare hyarmaite, hyarya. Once with definite article directly prefixed ( ihyarma, VT49:22), but i hyarma in other versions of the same text.

hyarmaite adj. "lefthanded" (KHYAR)

hyarmen, Hyarmen noun "south" (SA, SA:men, KHYAR) , literally “lefthand-direction” (VT49:12) , since the Elves named the directions as they were to a person facing the Blessed Realm in the West Also name of tengwa #33 (Appendix E) . In Hyarmendacil masc.name, "South-victor" (Appendix A) , apparently also in the place-name Hyarmentir (name of a mountain; the element -tir means *"watch[ing point]".) (SA) Hyarnustar "the Southwestlands" of Númenor; Hyarrostar the "Southeastlands" (UT:165)

hyarmenya adj. "southern" (KHYAR)

hyarna adj. “southern” (PE17:18)

hyarya adj. "left" (opposite of right). (KHYAR) . Compare hyarma.

hyatse noun "cleft, gash" (SYAD) , apparently changed by Tolkien from hyasse (VT46:16)

hye noun “other person”, also used as a pronoun of “a 3rd person entering account [who is] not subject of the original verb” (VT49:15) . This hye may then also be used as subject to in a following sentence, as in Tolkien's example “he [ se] struck him [ hye] and he [ hye] fled” (VT49:15) .

hyelle noun "glass" (KHYEL(ES), VT45:23; the later source also provides the unglossed form hyelma, which may be a synonym of hyelle; alternatively hyelle could be "glass" as a substance, whereas hyelma rather refers to "a glass" as a drinking vessel). In later sources, cilin or calca is given as the word for "glass".

hyelma, see hyelle

hyóla noun "trump" (SD:419)


i (1) "the", indeclinable definite article (I, Nam , RGEO:67 , Markirya , WJ:369, WJ:398, MC:215, 216, 221) . A variant in (q.v.) is also attested. Hyphenated i- in i-mar "the earth" (FS), i-Ciryamo "the mariner's" (UT:8) , i-aldar *"the trees" (Narqelion) , attached with a dot in i·yulmar *"the cups" (VT48:11), I·Eldanyáre "the History of the Elves" (LR:199), i·arya *“the best” (PE17:57) , directly prefixed with no hyphen or dot in icilyanna = i cilyanna in SD:247, also ihyarma “the left hand” in VT49:22 (but i hyarma in other versions of the same text).

i (2) relative pronoun "(the one/they) who; (that) which" (both article and relative pronoun in CO : i Eru i or ilye mahalmar ea: the One who is above all thrones", i hárar " (they) who are sitting"); cf. also the phrase i hamil mára "(that) which you deem good" (VT42:33) . Notice that before a verb, i means "the one who", or, in the case of a plural verb, "those who"; e.g. i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words with voices" (WJ:391). According to VT47:21, i as a relative pronoun is the personal plural form (corresponding to the personal sg. ye and the impersonal sg. ya). This agrees with the example i carir..., but as is evident from the other examples listed above, Tolkien in certain texts also used i as a singular relative pronoun, both personal ( Eru i...) and impersonal ( i hamil). In the sense of a plural personal relative pronoun, i is also attested in the genitive ( ion) and ablative ( illon) cases, demonstrating that unlike the indeclinable article i, the relative pronoun i can receive case endings. Both are translated "from whom": ion / illon camnelyes "from whom you received it" (referring to several persons) (VT47:21) .

i (3) conj. “that”. Savin Elessar ar i náne aran Ondóreo “I believe that Elessar really existed and that [he] was a king of Gondor” (VT49:27) , savin… i E[ lesarno] quetie naite *”I believe that Elessar's speaking [is] true” (VT49:28) Also cf. nai, nái “be it that” (see nai #1), which may seem to incorporate this conjunction.

-i nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in a consonant and in -e; in the latter case, -e is displaced (e.g. Quende pl. Quendi).

[ ia adv. "ever" (GEY, EY); replaced by oia. ]

[ iale noun "everlasting age" (GEY; the word "age" dropped out in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT45:14. Replaced by oiale .]

-ie (1) infinitive (or gerundial) ending, “general infinitive” (PE17:68) , attested in carie (see car-), enyalie, q.v. (CO)

-ie (2) abstract ending, often used to derive abstracts from adjectives, e.g. látie “openness” vs. láta “open”, mornie “darkness” vs. morna “black, dark”, vanie (for *vanyie) “beauty” vs. vanya “fair”.

-ie (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantie "he is fallen", márie "it is good" (< *númesse "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song . This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: -ie is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO , for ye "is" Namárie has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwie.

-iel patronymic/matronymic ending -"daughter" (YEL, VT46:22-23) In the Etymologies , Tolkien struck out this ending and the corresponding independent word yelde "daughter", changing them to -ien, yende. However, the ending -iel later turns up in later forms: Uinéniel "Daughter of Uinen" in UT:182 and Elerondiel“daughter of Elrond” (Elerondo) in PE17:56. Hence it would seem that Tolkien changed his mind again and restored this ending, and perhaps the noun yelde along with it. – The form Elerondiel (from Elerondo) demonstrates that a final vowel is omitted before -iel.

-ien fem. ending in certain names like Yávien, Silmarien (q.v.) At one point -ien implied "daughter", see -iel above.

ier prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably rejected in favour of síve, q.v.) . In an abandoned version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used ier... ter for "as...so" (VT43:17) .

il- (prefix) "no, *un-" (LA) ; cf. ilfirin "immortal" (vs. firin "dead"). This prefix "denotes the opposite, the reversal, i.e. more than the mere negation" (VT42:32) . But il- can also mean "all, every"; see ilaurea, ilqua, ilquen.

ilaurea adj. "daily", "of every day" ( il- "every" + aure "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18) .

ilca- vb. "gleam (white)", participle ilcala with pl. allative ending ilcalannarin Markirya ( axor ilcalannar "on bones gleaming")

ilce (“k”) (1) noun “appearance” (etymologically “glint”; cf. ilca-) (QL:42)

ilce (“k”) (2) *“you”, emphatic pronoun of the 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. An alternative form ince was also listed; a query appears between the forms (VT49:48) .

[-ilco (“k”) *“you (two)”, abandoned promoninal ending for the familiar 2nd person dual; in later sources the relevant ending is rather -ste (VT49:48) . The ending -ilco was apparently changed from – ilto (VT49:49) . Compare -illo.]

Ilcorin noun *"not of Kor", describing Elves not of the Blessed Realm; variant of Alcorin (LA, AR2, VT45:5)

íle noun "star" (LT1:269; rather elen, él in LotR-style Quenya.)

ilfirin adj. "immortal" (PHIR)

ilin adj. "pale blue" (GLINDI)

illi noun "all" (as independent noun, apparently treated as a plural form) . Imb' illi "among all" (VT47:30)

[-illo “you (two)”, abandoned promoninal ending for the polite 2nd person dual; in later sources the relevant ending is rather -ste (VT49:48) . This -illo was changed from -llo. Compare -ilco.]

illon pl. relative pron. in ablative: "from whom", pl. (VT47:11) . See i #2 (relative pronoun).

Illuin place-name, name of one of the Lamps of the Valar; apparently incorporating the element luin "blue" (Silm) : hence *“all-blue”?

illume adv. "always" (VT44:9)

ilm- stem appearing in Ilmen, the region above the air where the stars are, in Ilmare, name of a Maia, and in Ilmarin "mansion of the high airs", the dwelling of Manwe and Varda upon Oiolosse (SA)

Ilma noun "starlight" (GIL)

Ilmare noun "starlight", also fem. name, referring to a Maia (GIL, SA:ilm-)

Ilmarin noun "mansion of the high airs", the dwelling of Manwe and Varda upon Oiolosse (SA:ilm-)

ilmen region above air where stars are (WIL, SA:ilm-) ; place-name Ilmen-assa "Chasm of Ilmen" (GAS)

*ilpirin (hypothetical form; the word actually appears in Q as ilfirin) adj. "immortal" (PHIR)

ilqua ( "ilqa")noun "everything" (IL, VT45:24) , "all" (FS) ; ilquainen ("ilqainen") a word occurring in Fíriel's Song , translated "to all". It would appear to be ilqua "all" with a dative pl. ending. However, in Tolkien's later Quenya -inen is the ending for instrumental pl. (FS)

ilquen noun "everybody" (WJ:372)

ilsa noun "(the mystic name of) silver" (LT1:255,LT1:268)

[ Iltániel, changed by Tolkien to Ilthániel, ilsa, deleted Quenya forms of Sindarin Gilthoniel as a name of Varda. (PE17:23) ]

#-ilto, dual ablative ending (Plotz) , see -llo #1.

[-lto(2), see -lco]

Ilu noun "(the) world" (FS, LR:47, 56) , "universe" (IL) ; ilu "everything, all, the whole" (of the universe also including God and all souls and spirits, which are not properly included in the term Ea; see VT39:20, also referenced in VT49:36)

ilucara adj. "omnificent" (VT39:20)

iluisa ( þ?) adj. "omniscient" (VT39:20)

Ilumíre noun *"World-jewel", another word for Silmaril (IL)

iluquinga ("q") noun "rainbow" (LT2:348)

Ilurambar place-name "Walls of the World" (IL, RAMBĀ )

iluvala adj. "omnipotent" (VT39:20)

Ilúvatar masc. name "All-father", God (SD:401, FS, IL; Ilúv-atar , ATA, Iluvatar with a short u, SD:346) . Often in combination with the divine name as Eru Ilúvatar, "Eru Allfather", cf. MR:112. "Qenya" genitive Ilúvatáren "of Ilúvatar" in Fíriel's Song , LR:47 and SD:246 , the genitive ending is -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. the later genitive Ilúvataro in the phrase Híni Ilúvataro (see "Children of Ilúvatar" in the Silmarillion Index)

ilúve noun "allness, the all". In Ilúvatar "All-father". (SA; WJ:402, MR:471, IL) In MR:355, ilúve seems to be equated with Heaven. Cf. SD:401: Ilúve Ilu "Heaven, the universe, all that is (with and without the Earth)".

ilvana adj. “perfect”. Also ilvanya. (PE17:150)

ilvanya adj. “perfect”. Also ilvana. (PE17:150)

ilwe noun "sky, heavens" (LT1:255) , "the middle air among the stars" (LT1:273) . – VT49:51, 53 also mentions an obscure prononominal element ilwe.

Ilweran, Ilweranta noun "rainbow" (GL:74) (The Etymologies gives helyanwe.)

ilya adj. and noun "all" (LR:47, 56; SD:310) , "all, the whole" (IL) ; "each, every, all of a particular group of things" (VT39:20) ; ilye before a plural noun, "all" being inflected like an adjective ( Nam , RGEO:67) : ilye tier"all paths" (Namárie, VT39:20) , ilye mahalmar "all thrones" ( CO) , ilya raxellor "from all dangers" (VT44:9; we might expect *ilye raxellor here) , ilyárea (older ilyázea) "daily, of every day" (evidently ilya "every" + áre, áze "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18) . Tolkien apparently abandoned ilyárea in favour of ilaurea, q.v.

- ima adjectival suffix. Sometimes it is used to derive simple adjectives, like vanima "fair" or calima "bright"; it can also take on the meaning "-able" (PE17:68) , as in mátima “edible” ( mat- “eat”), nótima“countable” ( not- “count”) and (with a negative prefix) úquétima "unspeakable" (from quet- "speak"). Note that the stem-vowel is normally lengthened in the derivatives where - ima means "-able", though this fails to occur in cenima “visible” (q.v., but contrast hraicénima, q.v.) and also before a consonant cluster as in úfantima “not concealable” (PE17:176) . "X-ima" may mean "apt to X" (when the ending is added to an intransitive verbal stem), as in Fírimar "mortals", literally "those apt to die" (WJ:387) . The adj. úfantima “not concealable” (PE17:176) also appears as úfantuma (PE17:180) , indicating the existence of a variant ending -uma (used to derive adjectives with a “bad” meaning?)

[ imba], see imbe #2

Imbar place-name "the Habitation, = Earth," also "the principal part of Arda" (= the Solar System) (MR:337, also WJ:419 note 29)

imbe (1) prep "between" (Nam, RGEO:67, VT47:11, PE17:92) . This is "between" referring to a gap, space, barrier, or anything intervening between two other things, like or unlike one another (compare enel). The pluralized form imbi implies "among" of several things ( ancalima imbi eleni "brightest among stars"); "in the sense 'among' before plurals [ imbe ] is usually pluralized > imbi even when a plural noun follows". As pointed out by Patrick Wynne, imbi may also be used in the sense of "between" before two singular nouns connected by "and" (as in the example imbi Menel Cemenye "between heaven and earth"), whereas imbe is used before dual forms, as in the examples imbe siryat "between two rivers", imbe met "between us". Elided imb' in the phrase imb' illi "among all" (VT47:11, 30) . A dual form imbit is also mentioned, used to express "in absolute form the sense 'between two things' when these are not named" (apparently meaning that imbit expresses *"between them" referring to two entities, with no noun following) (VT47:30, PE17:92)

imbe (2) noun "dell, deep vale" (VT45:18) , ”wide ravine (between high mountain sides)” (PE17:92)

imbe (3) adv . "in(wards)" (obsoleted by #1 and #2 above?) . Changed by Tolkien from imba (VT45:18)

imbi, pluralized form of imbe #1, q.v.

imbit, dualized form of imbe #1, q.v.

ímen a word occurring in Fíriel's Song , translated "in them" ( ar ilqua ímen "and all [that is] in them"). Probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya.

imi prep. "in"; see mi (VT43:30)

imíca prep. "among" (VT43:30)

imle "yourself, thyself", 2nd person formal sg. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *tirilye imle, "you watch yourself" (but apparently the general reflexive pronoun immo can also be used, and may even be preferable since the cluster ml seems unusual for Quenya). Compare intye. (VT47:37)

imma *"itself", impersonal reflexive pronoun referring to the "same thing" (VT47:37) as the subject; compare immo.

immo, “same one, self” (VT49:33) , general singular reflexive pronoun (covering both the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person sg.), except where the subject is impersonal, in which case imma is used instead (VT47:37) . Hence *tirin immo "I watch [my]self", *tirilye immo "you watch [your]self", *tiris immo "(s)he watches [him/her]self" (but apparently *tiris imma "it watches [it]self").

imme (1) *"ourselves", 1st person pl. reflexive pronoun, probably the exclusive form, e.g. *tirilme imme "we (excl.) watch ourselves". Compare inwe. (VT47:37)

-imme (2), see -mme

imne, also imni, *"myself", 1st person sg. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *tirin imne/ imni "I watch myself" (but apparently the general reflexive pronoun immo can also be used) (VT47:37) . In PE17:41, imne is mentioned as an Old Quenya pronoun meaning “I, I myself” (cf. inye).

? imse, see inse (it is not entirely clear whether imse is intended as a Quenya form or as the etymological form underlying inse) (VT47:37)

imya adj . "same, identical, selfsame" (VT47:37)

in article , apparently a variant of the definite article i, observed in the phrase i-coimas in-Eldaron "the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar" in PM:403. It looks like the Sindarin plural article, but in Quenya i normally covers both sg. and pl. "the", and the word Eldardoes not need any article at all. The alternative reading i-coimas Eldaron (PM:395) is probably to be preferred.

-ina ending for what Tolkien called "general 'passive' participle" (VT43:15) ; compare nótina “counted”, rácina “broken”, hastaina “marred” (q.v.). The stem-vowel is usually lengthened when the ending is added to the stem of a primary verb (as in the two first examples above), though the lengthening fails to occur (or is not denoted) in carina as the passive participle of car- “make, do” (VT43:15) .

A shorter ending -na also occurs, e.g. nahtana “slain” (VT49:24) ; the example hastaina “marred” would suggest that *nahtaina is equally possible. In the example aistana "blessed" (VT43:30) , -na may be preferred to -ina for euphonic reasons, to avoid creating a second diphthong aiwhere one already occurs in the previous syllable (*aistaina). In PE17:68, the ending -ina is said to be “aorist” (unmarked as regards time and aspect); the same source states that the shorter ending -na is “no longer part of verbal conjugation ”, though it obviously survives in many words that are maybe now to be considered independent adjectives. See -na #4.

-in dative pl. ending, seen in eldain, fírimoin, q.v.

inca noun "idea" (VT45:18, where the word is cited with a final hyphen, though its gloss would indicate that it is a noun not a verb. Originally, the triple glosses "idea, notion, guess" were provided.)

incáno or incánu (“k”) , noun “mind master” (PE17:155) , cf. cáno.

incánus(*incánuss-), also incánusse, noun “mind mastership” (PE17:155) , associated with Incánus as a name of Gandalf.

ince (“k”) *“you”, emphatic pronoun for 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. It is listed as an alternative to ilcein the source, a query appearing between the forms (VT49:48, 49) . The word could also be read as inte (VT49:49)

inde "yourselves", 2nd person pl.. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *tirilde inde, "you watch yourselves". Inde is derived from earlier imde(VT47:37)

indemma noun “mind-picture”, i.e. a vision transferred from one mind to another and perceived as visual (and aural) images, usually produced by Elves, though Men were capable of receiving them (mostly during sleep) (PE17:174, 179) . Compound of indo(#1) + emma. Ephemerally Tolkien may have considered the word fanwos (q.v.) for the same phenomenon.

indi pl. noun , apparently a name of Men, hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya (LT2:343) . Compare, however, the final element of Valarindi "Offspring of the Valar", suggesting that #indi can be used for "offspring" (the Quenya word is apparently plural).

indil noun "lily", or other large single flower. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)

indis noun , translated "wife" in UT:8, but the form is assigned the meaning "bride" in other places (the regular translation of "wife" is rather veri or vesse). Indis "Bride", name of the goddess Nessa. (NDIS-SĒ /SĀ (NETH, NI 1 , NDER, I) ) ; Indis Nessa *"Bride Nessa", title and name of the Valie (NETH) The stem-form of indis "bride" is somewhat obscure; according to VT45:37 the stem could be indiss- (pl. indissi given), but the alternative form pl. form inderi shows a curious shift from i to e as well as the more regular change from s (via z) to r between vowels (compare the pl. of olos, q.v.) The stem indiss- may be preferred by writers.

indo (1) noun “heart, mood” (ID) , “state” (perhaps especially state of mind, given the other glosses) (VT39:23) , “mind, region/range of thought, mood” (PE17:155, 179) , “inner thought, in fea as exhibited in character or [?personality]” (PE17:189) .In another post-LotR source, indo is translated “resolve” or “will”, the state of mind leading directly to action (VT41:13) . Indo is thus “the mind in its purposing faculty, the will” (VT41:17) . Indo-ninya a word occurring in Fíriel's Song , translated “my heart”. In the compound indemma “mind-picture”, the first element would seem to be indo.

indo(2) noun “house” (LT2:343) , probably obsoleted by #1 above (in Tolkien's later Quenya, the word for “house” appears as coa).

indóme noun "settled character", also used of the "will" of Eru (according to etymological notes written in 1957, referred to in VT43:16, presented in PE17:189). Indómelya "thy will" (VT43:16).

indor noun "master (of house), lord" (LT2:343; probably obsoleted together with indo "house", q.v.)

indyalme noun "clamour" (VT46:3)

indyo noun "grandchild, descendant" (ÑGYŌ /ÑGYON - read * inyo in Noldorin Quenya, which dialect changed ndy to ny ? Cf. Quenya for Quendya .) In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , indyo was also the name of tengwa #17 with overposed dots to indicate following y (VT46:4) , the whole symbol having the value ndy.

- inen pl. instrumental ending. In ómainen (WJ:391)

inga (1) noun "top, highest point" (PM:340) , "only applied to shapes pointing upwards...[it] referred primarily to position and could be used of tops relatively broad". Compounded in the nouns aldinga "tree-top" ( alda + inga) (VT47:28) , ingaran “high-king” (PM:340)

inga (2) adj. "first" (ING)

ingaran noun "high-king" (PM:340) , compounded from inga and aran

Ingoldo masc. name; possessive Ingoldova "Ingoldo's" (VT39:16)

Ingole noun "Science/Philosophy" as a whole (PM:360; WJ:383 has ingole ["iñgole"], glossed "lore". In the Etymologies , stem ÑGOL, the word ingole was marked as archaic or poetic and is glossed "deep lore, magic").

ingólemo noun "one with very great knowledge, a 'wizard' ", applied only to great sages of the Eldar in Valinor, like Rúmil (PM:360)

ingolmo noun "loremaster" (WJ:383)

Ingolonde place-name "Land of the Gnomes" (Beleriand, "but before applied to parts of Valinor") (ÑGOLOD)

ingor noun "summit of a mountain" (PM:340) ; cf. orotinga.

Ingwe masc. name, "chief", name of the "prince of Elves" (PM:340, ING, WEG, VT45:18). Pl. Ingwer "Chieftains", what the Vanyar called themselves (so in PM:340, but in PM:332 the plural has the more regular form Ingwi). Ingwe Ingweron "chief of the chieftains", proper title of Ingwe as high king (PM:340) . In the Etymologies , Ingwe is also said to be the name of a symbol used in writing: a short carrier with an i -tehta above it, denoting short i (VT45:18).

inimeite adj.? ?"female" (INI)

-inqua adjectival ending, seen in alcarinqua "glorious" (WJ:412) from alcar "glory". Etymologically, -inqua means "-full", like "glory-full" in this case.

-inque pronominal ending (VT49:51, 57) , see -ngwe

insa *"itself", 3rd person sg. impersonal reflexive pronoun, e.g. *tiris insa "it watches itself" (but apparently the general reflexive pronoun immo may also be used, and it may even be preferable since the cluster ns seems unusual for Quenya). Compare inse, the corresponding personal form.

#insangare (allative insangarenna attested, VT43:22)noun "temptation", a form Tolkien apparently abandoned in favour of #úsahtie. In Quenya, the cluster ns is unusual.

inse *"himself" and *"herself", 3rd person sg. personal reflexive pronoun, apparently covering both genders, e.g. *tiris inse "(s)he watches him/herself" (but apparently the general reflexive pronoun immo may also be used, and it may even be preferable since the cluster ns seems unusual for Quenya). Compare insa, the corresponding impersonal form. Inse is derived from earlier imse, a form that was possibly also used in Quenya (unless "imse" in Tolkien's manuscript is intended as an etymological form only, though it is not asterisked) (VT47:37)

inte *"themselves", 3rd person pl. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *i neri tirir inte, "the men watch themselves". Inte is derived from earlier imte(VT47:37) . Conceivably inte is only used for "themselves" with reference to persons; impersonal "themselves" ought to be *inta or *intai, compare ta #3, tai #2. A form *intai might however have evolved into *inte by the Third Age (like pl. adjectives in -ai later came to end in -e), thus converging with the “personal” form.% In an earlier source, Tolkien listed inte as an emphatic pronoun *“they”, 3rd person plural (VT49:48, 49) ; compare the pronominal ending -nte. The word inte (derived from inde via inze , an unusual development in Quenya) also appears as a candidate 2nd person singular polite form (VT49:49) .

intya- vb. "guess, suppose" (INK/INIK, VT49:33)

intye *"yourself, thyself", 2nd person intimate sg. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *tirit intye, "you watch yourself" (but apparently the general reflexive pronoun immo can also be used). Compare imle. (VT47:37)

intyale noun "imagination" (INK/INIK, VT49:33)

inwe *"ourselves", 1st person pl. reflexive pronoun, evidently the inclusive form, e.g. *tirilve inwe "we (incl.) watch ourselves". Compare imme. (VT47:37)

inwis noun “change of mind, mood”, bracketed inwissi is either plural, stem form of a variant (PE17:191) ; cf. inwisti.

inwisti noun "mind-mood" (changed by Tolkien from inwaldi) (MR:216, 471) . The word may seem to be plural in form, despite its singular gloss. Cf. variant inwis (which could be the singular, if it has the stem inwist-).

inya (1) adj. "female" (INI)

inya(2) adj. "small" (LT1:256; this "Qenya" word may be obsoleted by # 1 above)

inye emphatic independent 1st person sg. pronoun, " I" with emphasis, translated "I, too" in LR:61 (and, according to one reading of Tolkien's manuscript, in VT49:49).

[ Iolosse] place-name "Everlasting Snow" = Taniquetil (GEY, EY; changed to Oiolosse)

ion pl. relative pron. in genitive "from whom, *of whom", pl. (VT47:21) . See i #2 (relative pronoun).

- ion (patronymic ending) "son (of), descendant" (YŌ /YON, LT1:271, LT2:344) . Not to be confused with the genitive ending - on when added to words with nominative plurals in - i, e.g. elenion "of stars" vs. eleni "stars".

Ipsin noun “fine thread” (PE17:17)

[ íra adj. "eternal" (GEY, VT45:13; changed by Tolkien to oira , see OY) ]

íre (1) noun "desire". (ID) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , íre was also the name of a long carrier with an i -tehta above it, denoting long í. (VT45:17).

íre (2) conj. "when" (subordinate conjunction, not question-word: íre Anarinya queluva, "when my sun faileth") (FS) . Compare #2.

[ íre] (3) noun "eternal" (read "eternity", as suggested by Christopher Tolkien, but the word was in any case changed to oire)(GEY, VT45:13)

irície see #ric-

Irilde fem. name "Idhril" (Idril) (LT2:343) , #Írilde (J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 193), Írilde also as name of a Númenorean woman (UT:210) . Irilde Taltyelemna = (later) Sindarin Idril Celebrindal ;replaced Irilde Taltelepsa (KYELEP/TELEP; Taltelemna in the Etymologies as printed in LR is an error for Taltyelemna, VT45:25) . Tolkien seems to have replaced Irilde as the Quenya form of Idril with Itaril, Itarille, Itarilde, q.v., in which case the Sindarin form is definitely Idril and not Idhril .

írima adj. "lovely, beautiful, desirable" (ID, FS, PE17:155) , in FS also pl. írimar; in the "Qenya" of Fíriel's Song , adjectives in -a form their plurals in -ar instead of -e as in LotR-style Quenya.

irin noun "town" (LT2:343; hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Írisse fem. name (PM:345) , evidently connected to íre "desire".

irmin noun "the world, all the regions inhabited by Men" (LT2:343; hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Irmo masc. name "Desirer", name of a Vala; normally called Lórien, properly the place where he dwells (WJ:402)

is noun "light snow" (LT1:256)

- is ending for the plural form of an unidentified case, by some called "respective" or "short locative" (Plotz)

isca adj. "pale" (LT1:256)

Isil ( þ) place-name "Moon" (FS; SA:sil, Appendix E, SD:302, SIL; also defined as "the Sheen" under THIL) ; Isildur masc. name., *"Moon-servant" (SA:sil, Appendix A, NDŪ )

isilme ( þ) noun "moonlight", occurring in Markirya ; free translation "the moon" in MC:215 ( isilme ilcalasse, literally "moonlight gleaming-in" = "in the moon gleaming"). Isilme also appears as the name of a Númenorean woman (UT:210) .

Isilya( þ) noun , third day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Moon (Appendix D)

isima ( þ?) noun “imagination” (if a variant of síma, q.v.; the form isima as such is not clearly glossed) (VT49:16)

isinte pa.t. vb. "knew", irregular pa.t. of ista- (besides sinte) (VT48:25; in VT48:32 this is analyzed as being the same formation as oante)

isqua ("q") adj. "wise" (LT2:339) .

isse noun "knowledge, lore" (LT2:339; rather ista or istya in Tolkien's later Quenya)

-isse a feminine ending, as in Írisse (PM:345)

ista (1) noun "knowledge" (IS) . Also istya.

ista- (2) vb. "know", pa.t. sinte (IS, LT2:339, VT48:25) . This past tense Tolkien called "certainly irregular" (VT48:25, where an alternative pa.t. isinte is also mentioned, but sinte is said to be the older form; compare editorial notes in VT48:32 . Ista- is also used for "can" in the sense of "know how to", as in istan quete "I can speak (because I have learned (a) language)" (VT41:6) Passive participle sinwa “known, certain, ascertained” (VT49:68)

Istar noun "Wizard", used of Gandalf, Saruman, Radagast etc. Pl. Istari is attested. Gen. pl. in the phrase Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards" (UT:388)

istima adj . "having knowledge" (IS)

Istimor pl. noun *"Wise Ones" = "Gnomes" (Noldor) (IS) . Sg. #Istimo.

istya noun "knowledge" (IS) . Also ista (#1).

istyar noun "scholar, learned man" (IS) . According to VT45:18, Tolkien at one point also meant istyar to be the name of Tengwa #13 with overposed dots to indicate a palatal sound; the letter would thus have the value sty. However, according to the classical Tengwar spelling of Quenya as outlined in LotR Appendix E, such a letter would rather have the value *nty (since #13 is there assigned the value nt in Quenya).

iswa adj. "wise" (LT2:339)

-ite adjectival ending, often attached to nouns with the sense of “having X” or “having the quality of X” (VT49:42)

íta noun "a flash" (PM:363)

ita- 1) vb. "sparkle" (SA:ril, PM:363)

ita, íta adv. 2) “very, extremely” (PE17:112) . Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkien's efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the “same” version of Quenya.

ita 3) pron “that which” (VT49:12) , emended from tai (#1, q.v.) The form ita is compounded from the relative pronoun i + the pronoun ta “that, it”.

Itaril (*Itarill-), Itarille, Itarilde fem. name, Sindarized as Idril(PM:346, 348; SA:ril) . (In earlier sources, Tolkien used Irilde as the Quenya form of Idril , and the proper Noldorin/Sindarin form was then Idhril .)

itila adj. (or participle?) "twinkling, glinting" (PM:363)

-iva (-ive) plural possessive ending; seen in Eldaiva, Eldaive (WJ:369)

Íverind-, Íverindor place-name "Ireland" (LT2:344) The nominative of Íverind- must be *Íverin, the form Íverind- occurring before endings. Compare Íwerin below.

Íwerin place-name "Ireland" (also Íverindor, Íverind-, which forms are probably to be preferred in a LotR-compatible form of Quenya) (LT2:344)

ixal noun “a cast shadow” (PE17:184)

<K> (see C-)

kakainen, see caita-

kelvar (sg. #kelva) noun "animals, living things that move" (Silm)

kemen noun "earth"; see cemen.

Kementári noun "Earth-queen", title of Yavanna (SA:tar) . The Kemen- of this name was at one stage intended as the genitive of kén, kem- "earth", so that Kementári meant "Earth's Queen", but Tolkien later changed the Quenya genitive ending from -( e) n to -o. Apparently so as to maintain the name Kementári, he turned kemen into the nominative form; see cemen.

kwí, kwíta, particle indicating uncertainty (evidently like English "maybe, perhaps"). We would expect the spelling quí, quíta (VT42:34) . See (which form is perhaps to be preferred)

kyerme noun *"prayer", isolated from Erukyerme (UT:166)


-l or -lye (VT49:48, 51) , pronominal endings for 2nd person sg. polite/formal “you, thou”: caril or carilye *“you do” (VT49:16) , hamil “you judge” (VT42:33) , anel “you were” (see #1); see -lye for further examples. These endings may also be added to pronouns ( etel/ etelye or mil, milye; see et, mi). In one source, -l is rather used as a reduced affix denoting plural “you”; see heca! (WJ:364)

la negation "no, not" (see ); also prefix la- as in lacare, q.v. (VT45:25)

(1) adv . “no, not" (LA, VT45:25) According to VT42:33, is the stressed form, alternating with la when the negation is unstressed. – In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, had the opposite meaning "yes" (VT42:32-33) , but this idea is contradicted by both earlier and later material: usually is conceived as a negation. – The negation can receive tense markers and be used as a negative verb “when [another] verb is not expressed” (VT49:13) , apparently where the phrase “is not” is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood , as in English “I do not” (i.e. “I do not do whatever the context indicates”). With pronominal endings la- in the aorist, e.g. lanye “I do not, am not” (etc.) (Tolkien abandoned the form lamin.) Excemplified in the sentence melin sé apa lanye *“I love him but I do not [love] him” (another person) (VT49:15) . Present tense laia, past láne, perfect alaie, future lauva.

(2) prep. “athwart, over, across, beyond” (PE17:65) , also used in phrases of comparison, e.g. "A ná calima lá B", A is bright beyond (= brighter than) B (VT42:32) .

[ (3) interjection? "please" (reading of gloss uncertain)(VT45:25) ]

lacare noun "not-doing, inaction" (in general) (VT42:33)

lá ume > laume negation "no indeed not, on the contrary" ("also used for asking incredulous questions"). This is a combination of the negation "not" and the negative verb ume "is not, does not" (LA)

lahta- vb. “pass over, cross, surpass, excel” (PE17:92)

[ lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8) ]

laia, see #1

laica (1) adj. "green" (in older sources laiqua) (Letters:282, PE17:159) . Laicolasse ( laica + #olasse) “green-foliage” (PE17:46) , Quenya cognate of Sindarin Laegolas (dialectal form Legolas ); compare olassie. Adj. laicalasse “green as leaves”, literally “green-leaf” (PE17:56) .

laica (2) adj. "keen, sharp, acute, piercing" (LAIK, LT2:337 – in the Etymologies as printed in LR, the final vowel is misread as -e instead of -a, VT45:25) . Possibly obsoleted by #1 above. Compare aica #1.

laicolasse, see laica #1

laima noun “plant” (PE17:159) . Cf. olvar.

laime noun "shade" (DAY; in an earlier version the gloss was "shadow (cast by an object or form)"; see VT45:8-9. Perhaps Tolkien transferred this meaning to leo when giving laime the more general meaning "shade".)

laiqua ("q")adj. "green" (LÁYAK, LT1:267, MC:214) , "Qenya" pl. laiquali ("q")(MC:216) . Occurs in the phrase laiqua'ondoisen ("q") "green-rocks-upon" (MC:221; this is "Qenya"), Laiqualasse ("q") masc. name "Legolas" (Greenleaf) (LT1:267) . Used as noun in the phrase mi laiqua of somebody clad “in green” (PE17:71) . In later material, the word for "green" appears as laica, and the cognate of Legolas is said to be Laucolasse, q.v. (PE17:56)

laiquaninwa ("q")adj. *"green-blue"? (cf. ninwa) (Narqelion)

laiquasse ("q")noun "greenness" (LT1:267)

laique noun “herb” (“anything green, but especially as used for food”) (PE17:159)

Laiquendi noun "Green-elves", not much used (translated from Sindarin Laegil , Laegelrim ) (WJ:385, SA:quen-/quet-, LÁYAK; spelt "Laiqendi" in the latter source)

laira adj. "shady" (DAY)

laire (1) noun "summer" (Letters:283, VT45:26) , in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D) . Oiolaire "Eversummer", name of a tree (UT:167), see also Coron Oiolaire. Lairelosse noun *"Summer-snow", name of a tree (UT:167) , perhaps with white flowers.

laire (2) noun "poem" (GLIR)

laire (3) noun "meadow" (LT1:267, GL:39 – perhaps a doubtful word in LotR-style Quenya, since laire already has to carry two other meanings)

lairus ( lairust-) noun "verdigris" (VT41:10)

laisi, laito noun "youth, vigour, new life" (LT1:267; rather vie or nése, nesse in Tolkien's later Quenya)

laita- vb. "bless, praise": a laita, laita te! Andave laituvalmet! ... Cormacolindor, a laita tárienna "bless them, bless them! Long shall we bless them! ... [The] Ring-bearers, praise [them] to [the] height!" ( lait[ a] -uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them) (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308; the meaning of the suffix -lmewas revised from inclusive to exclusive “we”, VT49:55). Verbal noun laitale "praising", isolated from Erulaitale (UT:166, 436)

laive noun "ointment" (LIB2)

laiwa adj. "sick, sickly, ill" (SLIW, VT45:28) . Since Tolkien eventually decided that roots in sl - yield Quenya words in hl - (though this was pronounced l - in late Exilic Quenya), it may be that the spelling *hlaiwa is to be preferred.

lala-(1) vb. "laugh" (PM:359) , possibly with pa.t. *lande because of the apparent form of the stem.

lala- (2) vb. "to deny" (LA)

lala (3) negation "no indeed not, on the contrary" ("also used for asking incredulous questions") (LA)

lalantila ??? (Narqelion)

lalme noun "elm-tree" (ÁLAM) . Cf. alve in a post-LotR source.

Lalwende (also short Lalwen) noun "Laughing Maiden", fem. name (PM:343)

láma noun "ringing sound, echo" (LAM)

laman ( lamn- or simply laman-, as in pl. lamni or lamani) noun "animal" (usually applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds; a more general word may be #celva) (WJ:416)

lámáre noun “flock” (QL:50)

lámatyáve (pl. lámatyáver attested) noun "sound-taste" ( láma + tyáve), individual pleasure in the sounds and forms of words (MR:215, 471)

lamba (1) noun "tongue" (physical tongue, while lambe = "language") (WJ:394, LAB; according to VT45:25, Tolkien first wrote lambe, but as noted, this alternative form is rather used for "tongue" in the sense of "language")

lamba (2) noun ?"hammer" (possibly an alternative form of namba, q.v., but the source is obscure and namba is to be preferred) (VT45:37)

lambe noun "tongue, language" (the usual word for 'language' in non-technical use) (WJ:368, 394, ÑGAL/ÑGALAM) , "the language or dialect of a particular country or people...never used for 'language' in general, but only for particular forms of speech" (VT39:15) ; also name of tengwa #27 (Appendix E) . (In early "Qenya", lambe was defined as "tongue" of body, but also of land, or even = "speech" [LT2:339]. In LotR-style Quenya lambe only means "tongue = speech", whereas the word for a physical tongue is lamba.) Lambe Valarinwa "Valarin tongue" (WJ:397) , lambe Quendion "the language of the Elves" (PM:395) , Lambengolmor pl. noun "Loremasters of Tongues", a school founded by Feanor (WJ:396) ; sg. #Lambengolmo. Spelt Lambeñgolmor in VT48:6.

lambele noun "Language" (especially with reference to phonology), *"phonetics" (VT39:15)

#lambetengwe noun "consonant" (as a tengwe or phoneme), literally "tongue-signs". Only pl. lambetengwi ("ñ") is attested (VT39:16)

lambina adj. “of tongue, spoken with tongue” (PE17:46) . Cf. lambe.

lámina adj. "echoing" (LAM)

lamma noun "sound" (LAM)

lamya- vb. "to sound" (LAM, VT45:25)

lanat noun "weft" (LAN)

lanca noun "sharp edge (not of tools); sudden end" ("as e.g. a cliff-edge, or the clean edge of things made by hand or built, also used in transferred senses, as in kuivie-lankasse , literally 'on the brink of life', of a perilous situation in which one is likely to fall into death" - VT42:8)

lanco noun "throat, swallow" (LAK1 , LANK). Since this was changed by Tolkien from lango with stem *langu- and pl. langwi, it may be that lanco should similarly have the stem *lancu- and pl. *lanqui.

landa (1) noun "boundary" (VT42:8)

landa (2) adj. "wide" (LAD) . Maybe in landataváre = *"wide-wood"? (TI:415)

lane ( lani-) noun "hem" (VT42:8)

láne, see #1

langa- vb. “to cross, go over, pass over” (VT49:65)

lange adv. “surpassingly, superlatively, extremely” (PE17:92)

lango (1) noun "broad sword", also "prow of a ship" (LAG)

lango (2) noun “passage”, especially across or over an obstacle, also “neck” (PE17:92)

[ lango (3) noun "throat"] ( Tolkien also listed the plural form langwi; in the Etymologies as printed in LR, Christopher Tolkien improperly prefixed an asterisk as if it were an primitive or wrong form; see VT45:26. This indicates that lango has the stem-form *langu-. Compare ango "snake", stem #angu-, pl. angwi. But whatever the case, lango was changed to lanco.) (LANG, see LANK)

langon noun "throat" (MC:216; this is "Qenya", possibly an inflected form of lango #2 above – but Tolkien changed it to lanco)

langwi - see lango

lanna prep. “athwart” (PE17:65)

lanne noun "tissue, cloth" (LAN)

lanta (1) noun "a fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT) ) , also lante.

lanta- (2) "fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT), Narqelion, VT45:26, VT49:54) ; lantar aorist tense pl. ( Nam, RGEO:66 ); pl. pa.t. lantaner "fell" (pl.) (SD:246) ; lantier "they fell", a plural past tense of lanta- "fall" occurring in LR:47; read probably lantaner in LotR-style Quenya, as in SD:246. Also sg. lantie "fell" (LR:56); read likewise *lantane? (The forms in -ier, -ie seem to be properly perfects.) Future tense lantuva, VT49:47. Participle lantala "falling" (with locative ending: lantalasse) in Markirya.

lantalasselingea adj. “with a musical sound of falling leaves” (PE16:96)

lantalca noun "boundary post or mark" (VT42:8, 28)

lanta-mindon Qenya pl. noun "fallen-towers"; inflected compound lanta-ránar "in falling-moon" (with pre-classical locative -r) (MC:214; these forms are "Qenya")

#lante (1) noun "fall" in Noldolante, q.v. Also lanta.

lante (2) adj.? participle? "falling" (MC:214; this is "Qenya" - in Tolkien's later Quenya lantala)

lanu noun "lead" (LT1:268)

lanwa (1) adj. "within bounds, limited, finite, (well-)defined" (VT42:8)

lanwa (2) noun "loom" (LAN)

lanwe (stem *lanwi-, given primitive form ¤ danmi ) noun "ebb-tide" (VT48:32) . Compare nanwe.

lanya- (1) vb. "bound, enclose, separate from, mark the limit of" (VT42:8)

lanya- (2) vb. "weave" (LAN)

#lanya (3) noun “thread”, isolated from hísilanya “mist thread” (PE17:60)

lanye, see #1

lapatte noun "hare" (GL:52)

lappa noun "hem of robe" (GL:52)

lapsa- vb. "to lick" (frequentative) (LAB)

lapse noun "babe" (LAP)

[ laque[ t]-] ("q") vb. ?"deny" (VT45:25)

lár (1) noun "league", a linear measure, 5000 rangar (q.v.). A rangawas approximately 38 inches, so a lárwas "5277 yards, two feet and four inches [ca. 4826 m], supposing the equivalence to be exact" - close enough to our league of 5280 yards to justify this translation. The basic meaning of lár is "pause"; in marches a brief halt was made for each league. (UT:285)

lár (2) noun "ear" (?). Tolkien's wording is not clear, but ¤ lasū is given as an ancient dual form "(pair of) ears"; Quenya lár could represent the old singular las - (LAS 2 ) . In a post-LotR source, Tolkien derives hlas “ear” (dual hlaru) from a stem SLAS (PE17:62) . Initial hl - rather than l - reflects the revised form of the stem ( LAS becoming SLAS ), and in the later version of the phonology, postvocalic - s does not become -r when final. Compare the noun “dream”, given as olor in the Etymologies ( LOS ), but as olos pl. olori in a later source (UT:396)

lar (1) noun "fat, riches" (VT45:26; Hostetter and Wynne suggest that the second gloss should perhaps read "richness" rather than "riches")

[ lar (2) noun "(good) fortune, prosperity, Bliss" (VT45:26; the Qenya genitive form láren is also listed) ]

lára (1) adj. "flat" (DAL, VT45:25)

[ lára (2) noun "grave" (VT45:8) ]

[ lára (3) adj. "blessed", also lárea (VT45:26) ]

[ láre vb. "happen" (VT45:26; the word has an unusual shape for a verb, and was in any case deleted) ]

lárea (1) adj. "fat, rich" (VT45:26)

[ lárea (2), see lára #3]

larca adj. "swift, rapid" (LAK2)

#larma (1) noun “raiment”, attested in pl. form larmar (PE17:175)

larma (2) noun "[?pig-]fat, flesh" (VT45:25; the initial element of the gloss "pig-fat" is not certainly legible in Tolkien's manuscript)

[ larma (3) noun "lucky event"; some additional glosses in Tolkien's manuscript are tentatively read as "pleasure, mirth" by Hostetter and Wynne (VT45:26) ]

lasi or lasir, -sír adv. “on the contrary”, possibly an ephemeral form Tolkien replaced by úsie (VT49:17-18)

lasse noun "leaf"; pl. lassi is attested ( Nam , RGEO:66 , Letters:283, LAS1, LT1:254, VT39:9, Narqelion) ; gen. lasseo "of a leaf", gen. pl. lassion "of leaves" (earlier lassio) (WJ:407) . The word lasse was only applied to certain kinds of leaves, especially those of trees (PE17:62) , perhaps particularly ear-shaped leaves (cf. the entry LAS1 in the Etymologies , where Tolkien comments on the pointed or leaf-shaped Elvish ears and suggests an etymological connection between words for “ear” and “leaf”); see also linque#3. Compound lasselanta "leaf-fall", used (as was quelle) for the latter part of autumn and the beginning of winter (Appendix D, Letters:428) ; hence Lasselanta alternative name of October (PM:135) . Cf. also lassemista "leaf-grey, grey-leaved" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in Letters:224, PE17:62) , lassewinta a variant of lasselanta (PM:376) . Adj. laicalasse“green as leaves” (PE17:56) . See also lillassea, lantalasselingea.

lassecanta adj. "leaf-shaped" (KAT)

lasselanta noun "leaf-fall = Autumn" (DAT/DANT, LAS1, Narqelion , LT1:254; " lasse-lanta" in VT45:24, but again lasselanta in VT45:26)

lasta- vb. "listen", also lasta adj. "listening, hearing" (LAS2, PE17:56) ; cf. adj. asalaste (*aþa-) adj. “easily heard” (PE17:148)

Lastalaica noun "sharp-ears" (name) (LAS2) . Compare laica #2.

láta adj. "open" (VT39:23) , "open, not closed" (PE17:159, VT41:5)

látie noun "openness" (VT39:23)

latin, latina adj. "open, free, cleared (of land)" (LAT) . According to VT41:5, the adjective latina "is used rather of freedom of movement, of things not encumbered with obstacles"

latta (1) noun "hole, pit" (DAT/DANT, VT45:8)

latta (2) noun "strap" (LATH)

latucenda adj. "of tin" (LT1:268)

latya (1) noun "opening" (used as abstract in the source) (VT39:23) . See sanwe-latya.

latya- (2) vb. "to open anything (so as to allow entry)” (PE17:159) . Cf. the negated form avalatya *"un-open" = to "close"? (VT41:6) . See ava- #3.

lau negation "no indeed not, on the contrary" ("also used for asking incredulous questions") (LA)

lauca adj. "warm" (LAW)

laume < lá ume negation "no indeed not, on the contrary" ("also used for asking incredulous questions")This is a combination of the negation "not" and the negative verb ume "is not, does not" (LA)

laupe noun "shirt, tunic" (QL:51)

laure noun "gold", but of golden light and colour, not of the metal: “golden light” (according to PE17:61 a poetic word). Nai laure lantuva parmastanna lúmissen tengwiesto “may (a) golden light fall on your book at the times of your reading” (VT49:47) . In Etym defined as "light of the golden Tree Laurelin , gold", not properly used of the metal gold (LÁWAR/GLÁWAR, GLAW(-R), VT27:20, 27, PE17:159) . In early "Qenya", however, laure was defined as "(the mystic name of) gold" (LT1:255, 258) or simply "gold" (LT1:248, 268) . In Laurelin and Laurefindil, q.v., Laurenande "Gold-valley" = Lórien (the land, not the Vala) (UT:253) and laurinque name of a tree, possibly *"Gold-full one" (UT:168) . Laurendon “like gold” or “in gold fashion” (but after citing this form, Tolkien decided to abandon the similative ending -ndon, PE17:58).

laurea adj. "golden, like gold"; pl. laurieis attested ( Nam , RGEO:66)

Laurefindil masc. name , Quenya form of Glorfindel (PE17:17)

Laurelin ("g.sg. Laurelinden " or Laurelingen ; in LotR-style Quenya this is dat.sg.) Name of the Golden Tree of Valinor, interpreted both *"singing-gold" (stem Laurelind-) and "hanging-gold" (stem Laureling-) (LIN2, VT45:27, LÁWAR/GLÁWAR, [GLAW(-R)], SA, Letters:308)

Laurelindórinan noun "Valley of Singing Gold", an earlier name of Laurenande (Lórien) (UT:253) ; laurelindórenan lindelorendor malinornélion ornemalin *"Goldenlight-music-land-valley music-dream-land of yellow-trees tree-yellow", Quenya elements agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means something like "the valley where the trees in a golden light sing musically, a land of music and dreams; there are yellow trees there, it is a tree-yellow land" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in Letters:308). The last word ornemalin is defined in as “bearing yellow flowers” in PE17:80.

laurie noun “goldenness”, also used as adv. “goldenly” (PE17:74) ; the word laurie occurring in Namarie Tolkien variously interpreted either as this adverb or as the pl. form of laurea, q.v.

laurina adj. "golden" (LT1:258) . Compare laurea in later material.

Laurundo masc. name "Glorund" (> Glaurung). Also Undolaure. (LT2:341)

laustane adj.? participle? "roaring" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

laustaner vb. in past tense 'lausted' ("not 'roared' or 'rushed' but made a windy noise" – but in MC:220, Tolkien himself translated laustanéro as "rushed") (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

lauva, see #1

#lav- (1) vb. "lick", pa.t. #láve in unduláve, see undu (Nam) ; 1st person aorist lavin "I lick" in the Etymologies(LAB)

lav- (2) vb. "yield, allow, grant" (DAB)

lávar noun “(golden) blossom”. Also loa. (PE17:159)

lavaralda (changed by Tolkien from lavarin) noun some kind of tree ( alda) (LR:57) . The initial element lavar- seems to connect with the root LAWAR having to do with golden colour; cf. lávar“(golden) blossom” (PE17:159) .

[-lca (“k”) ?“your”, apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural possessive (VT49:49) . Cf. -cca.]

-lda (1) "your", 2nd person pl. possessive suffix (VT49:16) . Onnalda *“your child” (VT49:42) . In an earlier manuscript, this ending was used for singular “you” instead, attested in the phrase Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen vanimalda was however changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR, Tolkien reinterpreting the last word (see vanimalda). The ending for singular "your" appears as -lya elsewhere. (LotR1:II ch. 6)

[-lda] (2) in some versions of Quenya a comparative or augmentative suffix, later abandoned by Tolkien (PE17:55, 56) . See vanimalda.

-lde (1) pronominal suffix “you”, 2nd person pl. (VT49:51; carilde *“you do”, VT49:16). This ending Tolkien revised from -lle in earlier sources (VT49:48, cf. PE17:69) .

-lde (2) feminine agental suffix, Tolkien at one point commenting that Varda's title Tintalle “Kindler” should be Tintalde because the ending -lle was rather the suffix for plural “you” (PE17:69) ; since the pronominal suffix -lle was later revised to -lde, it is now the ending of Tintalde itself that would be problematic.

le, pronominal element "you", (originally) the "reverential 2nd person sing" (RGEO:73, VT49:56) . However, singular le was apparently altered to lye (q.v.), and le took on a plural significance ( le for pl. “you” is apparently derived from de , the ancient 2nd person pl. stem, VT49:50-51). Stressed (VT49:51) , dual let *“the two of you” (ibid.) . At certain points in Tolkien's conception, le was still sg. “thou” rather than pl. “you”. It is attested as an ending in the imperative form antale *"give thou" (VT43:17) ; see anta-. The form óle in VT43:29 apparently means *"with thee"; according to Tolkien's later system, it would rather mean “with you” (pl.) Compare aselye “with thee” (sg.) in a later source (see as).

(1) noun “way” = “method, manner” (“as in that is not A's way ”). Not to be confused with as a stressed form of le = plural “you”; Tolkien was himself dissatisfied with this clash (PE17:74) .

(2) prep . “with” (PE17:95)

- le ending forming nouns that "seem properly to have been universal and abstract" (VT39:16, in which source Tolkien is actually commenting on the prehistoric form -lē , but - le is its Quenya descendant)

lehta- (1) vb. "loose, slacken" (LEK)

lehta (2) adj. "free, released" (VT39:17) ; #lehta tengwe "free element, released element", a term for "vowel" (only pl. lehta tengwi [ñ] is attested; we would rather expect *lehte tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective) (VT39:17)

léline, pa.t. of lelya- #3

#lelta- vb. "send", attested in the past tense with pronominal suffixes: leltanelyes "you sent him" (VT47:21)

lelya- (1) vb. "go, proceed (in any direction), travel", pa.t. lende / elende (WJ:363, VT14:5, PE17:139) At one point Tolkien assigned a more specific meaning to the underlying root LED: “go away – from the speaker or the point in mind, depart” (PE17:52) , which would make lelya- a near synonym of auta-. The same source denies that the derivatives of LED were used simply for “go, move, travel”, but elsewhere Tolkien assignes precisely that meaning to lelya-.

lelya- (2) adj. “delicate, beautiful & fine, slender; lovely” (PE17:139, 151)

lelya- (3) vb. “appear, of beautiful things, henc attract, enchant (with dative)”, pa.t. léline (PE17:151)

lemba adj. "left behind" (LEB/LEM)

Lembi noun "Elves remaining behind" = Telerin Ilkorins (LEB/LEM, PE17:143) . Sg. #Lembe. Also called Úamanyar.

lemen, alternative cardinal "five" (VT48:6, 20); the word normally appears as lempe, but compare lemenya below.

lemenya archaic ordinal adj. "fifth", replaced by lempea (VT42:25)

lemnar noun "week" (of five days) (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK) . Compare enquie, otsola.

lempe cardinal "five" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK, GL:53, VT42:24, VT47:10, 24) ; lempea ordinal "fifth", an analogical formation replacing older lemenya, in turn altered from the historically "correct" form lepenya because of analogy with the cardinal lempe "five" (VT42:25; Vanyarin Quenya maintained lepenya, VT42:26)

lemya- vb. "remain, tarry" (VT45:27)

lenca (1) adj. "slow" (LT2:341, cf. VT49:11)

lenca- (2) vb. "loose, slacken" (LEK. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the misreading leuka [for lenka] appears; cf. VT45:27)

lenda (1) noun “journey” (PE17:60)

lenda- (2) vb. "linger" (VT45:27)

lende vb. "left, went" (pa.t. of lelya- "go") (FS, LR:47, SD:310, WJ:362) , or, according to the Etymologies , the pa.t. of lenna - "go" and lesta- "leave" (LED, ELED. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, lenna- was misread as " linna-"; see VT45:27)

lenéme prep. "with leave" (+ genitive: "with leave of") (SD:246)

lenga- vb. “behave” (called a “weak verb”) (PE17:74)

lenge noun “gesture, characteristic look, gesture or trait etc.” (PE17:74)

lenna- vb. "go", pa.t. lende "went" (LED; cf. lelya-). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the word lenna- wrongly appears as **linna-; see VT45:27.

lenu- vb. "stretch" (LT2:341)

[#lenta- vb. "send", attested in the past tense with pronominal suffixes: lentanelyes "you sent him". Changed by Tolkien to #lelta-, q.v. (VT47:22, 21) ]

lenwa adj. "long and thin, straight, narrow" (LT2:341)

Lenwe (1) noun the leader of the Nandor (Nandorin Denweg , primitive ¤ Denwego ) (WJ:412)

lenwe noun “leaving, departure” (PE17:51)

lenweta- vb. “go away, migrate, leave one's abode”, pa.t. lenwente (PE17:51)

lepenque cardinal "fifteen" (VT48:21)

lepetta noun , a hard-wood tree growing in Gondor (Ithilien), Sindarin lebethron (PE17:89)

lepenya, see lempe

lepesta fraction "one fifth" (1/5), also lepsat (VT48:11)

leo noun "shade, shadow cast by any object" (DAY)

lepecan noun "fourth finger" (counted from the thumb) (VT47:10, VT48:5) , also lepente

[ lepende] noun "middle finger", also lepenel (VT47:10, VT48:15; struck out)

lepenel noun "middle finger", also [ lepende] (VT47:10, VT48:5; lepende was struck out, VT48:15)

lepente noun "fourth finger" (counted from the thumb) (VT48:5, 14, 15) , also lepecan

leper (pl. leperi given) noun "finger" (VT44:16, VT47:10, 14, 24, VT48:5; an older source gives the word for "finger" as lepse, q.v.)

lepetas noun "first or index finger" (VT47:10, VT48:5, 14) . Stem lepetass- (pl. lepetassi, VT47:11) Also tassa.

lepinca noun "little finger" (VT47:10) ; variant lepince (VT47:26, VT48:5)

lepince noun "little finger" (VT47:26, VT48:5) ; variant lepinca (VT47:10) . According to VT48:15, 18, lepince is derived from older lepinki ; if so the Quenya form should have the stem lepinci-.

lepsat fraction "one fifth" (1/5), also lepesta (VT48:11)

lepse noun "finger" (LEP/LEPET; see leper ) . According to VT45:27, Tolkien derived lepse from primitive ¤ lepti ; if so, lepse should have the stem-form *lepsi-. However, Tolkien struck out the ancestral form lepti , so we cannot be sure whether this idea was maintained or not. In later sources, the word for "finger" appears as leper.

lepta- vb. "pick (up, out) with the fingers" (VT44:16,VT47:10) , "[to] finger, feel with fingertips" (VT47:25)

leptafinya (also just finya) adj. “clever(-fingered)” (PE17:17)

leptenta- vb. *”point to/indicate with the finger“ (gloss suggested by Patrick Wynne) (VT49:24) . Cf. tenta-, hententa-.

** lér noun "man" (NI 1 ; hypothetical Q form of PQ d ē r ; the form actually used in Quenya was nér )

léra adj. noun "free", of persons (VT41:5)

lerembas noun “lembas” (waybread of the Elves) (PE17:52) ; in a later source, the Quenya word for lembas is however given as coimas, q.v.

lerina adj. "free" of things: not guarded, reserved, made fast, or "owned" (VT41:5)

lerya- vb. "release, set free, let go"; negated avalerya- "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty" (VT41:5, 6)

lerta- vb. "can" in the sense "be free to do", being under no restraint (physical or other). Lertan quete "I can speak (because I am free to do so, there being no obstacle of promise, secrecy, or duty)". Where the absence of a physical restraint is considered, this verb can be used in much the same sense as pol- (VT41:6)

lesta- (1) vb. "leave", pa.t. lende (which is also the pa.t. of lelya-, q.v.) (ELED)

#lesta (2) noun “measure”, only attested in the instrumental case: lestanen"in measure" (FS) . The name Lestanóre (q.v.) may contain a distinct noun #lesta “fence”.

Lestanóre place-name "Doriath", gen. Lestanóreo (WJ:369) . If this name means the same as the Sindarin name Doriath, “Land of the Fence”, # lesta ought to mean “fence” here (but it is obviously not a cognate of the Sindarin term iâth “fence”).

leuca (1) noun "snake" (Appendix E)

** leuca (2) a misreading for lenca (q.v.) that appears in the Etymologies as printed in LR; cf. VT45:27.

lev- verb “move” (intransitive) (PE16:132)

- li partitive pl. ending (simply called a plural suffix in the Etymologies , stem LI ). The ending is used to indicate a plural that is neither generic (e.g. Eldar “the Elves” as a race) nor definite (preceded by article); hence Eldali is used for “some Elves” (a particular group of Elves, when they are first mentioned in a narrative, VT49:8). Sometimes Tolkien also lets - liimply a great number; in PE17:129, the form falmalinnarfrom Namárie is broken down as falma- li -nnar “foam wave-many-towards-pl. ending”, and falmali by itself Tolkien translated “many waves” (PE17:73) . A distinct accusative in - līseems to occur in the phrase an i falmalī(PE17:127, apparently meaning the same as i falmalinnar,but replacing the allative ending with a preposition). Genitive - lion in vanimálion, malinornélion (q.v. for reference), allative - linna and - linnar in falmalinnar, q.v. The endings for other cases are only known from the Plotz letter: possessive - líva, dative - lin, locative - lisse or - lissen, ablative - lillo or - lillon, instrumental - línen, "short locative" - lis. When the noun ends in a consonant, r and n is assimilated before l, e.g. Casalli as the partitive pl. of Casar “Dwarf” (WJ:402) , or elelli as the partitive pl. of elen “star” (PE17:127)

li-, lin- a multiplicative prefix (LT1:269)

lia noun "fine thread, spider filament" (SLIG).

lia- vb. "twine" (LT1:271)

liantasse noun "vine" (LT1:271)

liante (1) noun "spider" (SLIG) , perhaps obsoleting (2) liante "tendril" (LT1:271) and (3) “vine” (PE14:55)

líco noun "wax" ( Markirya comments, MC:223). The related noun lícuma "candle" suggests that líco has the stem-form lícu-.

lícuma noun "taper, candle"

lie noun "people" (LI, Narqelion, VT39:6) , in Eldalie, losselie, Ornelie(q.v.); possessive #liéva in Mindon Eldaliéva (q.v.); maybe also compounded in #rohtalie, #ruhtalie (q.v.)

lil adverbial particle "more" (PE14:80)

lillassea adj. "having many leaves", pl. lillassie in Markirya ( ve tauri lillassie, lit. *"like many-leaved forests", is translated "like leaves of forests" in MC:215). The lil- element is clearly an assimilated form of lin-, # 1, q.v.

-lillo or -lillon ending for partitive pl. ablative (Plotz) ; see – li

lilómea adj. “very dark, full of darkness” (PE17:81)

lilótea adj. "having many flowers" (VT42:18)

lilta- vb. "dance" (LILT, Narqelion)

limba noun "a drop" (LIB1)

limbe (1) adj. (stem limbi-, given primitive form ¤ lĭmbĭ ) “quick, swift” (PE17:18)

limbe (2) adj. "many", probably obsoleted by #1 above (LT2:342)

#lime (stem *limi-) noun "link", isolated from málime, q.v.

limil noun “chain” (QL:54)

limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping” (PE17:168)

limpe noun "(wine), drink of the Valar" (LIP) , cf. the early "Qenya" gloss"drink of the fairies" (LT1:258)

lin, lind- noun "a musical sound" (Letters:308) , "melody" (LT1:258) . Compare linde.

lin- (1) (prefix) "many" (LI) , seen in lindornea, lintyulussea; assimilated lil- in lillassea.

[ lin- (2) vb. "sing" (GLIN, struck out) ]

linda adj. "fair, beautiful" (of sound) (SLIN, LIND; VT45:27) , “soft, gentle, light” (PE16:96) , “beautiful, sweet, melodious of sound(PE17:150) ; for Linda as a noun, see Lindar.

lindale noun "music". Cf. Ainulindale "Music of the Ainur". (The word is cited as lindele in the printed Etymologies , entry LIN2 , but according to VT45:27, this is a misreading for lindale in Tolkien's manuscript.) The word lindale may argue the existence of a verbal stem #linda- "sing, make music".

Lindar noun "Singers" (sg. Linda), what the Teleri called themselves (WJ:380, MR:349, UT:253, 286) . It seems that Lindar is also interpreted "the Beautiful" (cf. the common adj. linda "fair, beautiful"), but this interpretation apparently belongs primarily to Tolkien's earlier conception, when Lindar was the name of the First Clan, the name of which he revised to Vanyar (similarly meaning "the Fair"). Adj. Lindarin = Telerin (but Tolkien of course held it to be = Vanyarin when the First Clan, the later Vanyar, were still called Lindar – before he decided to apply this name to the third clan, the Teleri) (TĀ /TA3)

linde noun "air, tune, singing, song" (SA:gond, (LIN2, [GLIN]) ; lindelorendor "music-dream-land"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4, cf. Letters:308)

linde- vb. ?"sing" (LT1:258; in LotR-style Quenya lir- or #linda-)

lindele noun "music" (LIN2, LT1:258 – lindale in Ainulindale) . According to VT45:27, lindele in the printed Etymologies (entry LIN2 ) is a misreading for lindale in Tolkien's manuscript.

lindelea adj. "melodious" (LT1:258)

Lindi pl. noun: what the Green-elves (Laiquendi, Nandor) called themselves; also used in Exilic Quenya (WJ:385)

Lindisse fem.name, perhaps lin- (root of words having to do with song/music) + ( n) disse "woman" (see nís). (UT:210)

lindo noun "singer, singing bird" (LIN2)

Lindon, Lindóne noun "Lindon", place-name (WJ:385)

lindórea ??? (Narqelion)

Lindórie fem. name, perhaps *"She that arises in beauty" (compare Melkor "He that arises in Might") (Silm) . Cf. linda.

lindornea adj. "having many oak-trees" (DÓRON, LI)

líne noun "cobweb" (SLIG) . Since Tolkien eventually decided that roots in sl - yield Quenya words in hl - (though this was pronounced l - in late Exilic Quenya), it may be that the spelling *hlíne is to be preferred.

-línen ending for partitive pl. instrumental (Plotz) ; see -li

linga- vb. "hang, dangle" (LING/GLING, VT45:15, 27)

linganer vb. in past tense? "hummed like a harp-string" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

linge noun “musical sound” (PE16:96)

lingwe (stem *lingwi-, given the primitive form ¤ liñwi ) noun "fish" (LIW)

lingwilóce noun "fish-dragon, sea-serpent" (LOK)

**linna, a misreading for lenna- (q.v.) that appears in the Etymologies as printed in LR. See VT45:27.

-linnar see -li

linque ("q") (1) adj. "wet" (LINKWI). In early "Qenya", this word was glossed "water" (LT1:262) , and "wet" was linqui or liquin, q.v.

linque (2) noun *"grass, reed" (J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 199, note 34)

linque (3) noun “hyacinth” (plant, not jewel) (PE17:62) . The wording in the source is not altogether clear; it is said that the word lasse (leaf) “would not e.g. be used of leaf of a hyacinth (linque )”. If linque is not the term for a hyacinth, it must refer to the kind of leaf a hyacinth has. Compare #2 above.

linqui ("q")adj. "wet" (MC:216; Tolkien's later Quenya has linque.)

#linta adj. "swift", only pl. linte attested (Nam, RGEO:66) Cf. lintie.

lintie noun “swiftness, speed” derived from linta; also used as adverb “quickly”, norne lintie “he ran with swiftness”, also more explicitly with pronominal suffixes and the instrumental ending -nen: lintieryanen“with his speed” (PE17:58)

lintitinwe adj. "having many stars" (LT1:269)

lintulinda, lintulindova *"many-???", *"swift-???" (Narqelion)

lintyulussea adj. "having many poplars" (LI)

linya noun "pool" (LIN1)

linyenwa adj. "old, having many years" (YEN)

-lion ending for partitive pl. genitive (Plotz) ; see -li

lipil noun "little glass" (LT1:258)

lipsa noun "soap" (LIB2)

lipte- vb. "to drip" (LT1:258; rather *lipta- in Tolkien's later Quenya?)

liquin ("q")adj. "wet" (LT1:262; Tolkien's later Quenya has linque.)

liquis ("q")noun "transparence" (LT1:262)

-lin ending for partitive pl. dative (Plotz) ; see -li

-linna or -linnar ending for partitive pl. allative (Plotz) ; see -li

lir- vb. "to chant" (1st pers. aorist lirin "I chant, I sing") (LIR 1 , GLIR)

lir' ??? (Narqelion)

líre noun "song", stem # líri- in the instrumental form lírinen "in [the] song" or *"by [the] song" (Nam, RGEO:67)

lirilla noun "lay, song" (LT1:258)

lirit noun "poem" (LT1:258)

lirulin noun "lark" (MR:238, 262) , changed from aimenel, aimenal

lís (“lîs”) noun “honey”, “oblique lī r- but usually from stem liss -“ (PE17:154) . Compare the reading in the Etymologies: lis ( liss-, e.g. dat.sg. lissen) (LIS; Tolkien originally wrote lisse , VT45:28)

lisce noun "reed, sedge" (LT2:335)

lisse adj. "sweet" ( Nam , RGEO:66) ; also noun "sweetness", used metaphorically for "grace" (VT43:29, VT44:18) ; in this sense the word may be compounded as #Erulisse, q.v. Genitive lisseo in VT44:18. - In the entry LIS in the Etymologies , Tolkien originally gave lisse as the noun "honey", but then changed it to lis with stem liss- (VT45:28)

-lisse or -lissen ending for partitive pl. locative (Plotz) ; see -li

litse noun "sand" (LIT)

-líva ending for partitive pl. possessive (Plotz) ; see -li

líve noun "sickness" (SLIW) . Since Tolkien eventually decided that roots in sl - yield Quenya words in hl - (though this was pronounced l - in late Exilic Quenya), it may be that the spelling *hlíve is to be preferred.

liyúme noun "host" (VT48:32)

-lle (1) “one of several suffixes indicating feminine agent”, as in Tintalle “kindler” vs. the verb tinta- “to kindle”. In the source (PE17:69) Tolkien noted that -lle was little used because of the clash with the pronominal ending -lle (see #2 below), but the latter ending was later revised.

-lle (2) abandoned pronominal ending “you”, 2nd person pl. (VT49:48) ; Tolkien later revised this ending to -lde.

-llo (1) “ablative adverbial suffix” (PE17:72) implying "from" or "out of", as in sindanóriello "out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East" (Nam) , Mardello *"from Earth" (FS) , ulcullo "from evil" (VT43:12) , sillumello "from this hour" (VT44:35) , yello *"from whom" (VT47:21) , Manwello *”from Manwe” (VT49:24) , Melcorello / Melkorello “from Melkor” (VT49:7, 24) . Pl. -llon (so in Plotz ) or -llor (in illon, elenillor, raxellor, elendellor, q.v.); dual -lto (Plotz) . A shorter form of the ablative ending, -lo, apparently occurs in the words silo “hence” and talo “from there”, q.v. In the Etymologies , Tolkien cited the Quenya ablative ending as -ello, evidently including the connecting vowel -e- that may be inserted when the ending is added to a word ending in a consonant (VT45:28) , compare Melcorello. See also , lo #2.

[-llo (2) “you”, dual; abandoned pronominal ending. Also written -illo. (VT49:49) ]

-lma pronominal ending “our”, 1st person pl. exclusive (VT49:16) , also attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting" (nominative omentielma, PE17:58). Tolkien emended omentielmo to omentielvo in the Second Edition of LotR, reflecting a revision of the Quenya pronominal system (cf. VT49:38, 49, Letters:447). The cluster -lm- in the endings for inclusive "we/our" was altered to -lv- (VT43:14). In the revised system, -lma should apparently signify exclusive "our".

- lme 1st person pl. pronominal ending: "we" (VT49:38; 51 carilme *”we do”, VT49:16). It was originally intended to be inclusive "we" (VT49:48) , including the person(s) spoken to, but by 1965 Tolkien made this the ending for exclusive "we" instead (cf. the changed definition of the corresponding possessive ending - lma, see above). (VT49:38) Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless them" ( lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (the meaning apparently changed from inclusive to exclusive “we”, VT49:55) , see also nalme under # 1. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308 )

- lmo “we (two)”, abandoned pronominal ending for the 1st person dual inclusive (later revised by Tolkien to - ngwe). This - lmo was listed as an alternative to - ngo (VT49:48) .

- lto ending for dual ablative (Plotz)

(1) noun "night, a night" (DO3/DŌ , VT45:28)

, lo(2) prep . “from”, also used = “by” introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Turin *“slain by Túrin” (VT49:24) . A similar and possibly identical form is mentioned in the Etymologies as being somehow related to the ablative ending - llo, but is not there clearly defined (VT45:28) . At one point, Tolkien suggested that lo rather than the ending - llo was used with proper names ( lo Manwe rather than Manwello for “from Manwe”), but this seems to have been a short-lived idea (VT49:24) .

loa, noun literally "growth", used of a solar year (= coranar) when seasonal changes are considered (Appendix D; in PM:126 loa is translated "time of growth". Pl. loar , or "loar", in MR:426) The form loa is also mentioned as the hypothetical Quenya cognate of Sindarin ("swampy"), but precisely because it clashed with loa "year", this Quenya cognate was not in use (VT42:10)

loar noun “(golden) blossom” (not to be confused with the pl. form of loa). Also lávar. (PE17:159)

loc- ("lok-") verb? noun? "bend, loop". (May be a primitive stem rather than Quenya.) (SA:lok)

lóce noun "dragon, snake, serpent, drake", older hlóce (SA:lok-, LT2:340, LOK; in the Etymologies the word is followed by "-ī ", whatever that is supposed to mean)

locta- vb. "sprout, put forth leaves or flowers" (LT1:258; this would have to become *lohta- in LotR-style Quenya, but later forms like losta- "to bloom" and tuia- "to sprout, spring" are to be preferred.)

locte noun "blossom (of flowers in bunches or clusters)" (LT1:258; would have to become *lohte in LotR-style Quenya)

loende noun *"year-middle", the middle (183rd) day of the year, inserted between the months of Nárie and Cermie (June and July) in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning (Appendix D)

*lohta- see locta-

*lohte see locte

loi- prefix denoting mistaken doing (PE17:151) , cf. loicare, loipare, loiquete

loica (“k”) adj. “failing, short, inadequate etc.” (PE17:151)

loicare (“k”)noun “mistaken action” (PE17:151)

loico noun "corpse, dead body" (so in Markirya ; Etym also has quelet of similar meaning)

loicolícuma noun "corpse-candle" ( Markirya )

[ Loicorin], possibly a synonym of Ilcorin, q.v. (VT45:29)

loima noun “a mistake” (PE17:151)

loipare noun “a mistake in writing” (PE17:151) . Cf. parma.

loiquete noun “a mistake in speech” (PE17:151)

loita- vb. “miss, fail, fall short of” (transitive). (PE17:151)

lom- vb. "hide" (LT1:255; given in the form lomir "I hide"; read * lomin if the word is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya.)

lomba adj. or noun "secret" (LT1:255)

lóme noun "dusk, twilight", also "night"; according to SD:415, the stem is lómi- (contrast the "Qenya" genitive lómen rather than ** lómin in VT45:28). According to PE17:152, lóme refers to `night' “when viewed favourably, as a rule, but it became the general rule” (cf. SD:414-415 regarding lō mi as an Adûnaic loan-word based on lóme , meaning “fair night, a night of stars” with “no connotations of gloom or fear”). In the battle-cry auta i lóme “the night is passing” ( Silm . ch. 20), the “night” would however seem to refer metaphorically to the reign of Morgoth. As for the gloss, cf. Lómion masc. name "Child of Twilight [dusk]", the Quenya name Aredhel secretly gave to Maeglin (SA). Otherwise lóme is usually defined as "night" (Letters:308, LR:41, SD:302 cf.414-15, SA:dú) ; the Etymologies defines lóme as "Night [as phenomenon], night-time, shades of night, Dark" (DO3/DŌ , LUM, DOMO, VT45:28) , or "night-light" (VT45:28, reading of lóme uncertain) . In early "Qenya" the gloss was "dusk, gloom, darkness" (LT1:255). Cf. lómelindepl. lómelindi "nightingale" (SA:dú, LR:41; SD:302, MR:172, DO3/DŌ , LIN 2 , TIN). Derived adjective # lómea "gloomy" in Lómeanor "Gloomyland"; see Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna...

# lómea adj. "gloomy"; see Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna...

lómear noun "child of gloom" (pl. evidently Lómearni) (LT1:255, 259)

lómi noun "clouds" (MC:214; this is "Qenya"; in LotR-style Quenya it would evidently be the pl. of lóme )

lómin noun "shade, shadow" (LT1:255)

lón, lóne (pl. lóni given) noun "deep pool", "river-[?feeding] well" (the second gloss was not certainly legible) . A rejected paragraph in Tolkien's manuscript defined the word as "deep pool or lake" (VT48:28, PE17:137)

lóna (1) noun "pool, mere" (VT42:10) . Variant of lón, lóne above?

lóna (2) noun "island, remote land difficult to reach" (LONO (AWA) ) . Obsoleted by #1 above?

[ lóna (3) unused adj. , a form Tolkien mentioned as the hypothetical Quenya cognate of Sindarin loen , Telerin logna adj. "soaking wet" (VT42:10) , but this cognate was not in use because it clashed with #1 above. At this point, Tolkien may seem to have forgotten lóna #2.]

? lóna (4) adj. "dark" (DO3/DŌ ) . If this is to be the cognate of "Noldorin"/Sindarin dûr , as the context seems to indicate, lóna is likely a misreading for * lóra in Tolkien's manuscript.

[ londa noun "path"], changed by Tolkien to londe noun "road (in sea)" (VT45:28)

londe noun "land-locked haven" (cf. #lóndie “harbourage”), “gulf” (TI:423) . In Alqualonde "Swan-haven" (SA) , "Haven of Swan" (VT45:28) , Hirilonde ship-name "Haven-finder" (UT:192) . In the Etymologies , londe is glossed "road (in sea), entrance to harbour" (LOD) and also "fairway" (VT45:28) , i.e. a navigable channel for ships. In VT42:10, where the stem is given as LON rather than LOD, the gloss is simply "haven".

#londie noun “harbourage” (PE17:28)

lor- "to slumber" (LT1:259; the corresponding abstract noun lóre "slumber" is attested in Tolkien's later Quenya, so this verb must still be valid) . Cf. also lor "dream" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word)

-lóra ending "-less, without", as in ómalóra "voiceless" (VT45:28)

#lóralya adj. "asleep" (VT14:5; this is "Qenya"; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather lorna)

lorda adj. "drowsy, slumbrous" (LT1:259)

lóre noun "slumber" (LOS) , “dream” (PE17:80)

Lórellin place-name, the lake where the Valie Este sleeps; apparently meaning *"Dream-lake" or *"Slumber-lake" (Silm)

Lórien (from lor-, q.v.), place-name also used as the name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells, whereas his real name is Irmo (WJ:402, LOS (ÓLOS, SPAN) ) . Alternative forms Lorien (with a short o) and Lorion, MR:144.

lorna adj. "asleep" (LOS)

lós ( þ?) noun “flower” (PE17:26) . If this is to be the cognate of Sindarin loth , as the source suggests, the older Quenya form would be *lóþ.

[ losca, loxa adj. “brown of hair” (PE17:155) ]

losse (1) noun "snow" or adj. "snow-white" (SA:los, MC:213, VT42:18) ; losselie noun "white people" (MC:216, PE16:96)

losse (2) noun "blossom" ("usually, owing to association with olosse snow, only used of white blossom") (LOT(H) )

lossea adj. "snow-white" (so in VT42:18; this would be an adjective derived from losse "snow", but elsewhere, Tolkien implies that losse itself can also be used as an adjective "snow-white"; see losse #1 above)

losselie noun "white people" (MC:216, PE16:96)

losta- vb. "to bloom" (VT42:18)

lóte noun "flower", mostly applied to larger single flowers (LOT(H), LT1:259, VT42:18) . (The shorter form -lot occurs in compounds, e.g. fúmellot, q.v.) In the names Ninquelóte *"White-flower" (= Nimloth), Vingilóte "Foam-flower", the name of Earendil's ship (SA:loth) , also in Lótesse fifth month of the year, "May" (Appendix D) . See also olóte, lotse.

lótefalmarínen inflected compound "with waves crowned with flowers" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

lotse noun "small single flower" (VT42:18)

[ loxa , losca adj. “brown of hair” (PE17:155) ]

loxe (1) ("ks")noun "hair" (LOK) . In later sources Tolkien uses finde, findesse, findile for "hair", leaving the conceptual status of loxe uncertain.

loxe (2) noun "bunch, cluster" (QL:55)

-lta (and -ltya), 3rd person pl. pronominal possessive suffix “their”, alternating with -nta/-ntya in Tolkien's writings (VT49:16, 17) , just as the ending -lte “they” also has the variant -nte. According to VT49:17, the ending -lta or -ltya will appear as -ilta, -iltya following a consonant; other sources rather point to -e- as the connecting vowel in such cases (VT49:17) .

-lte, 3rd person pl. pronominal suffix, “they” (VT49:51; carilte “they do”, VT49:16, 17). It alternates with -nte in Tolkien's manuscripts (VT49:17, 57) . In his early material, the ending also appears as -lto, occurring in Fíriel's Song ( meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come" (cf. VT49:57). Compare -lta, -ltya as the ending for “their”.

-lto, “Qenya” pronominal ending “they”; see -lte

noun "a time, occasion" (LU)

#lucando (also #lucindo) noun "debtor, one who trespasses" (VT43:20; the words are attested in the plural: lucandor, lucindor) .

#lucasse noun "debt, trespass" (VT43:19, attested in the pl. with a pronominal suffix: lucassemmar "our trespasses")

lúce noun "enchantment" (LUK)

#lucie noun "debt, trespass" (VT43:19, attested in the pl. with a pronominal suffix: luciemmar "our trespasses")

#lucindo, see #lucando

luhta- (1) vb. "to enchant" (LUK, VT45:29)

luhta- (2) vb. "to bow" (VT:35) ; this intransitive verb can be distinguished from luhta- "enchant" above, since #1 is transitive and will always have a direct object, something #2 never has.

[#luhta (3) noun "debt, trespass" (VT43:19, attested in the pl. form luhtar, but deleted by Tolkien) ]

luime noun "flood" (VT48:23, 30; the additional glosses "floodwater, flooded land" were struck out, VT48:30) , "flood, high tide" (VT48:24, 30) . According to VT48:30, partially illegible glosses in Tolkien's manuscript may also suggest that luime can be used for any tide, or for the spring tide (the maximum tide just after a new or full moon).

[ luina] adj. "pale" (VT45:30)

luine adj. "blue", pl. luini (VT48:23, 24, 28, Nam , RGEO:66) . Common Eldarin luini- would also be the stem-form in Quenya (VT48:24) . Compare *luinince. Apparently -luin in Illuin, the name of one of the Lamps of the Valar (q.v.), Helluin, name of the star Sirius, and Luinil, name of another blue-shining star (or planet). (SA; Luinil is tentatively identified with Neptune, MR:435) . Cf. also menelluin *"sky-blue", used as noun = "cornflower" ( J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 193).

*luinince ( luininci-) adj. "bluish". The form is given as " luininki " with the last vowel marked as short; this would be the etymological form underlying Quenya *luinince (VT48:18)

luita- vb. "to flood" (VT48:22) , "to flood, inundate, drench" (VT48:30; the latter glosses come from a note that was struck out)

lúle noun "sapphire" (QL:57)

lumba (1) adj. "weary" (VT45:29)

lumba (2) adj. “gloomy” (PE17:72)

Lumbar name of a star (or planet), tentatively identified with Saturn (MR:435) , evidently connected to lumbo, lumbule (Silm)

lumbe noun "gloom, shadow" (LUM)

lumbo noun "cloud" (pl. lumbor in Markirya ), also glossed “gloom; dark, shade” (PE17:72, 168) . In early "Qenya", lumbo was glossed "dark lowering cloud" (LT1:259)

lumbule noun "(heavy) shadow" ( Nam , RGEO:67, PE17:168)

lúme (1) noun "time" (LU, PE17:168) or "hour", locative lúmesse (VT43:34) , pl. locative lúmissen“at the times” (VT49:47) , allative lúmenna "upon the hour", elided lúmenn' in the greeting elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo "a star shines upon the hour of our meeting", because the next word begins with a similar vowel. The complete form lúmenna omentielvo is found in WJ:367 and Letters:424. Cf. also the compounds lumenyáre and lúmequenta, q.v.; see also #sillume.

lúme (2) noun "darkness" (one wonders if Tolkien confused lúme "time, hour" and lóme "night") ( Markirya)

lumenyáre noun "history, chronological account" (NAR2- read *lúmenyáre?) According to VT45:36, the manuscript spelling actually seems to be lumennyáre, but Hostetter and Wynne conclude that this is "probably a slip": The double nn would be difficult to justify.

lúmequenta ("q")noun "history, chronological account" (LU)

lúmequentale ("q")noun "history" (LU, KWET) . According to VT45:29, the accent marking the ú as a long vowel is actually missing in the entry LU in Tolkien's original Etymologies manuscript; yet it is apparently included both in the entry KWET and in the related words lúmequenta and lúmequentalea; its omission in the entry LU is therefore probably just a slip.

lúmequentalea ("q") adj. "historical" (LU)

lumna adj. "lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous" (DUB) .

lumna- stative vb ."be heavy" (LR:47, SD:310; cf. lumna - "to lie heavy" in the Etymologies , stem DUB-) . A form lúve was mentioned in connection with this verb, possibly a strong past tense form directly derived from the root DUB - (primitive * dū bē ), but Tolkien struck it out (VT45:11) .

lún adj.??? a word of obscure meaning, perhaps "deep" as used of water (VT48:28)

lúna adj. *“dark” in Lúnaturco and Taras Lúna, Quenya names of Barad-dûr (Dark Tower). (PE17:22) . In the Etymologies , lúne “blue” was changed by Tolkien from lúna (VT45:29) .

[ lúna] (2), see lúne

lunca noun "wain" (VT43:19) , “heavy transport wain” (PE17:28) . #Ondolunca”stone-wain”, see under ondo.

lúne (stem *lúni-, given the primitive form ¤ lugni ) adj. "blue" (LUG2, LT1:262; later sources rather give luine, with pl. form luini in Namárie ) . According to VT45:29, lúne in the Etymologies was changed by Tolkien from lúna.

lúnelinque ("q") adj. *"blue-wet" (?), translated "surging" (MC:213, 220; this is "Qenya")

lunga adj. "heavy" (LUG1) . Curiously, the variant lungu- appears in certain compounds; see Lungumá, lungumaite.

lunganar adj. "sagged" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

lungane adj. "bending" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

Lungumá, Lungumaqua masc. name "Heavyhand", equivalent of Sindarin Mablung(VT47:19)

lungumaite adj. "heavyhanded" (VT47:19, VT49:32)

Lúnoronti noun "Blue Mountains" (LUG2)

lunte noun "boat" (LUT, MC:216) , "ship" (LT1:249, LT1:255)

lúre noun "dark weather" (LT1:259)

lúrea adj. "dark, overcast" (LT1:259)

lúsina adj. “glowing” (of things), “hearty” (of people) (QL:57) . If this word is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, one would have to assume that it represents older *lúþina and is derived from a root * LUTH .

lussa- vb. "to whisper" (SLUS/SRUS) . Since Tolkien eventually decided that roots in sl - yield Quenya words in hl - (though this was pronounced l - in late Exilic Quenya), it may be that the spelling *hlussa- is to be preferred.

lusse noun "a whispering sound" (SLUS/SRUS) . Since Tolkien eventually decided that roots in sl - yield Quenya words in hl - (though this was pronounced l - in late Exilic Quenya), it may be that the spelling *hlusse is to be preferred.

lusta adj. "void, empty" (LUS)

lúte noun "sail" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

lútier vb. in pa.t.? "sailed" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

lúto noun "flood" (LT1:249)

lutta- vb. "flow, float" (LT1:249)

lutu- vb. "flow, float" (LT1:249)

lúva noun "bow, bight; bend, bow, curve" (Appendix E, PE17:122, 168) . The reference is to a "bow" as part of written characters and other uses, but “not for shooting” (a bow used to shoot arrows is called quinga, possibly also if the latter term is used as in Sindarin).

[ lúve, see lumna-]

luvu- vb. "lower, brood" (LT1:259)

luxo ( luxu-) noun “mud” (QL:56)

-lv- element in pronominal endings for inclusive plural "we/our" (VT43:14) . Iincludes the old 1st pl. inclusive stem we (VT48:10). Omentielvo "of our meeting" (q.v.) includes the ending #-lva "our" with the genitive ending -o attached. The corresponding ending for inclusive "we" is perhaps normally -lve in late exilic Quenya; the variant form -lwe occurs in the verbs carilwe “we do” (VT49:16) , navilwe "we judge" (VT42:34) ; according to VT48:11 this may simply be the older (pre-Exilic) form of *-lve (VT49:51 lists the ending for “we” as “- lwe , - lve ”, apparently the older and the younger form).

-lwa, possessive pronominal ending, 1st person pl. inclusive “our” (VT49:16) , later (in exilic Quenya) used in the form #-lva, genitive -lvo in omentielvo (see -lv-).

-lwe, later -lve, pronominal ending “we” (VT49:51) , 1st person pl. inclusive ending, occurring in the verbs carilwe “we do” (VT49:16) and navilwe (see #nav-). The ending became -lve in later, Exilic Quenya (VT49:51). See -lv-.

lyá ??? ( Narqelion )

-lya 2nd person sg. formal/polite pronominal suffix "thy, your" (VT49:16, 38, 48) . In tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51) , caritalya(s) "your doing (it)" (VT41:17) , esselya "thy name" (VT43:14) , onnalya “your child” (VT49:41, 42) , parma-restalyanna *“upon your book-fair” (VT49:38) , and, in Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer, in the various translations of "thy kingdom": aranielya in the final version, earlier turinastalya, túrinastalya, turindielya, túrindielya (VT43:15) . Also in indómelya(changed from mendelya) "thy will" (VT43:15-16)

lye pron. “thou/thee, you”, 2nd person sg. formal/polite (corresponding to familiar/intimate tye, q.v.) (VT49:36) It seems the original stem-form was le (VT49:50) , distinct from de as a plural “you”, but when initial d became l and the forms threatened to fall together, le was apparently altered to lye by analogy with the ending -lye and the emphatic pronoun elye. Stressed lyé (VT49:51) . For lyeas object, cf. nai Eru lye mánata“God bless you” (VT49:39) . Allative lyenna *”to you, upon you” (VT49:40-41) . Compare the reflexive pronoun imle *"yourself, thyself", q.v. (it did not have to be *imlye, for the corresponding pl. pronoun inde “yourselves” is distinct anyhow).

-lye pronominal ending “thou, you” (VT49:48) , 2nd person sg. formal/polite: hiruvalye "thou shalt find" ( Nam , RGEO:67) , carilye *“you do” (VT49:16) . Long form of -l, q.v. The ending also occurs in alye, the imperative particle a with a pronominal suffix (VT43:17) ; see a #3. The intimate/familiar ending corresponding to polite/formal -lye is -tye, q.v


ma, (1) neuter personal pronoun "something, a thing" (VT42:34) . It may occur (with the meaning “thing”) in the ejaculation yé mána (ma) = “what a blessing” or “what a good thing!”“ (VT49:41) (2) Ma has also been theorized to be a particle used to turn declarative statements into yes/no questions.

noun "hand" (MA3, LT2:339, Narqelion, VT39:10, [VT45:30], VT47:6, 18, 19) ; the dual "a pair of hands" is attested both by itself as mát (VT47:6) and with a pronominal suffix as máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) ( Nam , RGEO:67) . The nominative plural form was only máli, not **már (VT47:6) , though plurals in -r may occur in some of the cases, as indicated by the pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS) . Mánta“their hand”, dual mántat “their hands” (two hands each) (PE17:161) . Cf. also the compounds mátengwie "language of the hands" (VT47:9) and Lungumá "Heavyhand" (VT47:19) ; also compare the adj. -maite "-handed". See also málime.

#mac- vb. "hew with a sword" (VT39:11, where the aorist mace is given) ; cf. early "Qenya" mac- "slay" (LT1:259)

maca- vb. "to forge metal" (which rang at the stokes of hammers). (VT41:10; in this source this is suggested as the origin of the word macil "sword", but mac- above would also seem to be relevant, so Tolkien may have changed his mind about the precise etymology of macil.)

máca pron. "each, every" (GL:41) ; rather ilya in Tolkien's later Quenya

Macalaure , masc. name, the mother-name (never used in narrative) of Canafinwe = Maglor (PM:353, MAK) ; his Sindarin name is seen to be based on his mother-name. In the Etymologies , Macalaure is interpreted "Gold-cleaver" (MAK)

macar (1) noun "swordsman" (VT39:11) . In Menelmacar (see menel). According to VT41:10, macar is literally "forger" (derived from maca-, q.v.), "often used in later use of a warrior".

macar (2) noun "tradesman" (MBAKH)

macil noun "sword" (MAK, LT1:259, VT39:11, VT45:32, VT49:17) ; macilya “his (or their) sword” (PE17:130) , see -ya #4.

mahalma noun "throne", nominative pl. mahalmar "thrones" and locative pl. mahalmassen in CO . Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399)

Máhan (pl. Máhani attested in WJ:402), noun : one of the eight chiefs of the Valar (adopted and adapted from Valarin, but usually translated as Aratar). Máhanaxar the "Doom Ring" of Aman; adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)

mahta- (1) vb. "wield a weapon”, “fight" (MAK) , "to handle, wield, manage" (VT39:11, VT47:18) , also "deal with" (VT47:6, 19, VT49:10) . Past tense mahtane is attested (VT49:10) . In an earlier version of the entry MAK in the Etymologies , Tolkien first glossed mahta- as "slay [or kill] with sword", then changed it to "fight with sword" (VT45:30-32)

[ mahta-] (2) vb. "trade", changed by Tolkien to manca-, q.v. (VT45:33)

mahtar noun "warrior" (MAK; original gloss "swordsman", VT45:32)

mai (1) adv. "well" (VT47:6) , apparently also used as prefix (PE17:17:162, 163, 172)

mai (2) conj. "if" (PE14:59 cf. VT49:20; possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for “if”, Tolkien later used qui)

Maia pl. Maiar noun "the Beautiful" (MR:49) , the lesser (= non-Vala) Ainur that entered Ea. Variant Máya in VT42:13/VT47:18, pl. Máyar in PM:363, 364 and VT47:18 (possibly, Máya is to be understood as the older form of Maia). With negative prefix ú- also Úmaiar, Maiar who became evil and followed Melkor, such as Balrogs (MR:79, " Umaiar", MR:165).

maica (1) adj. "sharp, piercing" (SA:maeg) , cf. hendumaica and the noun maica below.

maica (2) noun "blade of a cutting tool or weapon, especially sword-blade" (VT39:11)

maile noun "lust" (MIL-IK)

mailea adj. "lustful" (MIL-IK)

maira adj. “admirable, excellent, precious”; “splendid, sublime” (“only of great, august or splendid things”) (PE17:163, 172) . Cf. Mairon.

Mairen fem. name(UT:210) , initial element perhaps related or identical to mai "well". The second element is obscure; the root REN "recall, have in mind" (PM:372) could be related; if so the name may imply "well remembered", "(of) good memory" or something similar. It may also connect with the adj. maira, q.v. and compare the masc. name Mairon (PE18:163) .

mairo noun "horse" (GL:56; later sources have rocco, olombo)

Mairon, masc. name “the Admirable” (cf. adj. maira), said to be the original name of Sauron, changed when he was suborned by Melkor, “but he continued to call himself Mairon the Admirable, or Tar-mairon `King Excellent', until after the downfall of Númenor(PE17:183) . Since Sauron had joined Melkor before the Elves came to Valinor and developed the Quenya language, we are perhaps to understand that Mairon is a translation by sense of Sauron's original Valarin name, though Sauron himself may seem to have used the Elvish form in Middle-earth and on Númenor.

maita adj. "hungry" (VT39:11)

maite (stem *maiti-, given the primitive form ¤ ma3iti ) adj. "handed” or “handy, skilful” (VT49:32, 42) in Angamaite, hyarmaite, lungumaite, morimaite, Telemmaite, q.v. Etym gives maite pl. maisi "handy, skilled" (MA3) , but Tolkien later eliminated the variation t/ s (compare ataformaite “ambidextrous”, pl. ataformaiti).

Maitimo noun "well-shaped one", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Nelyafinwe = Maedhros (PM:353)

maivoine noun "great longing" (LT2:345)

maiwe noun "gull" (MIW) , pl. maiwi in Markirya. Cf. also the "Qenya" pl. maiwin"gulls" (MC:213)

mal conj. "but" (VT43:23)

mala- vb. "hurt, pain" (QL:63)

Malantur, masc. name. Apparently includes -( n) tur "lord, ruler". The initial element is unlikely to connect with the early "Qenya" element mala- "hurt, pain", and may rather reflect the root MALAT "gold" (PM:366): Malat-ntur > Malantur "Gold-ruler"? (UT:210)

malarauco noun "balrog, demon" (RUK - rather valarauco in Tolkien's later Quenya)

malcane noun "torture" (LT1:250)

Malcarauce noun "balrog", also Valkarauce (LT1:250; in Tolkien's later Quenya Valarauco)

malda adj. “yellow, of golden colour” (PE17:51) , variant of malina. An earlier source (the Etymologies , entry SMAL ) has malda as the noun “gold” – but LotR gives malta, q.v., and according to VT46:14 the form malta originally appeared in the Etymologies as well. Since Quenya sometimes uses adjectives as nouns (see for instance fanya), malda could still be regarded as a valid side-form of the noun malta “gold”.

maldorne noun (fictional species of tree, Sindarin mallorn ). Variant of malinorne (apparently arising by shortening to * malnorne and the normal development ln > ld , unless the shorter adjective malda is present from the beginning). (PE17:51)

málime (stem * málimi-, given primitive form¤ mā- limi ) noun "wrist", literally "hand-link" ( + # lime). (VT47:6)

malina adj. "yellow" (SMAL, Letters:308) , “yellow, of golden colour” (PE17:51) . Malinalda *"Yellow-tree", a name of Laurelin (SA:mal- ; evidently malina + alda), translated "Tree of Gold" in the Silmarillion index. Cf. also malinorne.

malinai ??? (Narqelion)

malinorne noun “yellow-tree” ( malina + orne), fictional species of tree (Sindarin mallorn ; in Quenya also called maldorne) (PE17:50) . Cf. malinornélion"of yellow-trees"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308) . Malinornélion is partitive pl. genitive of malinorne(UT:167, normal pl. malinorni, UT:168).

malle pl. maller noun "street, road" (MBAL, LR:47, 56, LT1:263, SD:310)

málo noun "friend" (MEL, VT49:22)

malo(1) (stem *malu-, given the primitive form ¤ smalu ) noun "pollen, yellow powder" (SMAL)

malo (2) (*malu-, pl. malwi) noun “moth” (QL:58)

málos noun "forest" (LT2:342 – rather taure in Tolkien's later Quenya)

malta noun "gold", also name of tengwa #18 (Appendix E) . The Etymologies (entry SMAL ) instead has malda, q.v. for discussion, but according to VT46:14, the form malta originally appeared in the Etymologies as well. Also compare the root MALAT listed in PM:366.

malwa adj. "fallow, pale" (SMAL)

máma noun "sheep" (WJ:395)

mámandil noun *"sheep-friend" ( máma + -ndil), i.e. "shepherd"? (UT:209)

mamil noun *"mother, mummy" (UT:191)

man pron. "who" ( Nam , RGEO:67 , FS, LR:59, Markirya, MC:213, 214) ; cf. PM:357 note 18, where a reference is made to the Eldarin interrogative element ma , man ). However, man is translated "what" in LR:59: man-ie? "what is it?" (LR:59; the stative-verb suffix -ie is hardly valid in LotR-style Quenya) Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers both "who" and "what". Cf. also mana, manen.

mána 1) adj. "blessed" (FS) ; also manna, q.v. 2) noun “any good thing or fortunate thing; a boon or `blessing', a grace , being esp. used of some thing/person/event that helps or amends an evil or difficulty. (Cf. frequent ejaculation on receiving aid in trouble: yé mána (ma) = `what a blessing, what a good thing!)“ (VT49:41)

mana interogative , a word translated "what is" in the sentence mana i-coimas Eldaron[?] "what is the coimas (lembas) of the Eldar?" (PM:395, a variant reading in PM:403) Either this is *ma "what" + "is", or mana may itself be a unitary word "what", and there is not really any word meaning "is" in the sentence. Since ma is assigned other meanings elsewhere, the latter interpretation may be the more likely.

manaite adj. “blessed” (VT49:41, 42)

manaquenta adj. "blessed" (VT44:10; see manque, manquenta)

manar noun "doom, final end, fate, fortune" (usually = final bliss) (MANAD (under MAN), VT45:32)

mátata, see *manta

manca- vb. "trade" (MBAKH, VT45:33)

mancale noun "commerce" (MBAKH; this form apparently replaced mahtale, cf. mahta- #2 [VT45:33])

mande(1) noun "doom, final end, fate, fortune" (usually = final bliss) (MANAD, under MAN)

mande (2) adv. “well” (VT49:26; this is “Qenya”) . Rather mai in Tolkien's later Quenya.

mando noun "custody, safe keeping" (MR:350) or "prison, duress" (in Mandos , see below) (SA:band) ; Mando "the Imprisoner or Binder", usually lenghtened Mandos. In a deleted version of the entry MBAD of the Etymologies , Tolkien gave mando the meaning "doomsman, judge" instead of "custody" (MBAD (ÑGUR, GOS/GOTH, SPAN), VT45:33)

Mandos ( Mandost-) noun "Castle of Custody" (the approximate meaning, according to MR:350). Used as the name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells (the Halls of Mandos ), whereas his real name is Námo (WJ:402). In Tolkien's mythology, the “Halls of Mandos” are the abode of the dead, where their spirits remain until they are released from this world (in the case of mortals) or rebodied (in the case of Elves – except for those who are refused or themselves refuse further incarnate life, and so remain in Mandos indefinitely). In the Etymologies , Mandos (also Mandosse) is interpreted somewhat differently, "Dread Imprisoner" (MBAD (MANAD),VT45:32) or in a deleted version "Dread Doom" (VT45:33, where Mandoswas asigned the stem Mandosse-) . The interpretation “Dread Imprisoner” would suggest that Tolkien at the time thought of Mandos as being also properly the name of a person, the Vala Námo, not the name of a place. – See also Mando.

mandu noun "abyss" (MC:214; this is "Qenya" - Tolkien's later Quenya has undume)

mandulómi noun "hell-shadows" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

máne noun "a spirit that has gone to the Valar or to Erumáni" (LT1:260)

mane adj. "good (moral)" (sc. *"good in a moral sense") (LT1:260, VT49:26)

manen interogative "how" (PM:395)

manna adj. "blessed" (also mána, q.v.) (VT43:30, VT45:32, VT49:41)

mannar inflected noun "into (the) hands", allative pl. of , q.v. (FS)

*manta- vb. “bless”, only attested in the present/continuative tense: mánata (VT49:39, 52, 55)

mante pa.t. of mat-, mata-, q.v.

manque, manquenta adj. "blessed" (VT44:10-11; it cannot be ruled out that manque – spelt manque in the source – is simply an uncompleted form of manquenta. Whatever the case, Tolkien decided to use the form manaquenta instead, q.v.)

manu noun "departed spirit" (MAN)

manwa- (1) vb. "prepare" (QL:59)

manwa (2) adj. "ready" (QL:59)

Manwe noun "Blessed Being" (Letters:283) , the Elder King and Lord of the Valar, spouse of Varda. The name is adopted and adapted from Valarin Mā nawenū z ; names ending in - we were already frequent in Quenya (WJ:399). In the Etymologies derived from MAN , WEG .Cf. Mánwen, Mánwe the oldest Quenya forms of Manwe, closer to the Valarin form (WJ:399) . Lower-case manwe in LR:56. Ablative Manwello, VT49:24 (in this source Tolkien indicated that lo Manwe is the preferred way of saying “from Manwe”, but this was apparently a short-lived idea; see lo). Masc. name Manwendil "Manwe-friend; one devoted to Manwe" (UT:210) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , Manwe was also the name of letter #22 (VT45:32), which tengwa Tolkien would later call vala instead – changing its Quenya value from m to v.

manya- vb. “bless” – “sc. either to afford grace or help or to wish it” (VT49:41)

[ manyel noun “female” (PE17:190) ]

mapa- vb. "grasp, seize" (MAP; according to LT2:339 this word was struck out in the "Gnomish Lexicon" [where it was quoted as the cognate of certain Gnomish words], but it reappears in the Etymologies.) Earlier material gives map- “take” (PE16:133) or map- "seize, take" with pa.t. nampe (QL:59) ; it is unclear if the pa.t. of map( a)- is still nampe in LotR-style Quenya.

mapta- vb. "ravish, rape", pa.t. mapante (PE13:163)

maptale noun "ravishment, rape, seizure" (PE13:163)

maqua noun "a hand-full; complete hand with all five fingers; a closing of closed [hand] (facing down) for taking; group of five (similar) things"; in colloquial usage also "hand" as a limb (VT47:7, 18-20) ; dual maquat "group of ten" (VT47:7, 10) . Compounded maquanotie = "decimal system" in counting (VT47:10) , Lungumaqua "Heavyhand" (VT47:19)

#maquet- vb. *"ask", only attested in the past tense: maquente (PM:403)

mar (1) noun "earth" (world), also "home, dwelling, mansion". Stem mard- (VT46:13, PE17:64) , also seen in the ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS) ; the word is used with a more limited sense in oromardi “high halls” (sg. oromar, PM17:64), referring to the dwellings of Manwe and Varda on Mt. Taniquetil (Nam, RGEO:66) . The initial element of Mardorunando (q.v.) may be the genitive mardo (distinguish mardo "dweller"). May be more or less identical to már "home, house, dwelling" (of persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil ) (SA:bar, VT45:33, VT47:6) . Már is however unlikely to have the stem-form mard-; a "Qenya" genitive maren appears in the phrase hon-maren, q.v., suggesting that its stem is mar-. A possible convention could therefore be to use már ( mar-) for "home, house" (also when = household , family as in Mardil, q.v.), whereas mar ( mard-) is used for for "earth, world". Early "Qenya" has mar ( mas-) "dwelling of men, the Earth, -land" (LT1:251) ; notice that in LotR-style Quenya, a word in -r cannot have a stem-form in -s-.

már ( mar-) (2) noun "home, house, dwelling" (also "house" in the sense of family as in Mardil, q.v.). See mar above for references. In Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil, and as final element in Eldamar, Fanyamar, Valimar, Vinyamar..

mar- vb. "abide, be settled or fixed" (UT:317); maruvan "I will abide" ( mar-uva-n "abide-will-I") ( EO ). Cf. termar-.

Mar-nu-Falmar noun "Home under Waves", name of the sunken Númenor (Silm) . See mar, már.

mára adj. "useful, fit, good" (of things) (MAG; see MA3; Arct, VT42:34, VT45:30) . Nás mara nin “I like it”, literally *“it is good to me” (VT49:30; read mára for mara?) As the comparative of mára, the unrelated adjective arya “excelling” is used in the sense of *“better”; for the superlative *“best”, one adds the article: i arya (with genitive to express “the best of…”) (PE17:57) ,

maranwe noun "destiny" (MBARAT)

marda noun “dwelling” (PE17:107)

Mardil masc. name, "(one) devoted to the house", sc. the "house" of the kings (Appendix A; interpreted in Letters:386) . This indicates that the first element can mean "house" in the sense of family or household (see mar, már)

mardo noun "dweller" (LT1:251) .

Mardorunando noun "Redeemer of the world" (VT44:17) . Unless the initial element mardo- is a distinct and otherwise unattested word for "world", it may be the genitive form of mar ( mard-) "earth", q.v.

María fem. name "Mary" (Maria; Tolkien based the Quenyarized form on the Latin pronunciation) (VT43:28; Maria with no explicit long vowel in VT44:18)

márie (1) “goodness”, “good” as noun (abstract formation from the adj. mára). (PE17:58, 89) . Genitive máriéno, dative máriena, locative máriesse (PE17:59, occurring in the greeting ( hara) máriesse “(stay) in happiness”, PE17:162) Allative márienna *”to goodness”, used as an interjection “farewell” (archaic namárie, q.v.),

márie(2) stative verb "it is good" ( FS; from mára "good"; however, the stative-verb suffix -ie is hardly valid in LotR-style Quenya)

maril noun "glass, crystal" (VT46:13; if this is to be the same word as the second element of Silmaril, the stem-form would be marill-, cf. pl. Silmarilli)

marilla noun "pearl" (LT1:265)

mart noun "a piece of luck" (LT2:348; in LotR-style Quenya, no word can end in -rt. Read marto, as in LT2:348?)

marta- (1) vb. "to chance" or *"happen" (QL:63) , cf. mart- "it happens" (impersonal) (LT2:348 – read marta-? ). Another version assigns transitive meanings to the same verb: “to define, decree, destine” (with the last sense = martya-, q.v.), with a variant umbarta- “in more lofty senses” (PE17:104)

marta (2) adj . "fey, fated" (MBARAT)

marta (3) noun "fate" (VT45:33, VT46:13) Cf. marto.

Martalmar noun (place-name) (TALAM)

martan (1) noun “dwelling-house” (stem martam-), longer variant martanan (stem martamn- as in pl. martamni) (PE:107)

Martan (2), also Martano, noun "Earth-smith", "Earthbuilder", a surname of Aule (TAN, GAWA/GOWO – the form Martan ō given under MBAR must be understood as a primitive form)

marto (1) noun “tower” (PE17:66)

marto (2) noun "fortune, fate, lot" (LT2:348) ; cf. marta # 3 and see mart-.

martya- vb. "destine" (MBARAT)

marya adj. "pale, fallow, fawn" (MAD)

-mas final element in placenames, equivalent to English -ton , - by(LT1:251; hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

#massa noun "bread" ( massamma "our bread", VT43:18) ; massánie "breadgiver", used as a title of the highest woman among any Elvish people, since she had the keeping and gift of the coimas (lembas). Also simply translated "Lady" (PM:404)

masse noun “bread” (as a material), variant of massa, q.v. (PE17:52) . Notice that *masse has also been extrapolated as a question-word “where?”

masta noun “cake or loaf” (PE17:52) , in an earlier source defined as "bread" (MBAS, PM:404; later sources have massa or masse for this meaning). Mastamma "our bread" in Tolkien's translatation of the Lord's Prayer (VT43:18) . In the Etymologies , Tolkien emended the gloss of masta from "dough" to "bread" (VT45:33) .

masta- vb. "bake" (MBAS)

masto noun "village" (LT1:251)

mat- (1) vb. "eat" (MAT, VT45:32) , also given as mata- (VT39:5) , pa.t. mante "ate" (VT39:7) . The form matumne is said to be future-past: "was going to eat", with the "OQ" (Old Quenya?) future-past element umne (VT48:32; possibly this could function independently as a form of the verb “to be”, hence “was to be”) . It is not clear if the form matumne is itself "Old Quenya" as if this is an archaic future-past formation, or it is just umne (as an independent word) that is archaic. (Note: Tolkien's translation of matumne is actually " I was going to eat", but the pronoun "I" does not seem to be expressed in the Quenya form.) – Adj. or pseudo-participle #matya “eating” in melumatya “honey-eating” (PE17:68)

mat ( matt-) noun meal, meal time (QL:59)

mátengwie noun "language of the hands" (VT47:9)

mátima adj. “edible” (PE17:68) , cf. mat-.

matl noun "food"; read *matil in LotR-style Quenya (in which language final syllabic -l becomes -il) (QL:59) ; however, the word matso from a later source may be preferred.

matso noun “food” (PE16:141)

*matil, see matl

maur noun "dream, vision" (LT1:261)

maure noun "need" (MBAW)

mausta noun "compulsion" (MBAW)

mauya- vb. "compel" (MBAW)

mavar noun "shepherd" (LT1:268, GL:58)

mavoite adj. "having hands" (LT2:339)

maxa ("ks") adj. "pliant, soft" (MASAG, VT45:32)

maxe ("ks") noun "dough" (MASAG, VT45:32)

# Máya pl. Máyar, see Maia

¤ mbelekō ro masc. name, mentioned as "the oldest Q form" of Melkor, q.v. This is obviously a form that belongs to Common Eldarin rather than Quenya as we know it: Notice that it is marked (in the source asterisked) as unattested (WJ:402)

me (1) 1st person pl. exclusive pronoun "we, us" (VT49:51; VT43:23, VT44:9) . This pronoun preserves the original stem-form (VT49:50) . Stressed (VT49:51) . Cf. also mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47, mel - is evidently an assimilated form of men "for us", dative of me ; the form men is attested by itself, VT43:21) . For me as object, cf. ála me "do not [do something to]us", negative imperative particle with object pronoun suffixed (VT43:19: álame tulya , "do not lead us") , á men "do [somethingfor] us", imperative particle with dative pronoun suffixed ( ámen apsene "forgive us", VT43:12, 18). Dual exclusive met "we/us (two)" ( Nam, VT49:51) , "you and me" (VT47:11; the latter translation would make met an inclusive pronoun, though it is elsewhere suggested that it is rather exclusive: "him/her and me", corresponding to wet [q.v.] as the true inclusive dual form) . Rá men or rámen "for us/on our behalf", see . Locative messe "on us", VT44:12 (also with prefix o, ó- ?"with" in the same source). See also méne, óme.

- me (2) abstract suffix, as in melme “love” (cf. the verb mel-), # cilme“choice” (possibly implying a verb * cil- “to choose”). According to PE17:68, primitive - mē (and - wē ) were endings used to derive nouns denoting “a single action”, which may fit the meaning of cilme (but melme “love” would normally be something lasting rather than “a single action”).

mear noun "gore" (LT1:260)

mectar noun "Swordsman". In Telimectar . (LT1:268; in LotR-style Quenya mehtar, also macar)

mel- vb. "love (as friend)" (MEL) . Melinyes or melin sé “I love him” (VT49:21) . LR:70 has meláne "I love", a doubtful form in Tolkien's later Quenya ( melin occurs in later material).

méla adj. "loving, affectionate" (VT39:10) , apparently compounded in mélamar, q.v. (in that word rather meaning “dear”).

mélamar noun “home”, Exilic Quenya word of emotional sense: place of one's birth or the familiar places from which one has been separated (PE17:109) . Mélamarimma noun ”Our Home”, an expression used by Exilic Noldor for Aman.

Melcor (so spelt in MR:362 and VT49:6, 24) , see Melkor

melda adj. "beloved, dear, sweet" (MEL, VT45:34) , superlative arimelda *”dearest” (PE17:56, see ar- #2) , meldielto "they are beloved" (sc. meld[ a]-ie-lto "beloved-are-they" – however, both the stative verb ending -ie "is/are" and the ending -lto "they" may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya) (FS) PE17:55 gives the comparative form as arimelda or ammelda and the superlative as eremelda, anamelda or once again ammelda (PE17:55) .

#melde noun *"friend", feminine ( meldenya *"my friend" in the Elaine inscription [VT49:40], Tolkien referring to Elaine Griffiths). Compare meldo.

meldo noun "friend, lover". (VT45:34, quoting a deleted entry in the Etymologies , but cf. the pl. #meldor in Eldameldor "Elf-lovers", WJ:412) Meldonya*”my friend” (VT49:38, 40) . It may be that meldo is the distinctly masculine form, corresponding to feminine #melde (q.v.)

melehta adj. “mighty” (PE17:115) , cf. meletya

melehte noun “might, power” (inherent) (PE17:115)

meles, melesse noun "love" (LT1:262; rather melme in Tolkien's later Quenya)

#meletya adj. "mighty", isolated from meletyalda adjective with suffix "your mighty" = "your majesty" (see -lda; meletya = *"mighty"). In full Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369) . Compare melehta.

melima adj. "loveable, fair" (MEL, VT45:34) ; Melimar a name of the Lindar (in Tolkien's former conception = the later Vanyar , not the Teleri) (MEL)

melin adj. "dear" (MEL)

melindo noun "lover" (m.) (MEL)

melisse noun "lover" (f.) (MEL)

Melko masc. name "Mighty One", name of the rebellious Vala, usually called Melkor (MIL-IK, MOR; FS – MR:350 confirms that the form Melko is still valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, though not interpreted "Greedy One" as in the Etymologies )

Melkor (spelt Melcor in VT49:6, 24, MR:362) , masc. name: the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older (MET) form Melkóre "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"), compare óre #2.Oldest Q form * mbelekō ro (WJ:402) . Ablative Melkorello/ Melcorello, VT49:7, 24.Compounded in Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416) . The form Melkoro- here occurring may incorporate either the genitive ending - o or the otherwise lost final vowel of the ancient form ¤ mbelekō ro. For Melkor's later name, see Moringotto / Moricotto(Morgoth) under mori-.

melme noun "love" (MEL)

#melu noun ”honey”, isolated from melumatya, q.v. (PE17:68)

melumatya adj. “honey-eating” (PE17:68)

melwa adj. "lovely" (LT1:262) ; compare melda in Tolkien's later Quenya.

men (1) pron. "(for) us", dative form of me, q.v.

men (2) noun "way" (SA) or "place, spot" (MEN)

men (3) pron. "who", evidently a misreading or miswriting for man (MC:221, in Markirya)

#men- (4) vb. "go" (VT47:11, cf. VT42:30, VT49:23) , attested in the aorist ( mene) in the sentence imbi Menel Cemenye mene Ráno tie "between Heaven and Earth goes the path of the Moon". In the verb nanwen- “return” (or go/come back), -men- is changed to -wen- following nan- “back” (etymological form cited as nan-men- , PE17:166). – In examples from VT49:23, 24, Tolkien used men- in the sense of “go as far as”: 1st person sg. aorist menin ( menin coaryanna “I arrive at [or come/get to] his house”), endingless aorist mene, present tense ména- “is on point of arrival, is just coming to an end”, past tense menne “arrived, reached”, in this tense usually with locative rather than allative ( mennen sís “I arrive[d] here”), perfect eménie “has just arrived”, future menuva “will arrive”. All of these examples were first written with the verb as ten- rather than men-, Tolkien then emending the initial consonant.

ména noun "region" (MEN) . Not to be confused with the present/continuative tense of #men- “go”.

#mende noun "will", only attested in mendelya "thy will" (VT43:15)

méne pronoun in locative? "on us" (SD:310; compare me "us") The form is somewhat obscure.

Menel noun "heavens" ( Markirya, SA) , "the heavens, the firmament" (SD:401) , "the apparent dome in the sky" (MR:387) . Menel Cemenye "Heaven and Earth" (VT47:30) . Found in names like Meneldil *"Heaven-friend" = astronomer (Appendix A; Letters:386) , Meneldur masc. name, *"Heaven-servant" (Appendix A, Tar-Meneldur as a Númenórean King, UT:210) ; menelluin *"sky-blue", used as noun = "cornflower" ( J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 193). Menelmacar "Swordsman of the Sky", the Orion constellation (also called Telumehtar , Appendix E, first footnote); the older name was Menelmacil *"Heaven-sword" (WJ:411) ; Meneltarma "Pillar of Heaven", name of the great central mountain of Númenor (SA:tar, VT42:21) . Menelya fifth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the heavens (Appendix D) Locative menelde "in heaven"; abandoned forms menelle, menelze (VT43:12, 16) . Adj. meneldea "(being) in heaven", evidently based on a locative form menelde "in heaven"; abandoned forms menelzea, menellea, menelessea (VT43:13, VT44:16; the last of these forms would suggest the locative form #menelesse) .

mennai prep. "until" (VT14:5; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather tenna)

menta- (1) vb. "send, cause to go" (in a desired direction) (VT41:6, VT43:15) . A similar-sounding primitive verb mentioned in PE17:93 is said to have past and perfect forms that would produce Quenya *menne, *eménie, but here Tolkien seems to be discussing a distinct intransitive verb “go” and its Sindarin descendants, and Quenya menta- rather belongs to the causative (transitive) verbs which according to the same source has “weak” past-tense forms (in -ne, hence *mentane “sent”, and likely *ementie as perfect “has sent”).

menta (2) noun "sending" or "message" as in sanwe-menta "thought-sending, mental message" (VT41:5)

mente noun "point, end" (MET)

mentie noun “passage, journey, direction of travel” (PE17:13) ; the elements are men- “go, proceed” + tie “path, road”. Not to be confused with the gerund of menta- #1.

menya (pl. menye is attested) possessive pron. "our", 1st person pl. exclusive independent possessive pronoun (VT43:19, 35) . Evidently derived from the dative form men "for us" by adding the adjectival ending -ya. Compare ninya, q.v.

meoi noun "cat", a somewhat strange word by the standards of Tolkien's later Quenya (no other cases of final -oi in the singular). Some would read *meo, if the word is to be used in LotR-style Quenya. Vardo Meoita"Prince of Cats"; meoita here seems to be a kind of adjective rather than a genitive (LT2:348) . – Tolkien's later, less problematic word yaule may be preferred by writers (PE16:132)

mer- vb. "wish, desire, want" (the form mere given in Etym seems to be the 3rd person sg. aorist, *"wishes, desires, wants"); pa.t. merne (MER)

[ merca adj. "wild, untamed" (MERÉK, VT45:34) ]

meren ( merend-), merende noun "feast, festival" (MBER; Tolkien first gave the stem-form of meren as mern- before emending it to merend-, VT45:33-34)

merya adj. "festive" (MBER)

meryale noun "holiday" (MBER)

mesta noun ?"journey" (Arct)

met dual 1st person pronoun "us (two)", including the dual ending -t (Nam, VT47:11, 51; VT49:56) . See me.

Metelaire noun alternative name of August (PM:135)

Meterríve noun alternative name of January (PM:135)

métima adj. "last" (Markirya) , in Markirya also twice métim', since the following words ( auresse, andúne) begin in an a.

metta noun "end"; Ambar-metta "world-end, the end of the world" (EO) ; mettare *"end-day" = New Years' Eve in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning, not belonging to any month (Appendix D)

metya- vb. "put an end to" (MET)

mi prep. "in, within" (MI, VT27:20, VT44:18, 34, VT43:30; the latter source also mentions the variant imi) ; "in the" ( Nam , RGEO:66 ; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidently be mi = "in" and = mi i "in the"; VT49:35 also has with a long vowel, though the gloss is simply “in”). Used in PE17:71 (cf. 70) of people clad “in” various colours, e.g. mi míse“in grey”. Allative minna "to the inside, into" (MI) , also mina (VT43:30) . The forms mimme and mingwe seem to incorporate pronominal suffixes for "us", hence ?"in us", inclusive and exclusive respectively. The pronoun -mme denoted plural inclusive "we" when this was written, though Tolkien would later make it dual instead (see -mme). Second person forms are also given: mil or milye *"in you" (sg.), mille "in you" (pl.) (VT43:36) . A special use of mi appears in the phrase Wende mi Wenderon "Virgin of Virgins" (VT44:18) ; here mi appears superfluous to achieve the desired meaning, but this combination of singular noun + mi + plural genitive noun may be seen as a fixed idiom expressing that the initial noun represents the most prominent member of a class.

mici prep. "among" (VT43:30)

mie noun "crumb" (PE13:150) , “bit, small piece” (PE16:143)

mil, see mi

milca adj. "greedy" (MIL-IK)

milme noun "desire, greed" (MIL-IK)

milya (1) adj . "soft, gentle, weak" (VT45:34)

milya- (2) vb. "long for" (MIL-IK)

milye(1) preposition with suffix , see mi

milye (2) noun , short form of amilye, q.v.

mille, preposition with suffix , see mi

millo noun “oil” (PE13:139)

min numeral "one", also mine (VT45:34, VT48:6)

mina prep. "into" (VT43:30) ; see minna

mína adj . "desiring to start, eager to go", also verb mína- "desire to go in some direction, to wish to go to a place, make for it, have some end in view" (VT39:11)

Minalcar masc. name, noun *"First-glory"??? (Appendix A)

Minardil masc.name noun *" minar [?]-friend". Perhaps minar is to be understood as a variant of minas ( s being voiced to z by contact with the voiced plosive that follows, and then regularly becoming r ); if so, the name means *"Tower-friend" (Appendix A)

minasse, noun "fort, city, with a citadel and central watch-tower" (VT42:24)

Minastan masc.name, noun *"Tower-maker" (Appendix A)

Minastir masc. name, noun *"Tower-watcher" (Appendix A)

minasurie noun "enquiry" ( Þ; the word is actually cited as minaþurie) in Ondonóre Nómesseron Minaþurie "Enquiry into the Place-names of Gondor". The editor tentatively analyzes minaþurie as #mina "into" + #þurie (#surie) noun "seeking" (VT42:17, 30-31) .

minda adj. "prominent, conspicuous" (MINI)

minde noun "turret" (VT42:24)

[ Mindi noun ”First-clan” (PE17:155) ]

mindo noun "isolated tower" (MINI)

Mindolluin noun *"Blue Tower" ( mindon + luin), name of a mountain. (Christopher Tolkien translates the name as "Towering Blue-head" in the Silmarillion Index, but this seems to be based on the questionable assumption that it includes the Sindarin element dol "head, hill". Unless this translation is given in his father's papers, the name is better explained as a Quenya compound.)

mindon noun "(great, lofty) tower", said to be an augmented form of minde (VT42:24) . Allative pl. mindoninnarin Markirya , changed to the contracted form mindonnar. Cf. also Mindon Eldaliéva "Lofty Tower of the Eldalie" (Silm)

mine numeral "one", also min (MINI, VT45:34)

minga-ránar compound noun in pre-classical locative "in waning-moon" (locative -r) (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

minna prep. "to the inside, into" (also mir) (MI) ; variant mina "into" (VT43:30) , possibly occurring, compounded, in minasurie, q.v.

Minnónar pl. noun "First-born", Elves (as contrasted to Apanónar, the After-born, Men). Sg. #Minnóna (WJ:403)

minque ("q") cardinal "eleven" (MINIK-W, LT1:260, VT48:4, 6, 8, VT49:57) . Not to be confused with minque as the pa.t. of miqu- "to kiss", q.v. Etymology discussed, VT48:7, 8 (where the unorthodox spelling "minkwe" occurs besides "minque").

minquesta fraction "one eleventh" (1/11). (VT48:11)

minta prep. "inwards, [?into]" (Tolkien's gloss is not certainly legible) . Also mitta. (VT45:34)

minte adj. "small" (VT45:35)

mintya ??? (Narqelion)

minya adj. "first" (MINI) (cf. Minyatur, Minyon); "eminent, prominent" (VT42:24, 25) . Minyar "Firsts", the original name of the Vanyar (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380)

Minyarussa noun "First- russa ", masc. name (VT41:10)

Minyatur noun "First-ruler"; Tar-Minyatur "High First-ruler", title of Elros as the first King of Númenor (SA:minas, PM:348, SA:tur)

Minyon noun "First-begotten", attested as a personal (masc.) name (MR:87) . Apparently this is minya "first" + the stem ON = beget.

miqu- vb. "to kiss", the pa.t. minque ("q") is cited, not to be confused with the cardinal minque "eleven" (QL:61) . Also mique ("q")noun "a kiss". Old plural form miquilis ("q") "kisses" (MC:215; this is "Qenya")

miquelis ( miquelis(s)-) noun “soft, sweet kiss” (PE16:96)

mir (1) prep. with old allative ending "to the inside, into"(also minna) (MI) . This is mi "in" with the same allative ending -r (from primitive ¤ -da ) as in tar "thither", q.v.

mir (2) cardinal "one" (LT1:260; in LotR-style Quenya rather mine)

míre noun "jewel" (MIR, SA:mîr) , “a treasure, a precious thing” (PE17:37) .Cf. Elemmíre; short form -mirin Tar-Atanamir (SA:mîr) ; see also Artamir.

Míriel noun *"Jewel-woman" or *“Jewel-daughter” (Silm) , genitive Míriello (see namna) indicating a stem-form #Míriell-.

miril ( mirill-, as in pl. mirilli) noun "shining jewel" (MBIRIL)

mirilya- vb. "glitter" (MBIRIL)

mírima adj. “very valuable” (PE17:37)

mirima adj. "free" (MIS) . (“Free” is rather expressed as léra in Tolkien's later Quenya; mirima would be prone to confusion with mírima above.)

Mirimor noun *"the Free", a name of the Teleri; sg. #Mirimo (MIS)

mirroanwi "incarnates, those (spirits) 'put into flesh' "; sg. *mirroanwe (MR:350, VT48:34)

miruvor, full form miruvóre noun "mead", "a special wine or cordial"; possessive miruvóreva "of mead" ( Nam , RGEO:66 ; WJ:399) .In the "Qenya Lexicon", miruvóre was defined "nectar, drink of the Valar" (LT1:261) .

mirwa adj. “precious, valuable” (PE17:37)

mis adverbial particle "less" (PE14:80)

míse ( þ, cf. Sindarin mith -) adj. “grey” (used as noun of grey clothes in the phrase mi míse of someone clad “in grey”). The underlying stem refers a paler or whiter “grey” than sinda, making míse “a luminous grey” (PE17:71-72)

misil (changed by Tolkien from misilya) noun *"silver (jewel-like) brilliance" (VT27:20, 27; this is "Qenya", but cf. míse.)

[ misse] adj.ornoun "wet, damp, rain" (VT45:35)

mista adj. "grey"; see lassemista

mista- vb. "stray about" (MIS)

miste noun "fine rain" (MIZD, VT45:35)

mitra, see mitsa

mitsa adj. "small" (VT45:35) Another synonym from the same source, mitra, looks unusual for a Quenya word (because of the medial cluster tr)

mitta- (1) vb . "insert" (VT43:30)

mitta- (2) prep. "between" (VT43:30; the final hyphen may suggest that suffixes would normally follow)

mitta (3) noun "piece" (VT45:81)

mitta (4) prep. "inwards, [?into]" (Tolkien's gloss is not certainly legible) . Also minta. (VT45:34)

Mittalmar noun the "Midlands" of Númenor (UT:165) . May incorporate mitta- "between" and hence *"in the middle".

mittanya- vb. "to lead" (+ allative: lead into) (VT43:10, 22; Tolkien may have abandoned this form in favour of tulya-)

mitya adj. "interior" (MI)

miule noun "whining, mewing" (MIW)

mixa ("ks")adj. "wet" (MISK) ; later sources have néna, nenya

-mma “our”, 1st person dual exlusive possessive ending: *“my and one other's” (VT49:16) . At an earlier conceptual phase, Tolkien apparently intended the same ending to be plural inclusive “our” (VT49:55, RS:324) , cf. Mélamarimma “Our Home” (q.v.) In the latter word, Tolkien slips in i as a connecting vowel before this ending; elsewhere he used e, as in Átaremma “our Father” (see atar).

-mme “we”, 1st person dual exclusive pronominal ending: *“I and one other” (compare the inclusive dual form -ngwe or -nque). First written -immein one source (VT49:57) . Carimme, *“the two of us do” (VT49:16, cf. VT43:6) . At an earlier conceptual stage, the ending was already exclusive, but plural rather than dual: vamme "we won't" (WJ:371) , firuvamme "we will die" (VT43:34) , etemme ?"out of us" (VT43:36) ; see also VT49:48, 49, 55. Also compare the corresponding emphatic pronoun emme (q.v.). The ending -lme replaced -mme in its former (plural exclusive) sense. In some early material, -mme was apparently used as an ending for plural inclusive “we” (VT49:55) .

[-mmo “we (two)”, abandoned pronominal suffix for the 1st person dual exclusive, which ending Tolkien later revised to -mme (VT49:48) .]

mo, indefinite pronoun "one, someone, anyone" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 20, 26)

-mo ending frequent in names and titles, sometimes with an agental significance (WJ:400)

moalin ( moalind-) noun “sheepfold” (QL:60)

moc- vb. "hate" (given as mocir["k"] "I hate" in LT1:258; read *mocin if the word is to be adapted to Tolkien's later Quenya)

moia- vb. "labour, be afflicted" (VT43:31)

moica adj. "gentle, soft" (GL:58)

moile noun "tarn" (LT2:349)

moina (1) adj. "familiar, dear" (MOY (MUY) )

moina (2) adj. "safe, secure" (GL:58; this "Qenya" word is evidently obsoleted by # 1 above. This second moina seems to reappear as muina "hidden, secret" in Tolkien's later Quenya.)

mól noun "slave, thrall" (MŌ , VT43:31)

mol- vb. “labour” (a form móle also listed is presumably the pa.t. – though it could also be “labour” as a noun) (PE17:115)

# móla adj. *“of slave(s), slavish”, isolated from mólanoldorin

mólanoldorin noun "the language of the Noldor enslaved by Morgoth" (MŌ ) (Changed by Tolkien from múlanoldorin .)

# móna noun "womb" (isolated from mónalyo "of thy womb") (VT43:31)

mor noun "darkness" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word; Namárie has mornie for "darkness")

morco noun "bear" (MORÓK)

mordo (1) noun "shadow, obscurity, stain" (MOR)

mordo (2) noun "warrior, hero" (LT1:268 - probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

more adj. "black" (MOR) , "dark, darkness" (Letters:282) . In compounds the stem-form mori- (q.v.) appears, since the primitive form was ¤ mori .

móre noun "blackness, dark, night, darkness" (MOR, MC:214) , also given with a short vowel: more "dark, darkness" (Letters:282) . If this is the initial element of Morinehtar "Darkness-slayer" (PM:384, 385) , it would seem to have the stem-form mori-, though mori- is normally the adjective "dark, black" (see below).

mori- "dark, black" in a number of compounds (independent form more, q.v.): Morimando "Dark Mando" = Mandos (MBAD, VT45:33) , morimaite "black-handed" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, VT49:42). Moriquendi "Dark Elves" (SA:mor, WJ:361, 373) , Moringotto "Black Foe", Sindarin Morgoth , later name of Melkor. The oldest form is said to have been Moriñgotho (MR:194). In late material, Tolkien is seen to consider both Moringottoand Moricotto (“k”) as the Quenya form of the name Morgoth (VT49:24-25; Moricotto also appears in the ablative, Moricottollo). Morion "the dark one", a title of Morgoth (FS) . Morifinwe "dark Finwe", masc. name; he was called Caranthir in Sindarin (short Quenya name Moryo). (PM:353) In the name Morinehtar, translated "Darkness-slayer", the initial element is defined would thus seem to signify "darkness" rather than "dark" as an adjective (see móre). (PM:384, 385)

móri adj. "dark" (MC:221; this is "Qenya"; in Tolkien's later Quenya móre, more)

mori noun "night" (LT1:261, in Tolkien's later Quenya móre, more)

morilinde noun "nightingale" (MOR)

morion noun "son of the dark" (LT1:261) . In Fíriel's Song, Morion is translated "dark one", referring to Melko(r); this may be a distinct formation not including the patronymic ending -ion "son", but rather the masculine ending -on added to the adjective more, mori- "dark".

Mormacil noun "Black-sword" (name of Túrin, Sindarin Mormegil ) (MAK)

morna adj. "dark, black" (Letters:282, LT1:261; also used of black hair, PE17:154) , or "gloomy, sombre" (MOR) . Used as noun in the phrase mi…morna of someone clad “in…black” (PE17:71) . In tumbalemorna (Letters:282) , q.v. Pl. morne in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "green rocks", MC:215, changed to ondolisse morne "upon dark rocks" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8).

mornie noun "darkness" ( Nam , RGEO:67) , “dark, blackness” (PE17:73) . Early "Qenya" also has Mornie "Black Grief", "the black ship that plies between Mandos and Erumáni" (LT1:261) . This is probably a compound of mor- "black" and nie "tear".

móro noun “ink” (PE16:133)

morqua adj. "black" (LT1:261; rather morna in LotR-style Quenya)

moru- vb. "to hide" (LT1:261)

Moryo see Morifinwe under mori-

móta- noun "labour, toil" (MŌ )

motto noun "blot" (MBOTH)

muile noun "secrecy" (MUY)

muina adj. "hidden, secret" (MUY)

[ múlanoldorin] noun "the language of the Noldor enslaved by Morgoth" (MŌ ) (Changed by Tolkien to mólanoldorin .)

mule noun ”meal, grist” (PE17:115, 181) , replacing pole, q.v.

mulma noun “fine flour” (QL:63) . Compare mule from a post-LotR source.

mundo(1) noun "bull" (Letters:422)

mundo (2) noun "snout, nose, cape" (MBUD)

munta pron. "nothing" (PE14:81)

murme noun "slumber" (LT1:261)

murmea adj. "slumbrous" (LT1:261)

muru- vb. "to slumber" (LT1:261)

musse adj. "soft" (VT:39:17) , also used as a noun (perhaps primarily in the pl. form mussi) with the same meaning as musse tengwi, see below. (VT39:17)

#musse tengwe noun-phrase only attested in the pl.: musse tengwi ("ñ") "soft elements", a term for vowels, semi-vowels ( y , w ) and continuants ( l , r , m , n ). (In the pl. we would rather expect *mussi tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective.) (VT39:17)


- n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of - n ă “to”, related to the allative ending - nna (VT49:14) . Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefean, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine ( Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40) . The longer dative ending - na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márie “goodness” (PE17:59) . Pl. - in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. - lin, dual - nt (Plotz) . The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used “when purely dative formula is required” (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. * ana Eru instead of Erun for “to God”.

-n (2), also -nye, pronominal ending, 1st person sg. "I" (VT49:51) , as in utúlien "I am come" ( EO ), cainen “I lay” (VT48:12-13) , carin or carinye “I do” (VT49:16) , veryanen *”I married” (VT49:45) . See also VT49:48. Long form -nye- with object ending -s “it” following in utúvienyes (see tuv-). A possible attestation of -n in object position (“me”) is provided by the untranslated verbal form tankassen (PE17:76) , where -n may be preceded by -sse- as a longer form of the 3rd person sg. ending -s (see -s #1).

-n (3) a plural sign used in some of the case endings (WJ:407) : Pl. genitive -on, pl. ablative -llon (but also -llor), pl. locative -ssen.

n-alalmino ??? (twice in Narqelion ; perhaps ne + alalmino)

(1) vb. "is" (am). ( Nam , RGEO:67) . This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns “in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another” (VT49:28) . Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná “it is cold” (VT49:23) . The copula may however be omitted “where the meaning is clear” without it (VT49:9) . is also used as an interjection “yes” or “it is so” (VT49:28) . Short na in aire[] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short naalso functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34) , also na aire "be holy" (VT43:14) ; also cf. nai “be it that” (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed ( á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár“are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30) ; dual nát (VT49:30) . With pronominal endings: nánye/ nanye “I am”, nalye or natye “you (sg.) are” (polite and familiar, respectively), nás “it is”, náse “(s)he is”, nalme “we are” (VT49:27, 30) . Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naitye, nailye (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanye, nalye, , nasse, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be “aorist”, without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalye rather than nailye); also notice that *“(s)he is” is here nasse rather than náse (VT49:30) .Pa.t. náne or “was”, pl. náner/ nérand dual nét “were” (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36) . According to VT49:31, “was” cannot receive pronominal endings (though nése “he was” is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen “I was”, anel “you were”, anes “(s)he/it was” (VT49:28-29) . Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30) . Nauvawith a pronominal ending occurs in tanome nauvan “I will be there” (VT49:19) , this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position . Perfect anaie “has been” (VT49:27, first written as anáye) . Infinitive (or gerund) náve “being”, PE17:68. See also nai #1.

(2), also nán, conj. "but, on the contrary, on the other hand" (NDAN; the form nan , q.v., is probably to be preferred to avoid confusion with "is", * nán "I am") .

na (1) form of the verb "to be", evidently the imperative (or subjunctive): Tolkien stated that na aire would mean "be holy" (VT43:14) , and san na (q.v.) must mean "thus be" = "let it be so"; see #1 Cf. also the sentence alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heavenbe to God" (VT44:32/34) . Inserted in front of a verb, na expresses a wish: aranielya na tuluva "may thy kingdom come" (ibid) .

na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ 1 ) . Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36) .

[ na-] (3) a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem, changed by Tolkien to a-, q.v.

- na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see - ina. According to PE17:68, the ending - na was “no longer part of verbal conjugation ”; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn , pn , kn ( cn ), metathesis occurs to produce nt, ( np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *”slain” for older ¤ ndakna , or hampa “restrained, delayed, kept” vs. the root KHAP “retain, keep, detain”. Following - l, the suffix - na turns into - da, as in yulda “draught, the amount drunk” for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending– though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending - da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word * turúna “mastered” (q.v., only attested in elided form turún') would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- “master” (PE17:113) , suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final - u is lengthened to ú when - na is added.

#nac- vb. “hew, cut” ( nacin“I hew, cut”, VT49:24) or "bite" (NAK) ; compare nahta #2.

náce (“k”)interjection? “it is may be seeming” (sic) (VT49:28) Patrick Wynne believes the unclear gloss is “best understood as elliptical”: i.e. as representing “it is [or] may be seeming”, probably “indicating a qualified or hesitant `yes'.” (VT49:29) As first written, the gloss was “not as it is [or may be seeming” (ibid.)

náha adj. “narrow” (PE17:166)

naham- vb. "to summon", passive participle nahamna "summoned" (also in LR:47). Tolkien tentatively considered the alternative forms nahom- with pp. nahomna or natyam- with pp. natyamna; as the passive participle he also considered the form nahemna (cf. nahéme under naháme below) (VT45:21)

naháme noun "summons". Tolkien tentatively considered the alternative forms natyáme or nahéme (VT45:21)

Nahar noun the name of Orome's horse, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:401)

nahemna, see naham-

nahom-, nahomna, see naham-

nahta- (1) verb “slay” ( nahtan “I slay”). Possible variant #nehta- see #nehtar. Passive participle nahtana in the phrase nahtana ló Túrin *”slain by Turin”. (VT49:24)

nahta (2) noun "a bite" (NAK)

nahta (3) cardinal "eighteen" (PE14:17)

nai (1) imperative verb "be it that", used with a verb (usually in the future tense) to express a wish . The translation "maybe" in Tolkien's rendering of Namárie is somewhat misleading; he used "be it that" in the interlinear translation in RGEO:67. Apparently this is na as the imperative "be!" with a suffix -i "that", cf. i #3. It can be used with the future tense as an “expression of wish” (VT49:39) . Nai hiruvalye Valimar! Nai elye hiruva! *"May thou find Valimar. May even thou find it!" (Nam, VT49:39) . Nai tiruvantes "be it that they will guard it" > "may they guard it" (CO) . Nai elen siluva parma-restalyanna *“may a star shine upon your book-fair” (VT49:38) , nai elen siluva lyenna *”may a star shine upon you” (VT49:40) , nai elen atta siluvat aurenna veryanwesto *”may two stars shine upon the day of your wedding” (VT49:42-45) , nai laure lantuva parmastanna lúmissen tengwiesto “may (a) golden light fall on your book at the times of your reading” (VT49:47) . Nai may also be used with a present continuative verb if an ongoing situation is wished for: Nai Eru lye mánata “God bless you” (VT49:39) or literally *”be it that God is (already) blessing you”. The phrase nai amanyaonnalya *”be it that your child [will be] blessed” omits any copula; Tolkien noted that “imper[ative] of wishes precedes adj.” (VT49:41) . VT49:28 has the form nái for “let it be that”; Patrick Wynne theorizes that nái is actually an etymological form underlying nai (VT49:36)

nai (2) prefix “ill, grievously, abominably” (PE17:151) , cf. naiquet-. Earlier material also lists an interjection nai"alas" (NAY; this may be obsoleted by # 1 above; Namárie uses ai! in a similar sense)

naica (1) adj . “bitterly painful or grievous” (PE17:151)

naica (2) noun "dagger" (GL:37)

#naicando (and #naico, both attested as plural forms in -or) noun "sinner" (VT43:33; Tolkien may have abandoned these forms i favour of #úcarindo)

naice noun "sharp pain" (NÁYAK) ; changed by Tolkien from naique ("q")(VT45:37)

naicele noun "sharp pain" (NÁYAK) ; changed by Tolkien from naiquele ("q")(VT45:37)

naicelea adj. "painful" (NÁYAK) ; changed by Tolkien from naiquelea ("q")(VT45:37)

naico (1) noun "sinner"; see naicando

naico (2) inflected noun? "of hill(s)" (???) (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

naina- vb. "lament" (NAY) , also reduplicated nainaina- (VT45:37) . Noun nainie "lament" (RGEO:66)

nainaina-, see naina-

[ naique, naiquele, naiquelea] ("q") , see naice, naicele, naicelea

naiquet- vb. “to curse or blaspheme” (PE17:151)

Naira (1) noun "Heart of Flame", a name of the Sun (MR:198)

naira (2) adj. “vast, wide, empty” (PE17:27)

naira (3) adj. “dreadful, horrible, unendurable” (PE17:151)

naire noun "lament" (NAY)

naite adj. “true” (VT49:28)

naitya- vb. "put to shame, abuse" (the latter gloss presumably referring to verbal abuse) (QL:65)

nal, nalle noun "dale, dell" (LT1:261)

nalda adj. "valley" (used as an adjective), also “lowly” (LT1:261, QL:66) $

nalla ??? (Narqelion)

nalláma, nallama noun "echo" (LAM) . The initial element may be nan- “back”, hence “back-sound”, sound that comes back (cf. láma).

nalme (1) “we are”, see #1, -lme

[ nalme] (2) ("ñ")noun "clamour" (ÑGAL/ÑGALAM )

nalta ("ñ")noun "radiance, glittering reflection" (from jewels, glass or polished metals, or water) (PM:347)

Ñaltariel noun true Quenya form of Galadriel ; the form actually used was Altariel, Quenyarized from Telerin Alatáriel( le). (PM:347)

nalye, vb. “you are”, “thou art”; see #1

#nam- vb. "judge", attested in the 1st person aorist: namin "I judge" (VT41:13) . Compare Námo.

náma noun "a judgement" or "a desire" (VT41:13)

námie noun "(a single) judgement", "(a single) desire" (VT41:13)

namárie interjection "farewell" ( Nam , RGEO:67)

namba noun "a hammer" (NDAM) , namba- vb. "to hammer" (NDAM) . According to VT45:37, Tolkien may have considered the alternative form lamba, but the source is obscure and lamba is assigned a quite different meaning ("tongue") elsewhere.

Nambarauto noun "hammerer of copper [> metal]", masc. name (S Damrod ) (RAUTĀ )

namma noun "claw, talon" (also nappa) (VT47:20)

namna noun "statute"; Namna Finwe Míriello "the Statute of Finwe and Míriel" (MR:258)

Námo (1) noun "Judge", name of a Vala, normally called Mandos, properly the place where he dwells (WJ:402)

námo (2) noun "a person, somebody" (PM:340 – writers may prefer the synonym quén to avoid confusion with # 1)

nampe pa.t. of map( a)-, q.v.

nan conj. "but" (FS) ; the Etymologies also gives , nán (NDAN) , but these words may be confused with forms of the verb "to be", so nan should perhaps be preferred, unless for "but" one uses the wholly distinct word mal.

nan ( nand-) noun "woodland" (LT1:261)

nan- (prefix) "backwards" (NDAN) or “back”, as in nanwen- “return” (go/come back, PE17:166), cf. also nanquerne *”turned back”, the pl. form of *nanquerna (VT49:17-18)

Nanar pl. noun "Green-elves, *Danians", sg. *Nana (DAN)

nanda noun “vale (wide)” (PE17:80) , "water-mead, watered plain" (NAD)

nanca adj. *”slain” (PE17:68) ; see -na

#nancar- vb. “undo” (destroy). Cited in the form nancari- (“k”) , apparently including the connecting vowel of the aorist (PE17:166)

nanda- ("ñ") vb. "to harp" (ÑGAN/ÑGÁNAD)

nandaro ("ñ")noun "harper" (ÑGAN/ÑGÁNAD)

nande (1) noun "valley" in Laurenande (UT:253) , elided nand'in the name Nand' Ondoluncava (k”) “Stonewain Valley” (PE17:28) . Possibly the complete word is here meant to be the variant nando (PE17:80) , as suggested by the alternative form Oncoluncanan(do) (“k”) “Stonewain Valley”. Also nan, nand- noun "valley" (Letters:308) ; Nan-Tasarion "Vale of Willows" (LotR2:III ch. 4) (Note that this and the next nande would be spelt differently in Tengwar writing, and originally they were also pronounced differently, since nande "harp" was ñande in First Age Quenya.)

nande (2) ("ñ") noun "harp" (ÑGAN/ÑGÁNAD; according to VT46:3, Tolkien changed the final vowel from - a to - e )

nandele ("ñ") noun "harping" (ÑGAN/ÑGÁNAD)

nandelle ("ñ") noun "little harp" (ÑGAN/ÑGÁNAD)

nandin noun "fay of the country" (LT1:261)

# Nando (1) pl. Nandor noun name of the Green-elves ( Laiquendi). The primitive word ¤ ndandō , whence Quenya Nando, implied "one who goes back on his word or decision", since the Nandor left the March from Cuiviénen to Aman. Adj. Nandorin. (WJ:412, VT48:32)

nando (2)“valley, wide valley”, variant of nande#1, q.v. (PE17:80)

náne vb. “was”, náner “were”; see #1

nangwa noun "jaw" (NAK)

nanwa adj. “existing, actual (true)” (VT49:30) . Compare the near-synonym anwa.

nanwe noun "ebb, lowtide" (VT48:26) . Compare lanwe.

nanwen- vb. “return” (go/come back) (PE17:166) . The etymological form nan-men- indicates that the second element is #men- “go”, changed to -wen- following nan- “back”; hence the perfect should perhaps be *naneménie.

nánye vb. “I am”; see #1

napan- vb. “add” (PE17:146)

nápat noun "thumb and index as a pair", a dual formation. Apparently formed from #nápa, an alternative form of nápo "thumb"; Telerin also has a final - a (rather than - o ) in this word (VT48:5; etymology, VT48:16)

nápo noun "thumb" (VT47:10, VT48:4, 5) . Compare nápat.

nappa noun "claw, talon" (also namma) (VT47:20)

nar (1) "are"; see #1

[ nar] (2), see [ narwe]

nár noun "flame", also náre (NAR1) .Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanár( o), Feanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending -o added to it). According to PE17:183, nár- is “fire as an element” (a concrete fire or blaze is rather called a ruine).

naraca adj. "harsh, rending, violent" (NÁRAK; according to VT45:37, Tolkien added a qualification that is not certainly legible: "of [?sounds]")

narca- vb. "to rend" (NÁRAK; the form "narki" in LR is a misreading for narka ; see VT45:37)

narda noun "knot" (SNAR)

náre, also short nár, noun "flame" (NAR 1 , Narqelion) . Translated "fire" in some names, see Aicanáro, Feanáro (where nár apparently has the masculine ending - o, though in the latter name it may also be the genitive ending since Fea-nár o is translated “Spiritof Fire”). At one point, Tolkien mentioned “ nā r-“ as the word for “fire (as an element)” (PE17:183) . Cf. ruine as the word for “a fire” (a concrete instance of fire) in the same source.

Nárie noun sixth month of the year, "June" (Appendix D) ; derived from the stem (a)nar - having to do with fire or sun.

Narmacil noun masc. name, *"Flame-sword" (Appendix A)

narmo ("ñ")noun "wolf" (ÑGAR(A)M; both the old form ñarmo = *ngarmo and the Third Age form narmo are given) . Another word for “wolf” is ráca.

Narquelie noun tenth month of the year, "October" (Appendix D) ; the word seems to mean "Fire-waning", "Sun-waning". Compare narquelion ("q") , q.v.

Narquelion ("q")noun "fire-fading, autumn" (FS, Narqelion, KWEL, (LAS1), " nar-qelion", VT45:24) ; simply translated "Fading" in LR:72.

Narsil ( Þ) noun the sword of Elendil, compound of the stems seen in Anar "Sun" and Isil "Moon"; see Letters:425 for etymology

Narsilion ( Þ) noun "(the song) of the Sun and Moon"; actually the stems of the words for Sun and Moon compounded (see Narsil above) and a plural genitive ending added (Silm)

narta- vb. "kindle" (VT45:37)

Narvinye noun first month of the year, "January". The word seems to mean "New Fire/Sun". (Appendix D)

* narwa adj. “ruddy, red of hair” (PE17:154) , also "fiery red" in general (NAR 1 ; only the archaic form narwā is given in the Etymologies )

[ narwe (and short nar, unless this is an incomplete form) noun "sign, token"] (VT45:37)

Narya nounor adj. name of the Red Ring, the Ring of Fire; apparently properly an adjective, so that the meaning is something like "Fiery (One)" (SA:nár)

násan, see násie

nasar adj. "red" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)

náse “he is” (also nasse) (VT49:30) ; see #1.

násie interjection "amen", "may it be so" (VT43:24, 35. As a translation of "amen", Tolkien apparently abandoned the earlier form násan and the two-word variant san na, VT43:24)

nasse (1) “a person, an individual” (VT49:30) . Also translated “true-being” (pl. nasser is attested), the inner “true” being of a person. Also in the form nassentar “their true-being” (PE17:175, cf. -nta #2), in the source referring to the “true” spiritual nature of the Valar, as hidden within their visible shapes. – Not to be confused with the verb nasse/ náse “he/she is”; see #1.

nasse (2) noun "thorn, spike" (NAS) . Not to be confused with nasse “(s)he is”, VT49:30 or nasse # above. Note that in late material, the unambiguous word necel appears for “thorn” (PE17:55) .

nasta (1) noun "spear-head, spear-point, gore, triangle" (SNAS/SNAT; see VT46:14 about second gloss being "spear-point" and not simply "point" as in the printed Etymologies ) , "prick, point, stick, thrust" (NAS)

nasta- (2) vb. "prick, sting" (NAS)

nat noun "thing" (NĀ 2 ) ; compare únat. VT49:30 lists “ n ă ta, nat ”, but it is unclear whether n ă ta is here a Quenya word or an etymological form underlying Quenya nat.

náto interjection “it is that” (emphatic word for “yes”?) (VT49:28, 29)

natse noun "web, net" (NAT)

nattira- vb. "despise" (or perhaps the stem proper should only be # nattir -) (VT44:8)

[ nattire vb. “look back” (PE17:166) ]

natyam-, natyamna, see naham-

natyáme, see naháme

natye vb. “you are”, “thou art”; see #1

nauca adj. "stunted" (VT39:7) , “stunted, shortened, dwarf(ed)” (PE17:45) , especially applied to things that though in themselves full-grown were smaller or shorter than their kind, and were hard, twisted or ill-shapen (WJ:413) . The word can also be used as a noun “dwarf” (PE17:45) , the meaning it also had in Tolkien's early "Qenya" (LT1:261) , but the distinct noun-form Nauco may be more usual.

Nauco noun "Dwarf" (capitalized in WJ:388, but not in Etym, stem NAUK ). Naucalie(not * Naucolie) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole. Nauco is a personalized form of the adjective nauca “stunted” (itself sometimes used as a noun “dwarf”); pl. naucor (PE17:45) . See also Picinaucor.

Naucon ( Naucond-, as in the pl. Naucondi) noun “dwarf”, variant of Nauco (PE17:45; not capitalized in the source)

naule noun "wolf-howl" (ÑGAW; this must represent earlier *ñaule = *ngaule; these forms are not given in Etym, but compare ñauro below. In Tengwar writing, the initial N would be represented by the letter noldo , not númen .)

nauro ("ñ")noun "werewolf" (ÑGAW, PE17:39; according to the latter source, the word was adapted from Sindarin gaur ) .

nause ( Þ) noun "imagination" (NOWO, VT49:33)

nauta adj. "bound, obliged" (NUT)

nauva vb. "will be" (VT42:34) ; nauvan“I will be” (VT49:19) ; see #1

#nav- vb. "judge" (cited in the form nave, apparently the 3rd person aorist). Also given with pronominal suffixes: navin *"I judge" (Tolkien's free translation: "I think"), navilwe "we judge" ( VT42:33, 4, VT48:11)

náva ("ñ")noun "mouth", apparently not only the lips but also the inside of the mouth (VT39:13 cf. 8) . Possibly, but probably not, the same element that is translated "hollow" in Návarot, q.v.

náve “being”, *”to be”, infinitive (or gerund) of ; see #1. (PE17:68)

Návarot noun "Nogrod" (< Novrod), Hollowbold, name of a dwelling of the Dwarves (WJ:389) . If the element that is here translated náva is the same as náva "mouth", the initial n comes from earlier ng (ñ) and should be represented by the letter noldo rather than númen in Tengwar writing. However, Tolkien in WJ:414 reconstructs the primitive form of the náva in Návarot as ¤ nā bā rather than ** ngā bā or ** ngā wā (the likely source of náva "mouth"), so this appears doubtful. The initial n of Návarot should evidently be represented by the letter númen in Tengwar writing.

Návatar noun a title of Aule referring to his position as the immediate author of the Dwarvish race, apparently including atar "father", but the first element cannot be related to any known term for "Dwarf" (PM:391 cf. 381)

náva-tengwe noun *"mouth-sign" = "consonant" considered as a phoneme (only pl. náva-tengwi ["ñáva - "] is attested). Also #návea. Feanor later substituted the term #pataca (VT39:8)

#návea nounor adj. "consonant" (only pl. návear ["ñ"] is attested) (VT39:8)

-nde (1) noun ending; forming nouns from verbal stems in arcande "petition" and ulunde "stream" (q.v. and cf. VT44:8) , feminine in Serinde "broideress" or "needle-woman" (q.v.) PE17:69 mentions -nde as a common suffix denoting feminine agent.

[#-nde (2) pronominal suffix for dual “you”, as in carinde *“you (two) do”. Tolkien changed the ending to -ste (VT49:33) ]

-ndil (also -dil) ending occurring in many names, like Amandil, Earendil; it implies devotion or disinterested love and may be translated "friend" (SA:(noun)dil) ; this ending is "describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake" (Letters:386) . Compare -ndur. It is unclear whether the names derived with the ending -ndil are necessarily masculine, though we have no certain example of a woman's name in -ndil; the name Vardilme (q.v.) may suggest that the corresponding feminine ending is -( n) dilme.

-ndon, case-ending for “similative”: wilwarindon “like a butterfly” (see wilwarin), laurendon “like gold” (PE17:58) In the post-LotR period Tolkien decided to abandon this ending, apparently because it was to similar to the agental suffix -ndo (PE17:58) , and it does not appear in the Plotz decension.

-ndor, final element in compounds: "land" (Letters:308, UT:253)

-ndur (also -dur), ending in some names, like Earendur; as noted by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix it has much the same meaning as -ndil "friend"; yet -ndur properly means "servant of" (SA:(noun)dil) , "as one serves a legitimate master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide: e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status - ndur , in spirit - ndil ." (Letters:286)

ne (1) noun (or root?) “scent” (PE17:100)

ne (2) conj. "that" (as in "I know that you are here") (PE14:54) , evidently replaced by i in Tolkien's later Quenya (see i #3).

ne (3) ??? = n- in n-alalmino (Narqelion)

#-ne (4) “I”, a 1st person pronominal suffix occurring in the word meláne “I love” (LR:61) , but Tolkien later used -n or -nye for this meaning ( melin “I love”, VT49:21). It may be that Tolkien at one point considered ne (or nye, inye) as an independent emphatic pronoun “I”, but this was struck out (VT49:49) .

vb. “was”; see #1. Also used as interjection “yes” when the meaning is “it was so, it was as you say/ask” (VT49:31) . Pl. nér “were”, dual nét (VT49:30) . Nése “he was” (VT49:29) , though Tolkien elsewhere stated that did not “take any inflection of person” (VT49:31) , pronominal endings rather being added to ane- (the form anes *he was” is attested). Anda né “long ago” (VT49:31) .

ne-súme ??? (Narqelion)

nea (1) “once, at one time” (in the past) (VT49:31) . Also néya.

nea (2) an optative form of the verb na- "to be"? ( nea = LotR-style Quenya nai?) : ya rato nea *"which soon may (it) be" = *"which I hope will be soon" (Arct)

nec- prefix “without, -less” (PE17:167) , cf. -enca, q.v.

néca adj "pale, vague, faint, dim to see", pl. néce in Markirya

necce (“k”)noun “angle” (PE17:45) . Variant of nehte #1, q.v.

necel (“k”)noun “thorn” (PE17:55)

necte noun "honey" (LT1:262; Tolkien's later Quenya has lis; otherwise, necte would have had to become nehte, a form appearing in the Etymologies with the meaning "honeycomb" [VT45:38]. However, this word clashes with nehte “angle” or "spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow promontory" from later sources [PE17:55, UT:282].)

nehta (1) noun "spearhead", isolated from nernehta, q.v.

#nehta- (2) vb. "to slay" if such a stem can be isolated from #nehtar (see below). The (variant?) form nahta- is given in VT49:24.

nehta- (3) vb. “deprive” (PE17:167)

nehtanō noun “one deprived, exile whose rights and goods have been confiscated” (PE17:167) . The long final vowel would be a feature of very archaic Quenya; the later form must be *nehtano.

#nehtar noun "slayer", isolated from Morinehtar "Darkness-slayer" (PM:384, 385) . It may be that a verbal stem #nehta- "to slay, kill" can also be isolated from this noun, though the attested form is actually nahta- (a possible example of A/E variation).

nehte (1) noun “angle” (PE17:55) , any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, gore, wedge, narrow promontory (UT:282) . Variant necce.

nehte (2) noun "honeycomb" (VT45:38)

neite noun "wax" (GL:60; rather líco in Tolkien's later Quenya. The status of the diphthong ei is uncertain; in the LotR appendices, Tolkien did not list ei among the Quenya diphthongs, so perhaps the word neite from an early source is conceptually obsolete also in terms of phonology.)

nel adv. “thrice”, also nel- (prefix) "tri-" (PE14:84, NEL) . Compare nelde.

nelce noun "tooth", also nelet (VT46:3)

nelci pl. of nelet (and nelce), q.v. (NÉL-EK)

nelde cardinal "three" (SA:neldor, NÉL-ED, VT47:11, VT48:6) . Eleni nelde “three stars”, archaic elenion nelde = *“of stars three”. Genitive “of 3 stars” = elenion nelde (for archaic elenion neldeo) (VT49:45; see 54 regarding neldion as the gen. pl.) Cf. also nelya, neldea, Neldie.

neldea ordinal "third" (VT42:25) ; also nelya. Cf. nelde.

neldesta fraction "one third" (1/3), also nelesta, nelsat, nelta. (VT48:11)

Neldie noun "Trinity" (VT44:17)

Neldion noun *"Day of the three [younger gods]", sc. Osse, Orome and Tulkas (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK) . Elsewhere neldion appears as as the genitive plural form of nelde “three” (VT49:54) , but Tolkien emended the relevant text.

neldor noun "beech" (LT2:343)

? neleque ("kw") cardinal "thirteen" (VT48:21) . The spelling "nelekwe" occurring in the primary source could suggest that this is really a Common Eldarin form; if so, one could theorize that the Quenya form would be *nelque with syncope of the middle vowel (the same source lists "minikwe" as a word for 11, and the Quenya form is known to be minque). Compare nelquea. On the other hand, "tolokwe" as a word for 18 is listed together with definite Quenya forms and is apparently an unorthodox spelling of *toloque (as observed by the editor); here no syncope producing *tolque occurs. Thus toloque could support ? neleque as the Quenya word (but because of the uncertainties, yunquente may be preferred as the word for 13).

nelesta fraction "one third" (1/3), also neldesta, nelsat, nelta. (VT48:11)

nelet, also nelce noun "tooth", pl. nelci suggesting a stem-form nelc- (NÉL-EK)

nelle noun "brook" (NEN)

nelquea, cardinal "thirteen" (?) (VT48:21) . This looks like an odd form next to other cardinals that simply end in -que (like lepenque, enenque, otoque = 15, 16, 17), and the form "nelekwe" also listed may indicate another Quenya form neleque (q.v.) or *nelque (but because of the uncertainties, yunquente may be preferred as the word for 13). By another theory, nelquea is the ordinal "thirteenth", corresponding to the cardinal *nel( e) que.

nelsat fraction "one third" (1/3), also neldesta, nelesta, nelta (VT48:11)

nelta fraction "one third" (1/3), also neldesta, nelesta, nelsat (VT48:11)

neltil ( neltild-, as in pl. neltildi) noun "triangle" (TIL, NEL)

nelya adj. "third" (VT42:25; also neldea). Pl. Nelyar"Thirds", the original name of the Teleri (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380) .

Nelyafinwe noun "Finwe third" (after the original Finwe and Curufinwe = Feanor), masc. name; he was called Maedhros in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Nelyo. (PM:352)

Nelyo see Nelyafinwe

[#nem- vb. "judge", attested as endingless aorist neme, changed by Tolkien to hame and finally to nave "in all but one case" (Bill Welden). Forms like námo "judge" and namna "statute" point rather to #nam- (q.v.) as a verb "to judge" (VT42:34) ; the verb namin "I judge" is even listed in Etym.]

nen noun "river" (LT1:248) , "river, water" (LT1:262) (In Tolkien's later Quenya, nén with a long vowel means "water", but hardly "river" - that is síre.)

-nen instrumental ending (pl. -inen, dual -nten, partitive pl. -línen). Attested in ambartanen, lírinen, lintieryanen, súrinen, parmanen; see ambar (#2), líre, lintie, súre, parma. Tolkien noted that “most nouns have an instrumental in - nen ” (PE17:62), a wording suggesting that the form of the ending may vary; given the normal development ln > ld , it is possible that it would appear as *-den when added to a noun in -l (*macilden “with a sword”).

nén ( nen-) noun "water" (NEN) .

néna adj. "wet" (PE17:167) . Cf. nenya, mixa.

Nénar noun name of a star (or planet), evidently derived from nén "water" (Silm) , tentatively identified with Uranus (MR:435)

nenda (1) adj. wet" (PE17:167; primitive form nend ā in the Etymologies, entry NEN, originally misprinted as nenda ; cf. VT46:3 for correction)

[ nenda] (2) adj. "sloping" (DEN, struck out)

nende (1) noun "pool" (NEN) , “lake” (PE17:52)

[ nende] (2) noun "slope, hillside" (DEN, struck out; compare VT45:9)

Nendili noun "Water-lovers", the most frequently used "title" or secondary name of the Lindar (Teleri) (WJ:411) Sg. #Nendil.

nengwe (stem *nengwi-, given the primitive form ¤ neñ-wi ) noun "nose", pl. nengwi given (NEÑ-WI)

nengwea adj.or noun "nasal" (NEÑ-WI)

Nénime noun second month of the year, "February" (Appendix D)

nén-talma noun Quenya cognate of Sindarin nindalf “wet flat” = “Wetwang” (PE17:52, 167)

nénu noun "yellow water-lily" (LT1:248)

nénuvar noun "pool of lilles" (LT1:248)

nenya adj. “wet” (PE17:52) , also néna, q.v. Nenya as the name of a Ring of Power seems to imply *“(thing) related to water”, since this Ring was associated with that element (SA:nen) .

nér (1) ( ner-, as in pl. neri) noun "man" (adult male – elf, mortal, or of other speaking race) (MR:213, VT49:17, DER, NDER, NI1, VT45:9; see also WJ:393)

nér (2) pl. vb. “were”; see and #1 (VT49:30)

nerca adj. “sharp, angular” (PE17:55) , variant nexa (reading uncertain).

nerce noun "little man", a diminutive of nér (VT47:33) . VT48:18 seems to hint that -ce is to be derived from older - ki ; if so, nerce should have the stem-form nerci-. Compare wenci.

nerdo noun "large, strong man" (compare nér) (VT47:33)

neresta fraction "one ninth" (1/9), also nesta, nersat. (VT48:11)

Nermi noun "a field-spirit" (LT1:262)

nernehta noun "man-spearhead", a battle-formation (UT:282)

nersat fraction "one ninth" (1/9), also neresta, nesta (VT48:11)

nerte cardinal "nine" (NÉTER, VT42:26, VT48:6) ; nertea ordinal "ninth" (VT42:25)

nes- ?verb/?root “sweet smelling” (PE17:100) ; cf. Nísimaldar

[ nese (apparently with stem nesi-) ( Þ) noun “(a person of) female (nature)” (PE17:190) ]

nésa ( Þ) noun "sister" (VT47:14) ; this form from a late source possibly replaces earlier seler and onóre, q.v.

nése ( Þ) noun "youth", also nesse (NETH) . Not to be confused with nése “he was”; see #1.

nessa adj. "young" (NETH) , also Nessa as name of a Valie, the spouse of Tulkas (adopted and adapted from Valarin, or an archaic Elvish formation: WJ:404 vs. 416). Also called Indis, "bride" (NETH, NI1) . The fem. name Nessanie (UT:210) would seem to incorporate Nessa's name; the second element could mean "tear" ( nie), but since Nessa is not normally associated with sorrow, this #nie is perhaps rather a variant of "female" (compare Tintanie as a variant of Tintalle).

nessamelda adj. "Nessa-beloved", name of a tree (UT:167)

Nessaron noun *"[Day] of the younger [gods]", sc. Osse, Orome and Tulkas (in Tolkien's earlier conception, Osse was a "god" or Vala). (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK)

nesse noun "youth"; also nése (NETH)

nessele noun “pasture, pasturage” (QL:65)

nessima adj. "youthful" (NETH)

nesta fraction "one ninth" (1/9), also neresta, nersat (VT48:11)

vb. in pa.t. “was”; see #1.

nét dual vb. “were”; see and #1 (VT49:30) .

nete *"one more, another", used in enumerating a series: e.g. 1, 2, (3), nete, nete, nete...with nete used instead of citing the actual numbers. (VT47:15, VT48:14-15, 31)

neterque cardinal "nineteen" (VT48:21)

netil noun "trinket, [?small thing] of personal adornment" (Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible) (VT47:33)

nette (stem *netti-, given the primitive form listed in VT47:17) noun "girl, daughter" (but also "sister", see below), also used as a play-name of the "fourth finger" or "fourth toe" (VT47:10, VT48:6) , in two-hand play also used for the numeral "nine" ( nette is conceived as being related to nerte, q.v.) Nette is also defined as "sister" or "girl approaching the adult" (VT47:16, VT49:25) , "girl/daughter" (VT47:15-16) ; it may be that "sister" was Tolkien's final decision on the meaning (VT48:4, 22) - The related word nésa seems like a less ambiguous translation of "sister".

netya- 1) vb. "to trim, adorn" (VT47:33)

netya 2) adj . "pretty, dainty" (VT47:33)

neuma noun "snare" (SNEW)

neuna adj. "second" (NDEW)

neuro noun "follower, successor" (NDEW)

nev- vb. “try” (PE17:167; Tolkien in the source expresses uncertainty as to whether this word should be adopted or not)

nexa adj. “sharp, angular” (PE17:55; the editor indicates that the reading is uncertain, so the variant nerca may be preferred.)

néya, see nea #1

-ngo “we (two)”, abandoned pronominal ending for the 1st person dual inclusive (later revised by Tolkien to -ngwe/-nque). An alternative form -lmo was also listed (VT49:48) . The ending -ngo was probably meant to represent older *- ngwo (VT49:49).

ngoldo see noldo

-ngwa “our”, 1st person dual inclusive possessive pronominal ending: *“thy and my”, corresponding to the ending -ngwe for dual inclusive “we” (VT49:16)

ngwalme see nwalme

-ngwe “we”, 1st person dual inclusive pronominal ending: *“thou and I” (compare the exclusive dual form -mme). Caringwe, *“the two of us do” (VT49:16) . One source lists the ending as “- inke > - inque ” instead (VT49:51, 53, 57; “inke” was apparently Old Quenya) . In an earlier pronoun table reproduced in VT49:48, the ending -ngwe is listed as an alternative to -lme, which Tolkien at the time used as the plural inclusive ending (a later revision made it plural exclusive ).

ngwen, possible correction of ngwin, q.v. (VT49:55)

ngwin dative pronoun ?"for us" (VT21:6-7, 10, VT44:36). Apparently belonging to the 1st person pl. It would be pronounced *nwin at the end of the Third Age, but since Tolkien in another source implies that the 1st pl. exclusive base ñwe had the "independent" stem we - in Quenya (VT48:10), we must assume that the dative pronoun should rather be *wen, or in Exilic Quenya *ven. The form ngwin may reflect another conceptual phase when Tolkien meant the nasal element of ñwe to be preserved in Quenya as well. The vowel i rather than e is difficult to account for if the base is to be ( ñ ) we . In VT49:55, Carl F. Hosttetter suggests that ngwen rather than ngwin may actually be the correct reading of Tolkien's manuscript.

ni (1) 1st person sg. pron. "I" (according to PE17:68 also “me” as object), with long vowel ( ) when stressed (VT49:51) , cf. ní nauva next to nauvan for *“I will be” (VT49:19) , the former wording emphasizing the pronoun. The pronoun ni represents the original stem-form (VT49:50) . Dative nin "for me, to me" ( Arct, Nam , RGEO:67, VT41:11/15) . Compare the reflexive pronoun imni, imne *"myself" and the emphatic pronoun inye, q.v. – The ancient element ni is said to have implied, originally, “this by me, of my [?concern]” (VT49:37)

(2) noun "woman, female" (NI 1 , INI (NĒ R ) ) . Not to be confused with as a stressed form of the pronoun ni “I”.

(3) prep. “beneath, not touching, under” (PE17:95)

níca adj. "small". The word is said to mean "small" with "good senses"; contrast nípa, * nimpe. (VT47:26, VT48 :18)

níce "little finger" (VT48:5, 15) , also lepince

nicu- vb. "be chill, cold (of weather); to snow, it is cold, it freezes" (WJ:417, PE17:168) : 3rd sg. aorist nique (q.v.) “it snows or freezes”, present níqua “it is freezing”, pa.t. nicune “it snowed, froze” (PE17:168)

nie noun "tear" (NEI, VT45:38, LT1:262, LT2:346); apparently níe in MC:221

Niéle fem. name (meaning unclear, cf. nie“tear”?), diminutive Nieliccilis noun "little Niéle" (MC:215; PE16:96) . This may suggest that Niéle has the stem-form *Niéli-.

Niellúne noun "Sirius" (a star), also Nierninwa (LT1:262)

nienaite adj. "bleared" (MC:214), *"tearfully"??? (see cilde) (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

nieninque ("q") noun "snowdrop", etymologically "white tear" (NIK-W, LT1:262, 266)

nieninquea ("q")adj . "snowdrop-like" (MC:215)

Nienna noun (name of a Valie, related to nie = tear) (NEI)

nier noun "honey-bee" (LT1:262)

nierme ??? (Narqelion)

Nierninwa noun "Sirius" (a star), also Niellúne (LT1:262)

nierwes noun "hive" (LT1:262)

[ nihtil noun "little finger" (VT47:26) ]

-nil, final element in compounds, similar in meaning to Old English "-wine", sc. "-friend" as an element in names (NIL/NDIL) . Also long -nildo (VT46:4) . Variant of -ndil. In Earnil, contraction of Earendil.

nilda adj. "friendly, loving" (NIL/NDIL)

nilde noun "friend" (fem.) (NIL/NDIL)

nildo noun "friend" (apparently masc.; contrast nilde) (NIL/NDIL)

nille ("ñ") a star-imagine on Nur-menel (q.v.), from a stem ngil - noun "silver glint" (MR:388)

nilme noun "friendship" (NIL/NDIL)

nilmo noun "friend" (apparently masc.) (NIL/NDIL)

nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing” (PE17:168)

*nimpe ( nimpi-) adj. "small; small & frail". The form is given as " nimpi " with the last vowel marked as short; this is probably the etymological form that would underlie Quenya *nimpe. The word is said to mean "small" with "connotation of weakness ". Also nípa (VT48:18)

nin pron. "to me, for me", dative of ni (FS, Nam) . Sí man i yulma nin enquantuva?“Now who will refill the cup for me?” (Nam) , nás mara nin*”it is good to me” = “I like it” (VT49:30) , ece nin care sa *”it-is-open for me to do it” = “I can do it” (VT49:34). See also ninya.

#nína (gen.pl. nínaron attested) noun "woman" (VT43:31; this word, as well as some other experimental forms listed in the same source, seem ephemeral: several sources agree that the Quenya word for "woman" is nís, nis [q.v.])

*nince ( ninci-) adj. "small". The form is given as " ninki " with the last vowel marked as short; this is probably the etymological form that would underlie Quenya *nince. The word is said to mean "small" with "good senses"; contrast nípa, *nimpe. (VT48:18)

ninde adj. "slender" (NIN-DI, pointing to a stem-form nindi-) . Not to be confused with *ninde as the likely pa.t. of the verb nir-, q.v.

ninquanéron ("q")adj. "white shining" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

ninque adj. "white, chill, cold, palid" (WJ:417, SA:nim, PE17:168, NIK-W - spelt "ninqe" in Etym and in LT1:266, MC:213, MC:220, GL:60) , pl. ninqui in Markirya . Compounded in Ninquelóte noun *"White-Flower" (SA:nim) , = Sindarin Nimloth , the White Tree of Númenor; ninqueruvisse ("q") "white-horse-on" (MC:216; this is "Qenya", read *ninqueroccosse or *ninquiroccossein LotR-style Quenya) . Normally ninque would be expected to have the stem-form ninqui-, given the primitive form ¤ ninkwi ; Ninquelóte rather than *Ninquilóte must be seen as an analogical form.

ninquisse ("q")noun "whiteness" (NIK-W)

ninquiraite (“kw”)noun ?”pallor” (PE17:55) . The word is cited as the cognate of Sindarin niphred “pallor, fear”. The spelling in the source is “ninkwiraite”, but the word cannot be intended as Old Sindarin (since kw had already become p in that language).

ninquita- ("q")vb. "shine white" (NIK-W)

ninquitá- ("q")vb. "whiten" (NIK-W)

ninwa adj. "blue" (LT1:262)

ninya possessive pron occurring in Fíriel's Song , evidently meaning "my"; see indo-ninya. It may be derived from the dative form nin "for me" by adding the adjectival ending -ya. Compare menya, q.v.

nion noun "bee" (GL:60)

nípa adj. "small; small & frail". The word is said to mean "small" with "connotation of weakness ". Also *nimpe (VT48:18)

nique (1) vb. "it is cold, it freezes; it snows or freezes" (WJ:417, PE17:168) , 3rd sg. of nicu-, q.v.

nique (2) ("q")noun "snow" (NIK-W)

níquetil noun “snow peak” (PE17:168) , stem probably *níquetild-, cf. Taniquetil, q.v.

niquetil ("q") noun "snowcap" (LT1:266) . Compare níquetil in much later material.

niquis noun "frost-patterns; ice-flake or snowflake – also petal (loose) of a white flower" (stem niquits- or niquiss-), also niquesse by association with quesse "feather" (WJ:417, PE17:168) . In early "Qenya", the gloss was simply "snow" (LT1:266) .

nir- vb. "press, thrust, force (in a given direction)" ("Though applicable to the pressure of a person on others, by mind and 'will' as well as by physical strength, [this verb] could also be used of physical pressures exerted by inanimates.") Given as a 1st person aorist nirin (VT41:17) . Pa.t. probably *ninde since the R of nir- was originally D (the base is given as NID; compare rer- pa.t. rende from RED concerning the past tense)

níra noun "will" (as a potential or faculty) (VT39:30, VT41:6, 17, PE17:168)

níre noun "tear" (NEI)

nirme noun "an act of will, exercise of will" (VT39:30, VT41:6, PE17:168) , "the act or action of níra " (VT41:17)

nirwa (1) noun "bolster, cushion" (NID)

[ nirwa (2) adj . "scarred" (VT46:4) ]

[ nirwe noun "scar" (VT46:4) ]

nís ( niss-, as in pl. nissi) noun "woman" (MR:213. The Etymologies gives nis (or nisse ), pl. nissi : see the stems NDIS-SĒ /SĀ , NI 1 , NIS (NĒ R),VT46:4; compare VT47:33. In Tolkien's Quenya rendering of Hail Mary, the plural nísi occurs instead of nissi ; this form is curious, since nísi would be expected to turn into * nízi , *níri (VT43:31). VT47:33 suggests that Tolkien at one point considered niþ - as the older form of the stem, which etymology would solve this problem (since s from older þ does not become z > r ). Even so, the MR forms, nís with stem niss -, may be preferred. - Compare † , # nína, nisto, Lindisse.

# nísima adj. "fragrant", isolated from Nísimaldar, q.v.

Nísimaldar noun "Fragrant trees", a region in Númenor (UT:167; evidently # nísima "fragrant", attested here only, + aldar "trees") .

Nísinen noun *"Fragrance-water", a lake in Númenor (UT:168)

nisse noun "woman" (NDIS-SĒ /SĀ , NI 1 , NIS, VT47:33) ; see nís. Note: nisse could apparently also mean "in me", the locative form of the 1st person pronoun ni, q.v.

nisto noun "large woman" (compare nís) (VT45:33)

níte (stem * níti-, given the primitive form¤ neiti ) adj. "moist, dewy" (NEI, VT45:38)

# nitya adj. "small" (VT48:15, PM:365)

[ nitye noun , ephemeral word for "little finger", changed to níce (VT48:15)

níve adj . "pale" (MC:213; this is "Qenya" - Tolkien's later Quenya has néca)

nixe noun "frost" (WJ:417) ; previously described as a synonym of niquis“ice-flake or snowflake”, q.v. (PE17:168)

-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from - na “to” with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -nalready, the ending -nnamerges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómennaas the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen(q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.

no prep. "under" (NŪ ; all other sources give nu instead. In early "Qenya", no meant "upon"; MC:214)

(1) (stem nów- as in pl. nówi) noun "conception" (= idea) (NOWO) . In an earlier version, later deleted, represented earlier ñó ( ngó), glossed "idea, thought" (VT46:6) .

(2) conj. "but" (VT41:13)

(3) prep. “before” (of time), “at back” (of spatial relationships). In other conceptual phases, Tolkien also let the word have the opposite meaning “after” (of time) or “in front” (of space). (VT49:32)

noa (1) noun "conception" (= idea) (NOWO)

noa (2) adj. “former”, also adv. (and noun?) “yesterday”, shortened from the full phrase noa ré “former day” (VT49:34) . In other conceptual phases, Tolkien used noa for “tomorrow” (VT49:20)

[ noa (3) noun "thigh" (VT46:4) ]

Nócoire noun alternative name of March (PM:135)

noi noun "lament" (NAY)

#noire noun "tomb", isolated from Noirinan, q.v. This compound may suggest that noire has the stem-form noiri-, unless the compound is supposed to contain a plural form "tombs".

Noirinan noun the "Valley of the Tombs" in Númenor (evidently *noire, *noiri- "tomb" + nan "valley") (UT:166)

ñol- noun "smell" (VT45:5) ; strengthened aññol, q.v. Possibly ñol- should be regarded as simply the stem of olme, q.v.

nóla ("ñ") (1) adj. "wise, learned" (ÑGOL) (note that this and the next nóla would be spelt differently in Tengwar writing, and originally they were also pronounced differently, since nóla "wise, learned" was ñóla in First Age Quenya).

nóla (2) noun "round head, knoll" (NDOL)

Nólaire noun alternative name of July (PM:135)

ñolda adj. “dark-haired” (PE17:125) , associated with Noldor and hence not much used. Cf. nolya.

noldare noun "mole"; also nolpa (GL:30)

noldo (ñ) noun "one of the people of the Noldor", "one of the wise folk, Gnome". Cf. the gloss "Gnome" in early "Qenya" (LT1:262) . Also name of tengwa #19, that is used for the initial n of noldo in Tengwar spelling. Originally pronounced ngoldo (also spelt ñoldo by Tolkien, ÑGOLOD ); initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation (Appendix E). Pl. Noldor ("Ñoldor") , "the Wise", name of the second clan of the Eldar (WJ:380, 381) ; gen. pl. Noldoron"of the Noldor" is attested (VT39:16)

Noldolante ) noun "the Fall of the Noldor" (name of a song) (Silm)

Noldomar ) noun "Gnomeland" (LT1:262).

Noldomíre ) lit. noun *"Noldo-jewel", another word for Silmaril (ÑGOLOD).

Noldo-quentasta ("Ñoldo-")noun "Noldo-history", History of the Noldor (VT39:16)

Noldóran ("ñ")noun "King of the Noldor" (PM:343; evidently noldo + aran) .

Noldorinwa ) adj. *"Gnomish", "Noldorin", "of the Noldor" (LT1:262, VT39:16) ; lower-case noldorinwa in Narqelion .

nóle ) noun "long study (of any subject), lore, knowledge" (SA:gûl, also WJ:383 and MR:350, there spelt ñóle, the earlier pronunciation. In the Etymologies , stem ÑGOL, the gloss is "wisdom".) Compare Nólion. At one point, Tolkien was dissatisfied with ÑGOL as the stem for “wisdom” and introduced the form núle (q.v.) or slightly dissimilar meaning (PE17:125) .

nóleme ) noun "deep lore, wisdom" (LT1:263) . Perhaps replaced by Nolme in Tolkien's later Quenya.

Nólion (ñ?) , second name of Vardamir Nólion (UT:210) . Perhaps "son of knowledge", nóle (q.v.) + -ion "son", which ending displaces a final -e (compare Aranwion "son of Aranwe", UT:50 cf. 32)

Nolme ("ñ")noun "knowledge, Philosophy (including Science)" (PM:360 cf. 344)

nolmo ("ñ")noun "wise person" (PM:360)

Nolofinwe ("ñ")masc. name "Fingolfin" (PM:344)

Nolondil (ñ?)masc. name , perhaps "friend of lore/knowledge", the initial element nolo- reflecting the root ÑGOL having to do with knowledge (cf. nolo- in Nolofinwe) + -ndil "friend" (UT:210)

nolpa "mole"; also noldare (GL:30)

nolwe ("ñ")noun "wisdom, secret lore" (ÑGOL)

nolya (“ñ”)adj. “dark-haired” (PE17:125) , i.e. very dark brown

#nóme noun "place", isolated from Nómesseron, q.v. Cf. also sinome.

Nómesseron pl. noun in genitive: a compound "of place-names", apparently an inflected compound consisting of #nóme "place" + a genitive plural #esseron "of names" (VT42:17; we might have expected *ession, since essi rather than ? esser as the nominative plural of esse "name" is attested both in PM:339 and MR:470)

[ ñon, noun "groan" (gloss changed by Tolkien from "growl") (VT46:6) ]

[ ñona- vb. "groan" (VT46:6) ]

nonda noun "hand, especially in [?clutching]" (VT47:23; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible)

Nóquelle noun alternative name of October (PM:135) ; otherwise called Narquelie

nor- vb. “run (or leap: of animals, men etc.)”, pa.t. norne (PE17:58, 168) ; cf. nórima, nornoro-

nór noun "land" (stem nor-, PE17:106), (land as opposed to water and sea; nor in Letters:308). Cf. nóre.

[ ñor noun? prefix? “fear” (PE17:172) ]

nordo noun “oak” (PE17:25) , possibly replacing norno (q.v.) in a pre-LotR source.

nóre noun "land" (associated with a particular people) (WJ:413) , "country, land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live, race, clan" ( NŌ , NDOR, BAL ), also used = "race, tribe, people" (SA:dôr, PE17:169; however, the normal word for "people" is lie ) . Early "Qenya" has nóre "native land, nation, family, country" (in compounds - nor) (LT1:272)

norie, also norme, noun “race, running“ (PE17:169)

# nórie noun "country", in sindanórie (see sinda) ( Nam , RGEO:67)

nórima adj. “strong/swift at running” (VT49:29) ; see nor-

norme = norie, q.v.

norna adj. "stiff, tough; hard, firm, resistant" (WJ:413, PE17:106) , “thrawn, tough, obdurate”, mainly applied to persons (PE17:181)

norno (1) noun "oak" (DÓRON) ; a later source has nordo (PE17:25)

Norno (2) noun "dwarf"; a personalized form of the adjective norna (WJ:413) ; Nornalie(not * Nornolie) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole (WJ:388)

nornoro- vb. "run on, run smoothly" (LT1:263) . Compare nor-.

norolinda adj. “lightly tripping” (PE16:96) , compare “Qenya” norolindewith similar meaning (MC:215)

norolle noun "cart" (GL:31)

Norríve noun alternative name of December (PM:135) , otherwise called Ringare.

norsa ( þ) noun "giant" (NOROTH)

norta- vb. (1) “make run, specially used of riding horses or other animals”, onortanen rocco “I rode a horse”, nortanen “I rode” (with ellipsis of object; the prefix o- must apparently be included if the animal one rides on is mentioned as a direct object) (PE17:168)

ñorthus, ñorsus (-þus), (stem ñorsúr-) noun Quenya equivalent of Sindarin Gorthu “Mist of Fear”, a name of Sauron (PE17:183) . The word is not capitalized as a name in the source.

norta (ñ) (2) adj. "horrible" (VT46:4. In Tengwar writing, the initial N would be represented by the letter noldo , not númen .)

nortil (probably * nortill-) noun "a cape (of land), only used of the ends of promontories or other seaward projections that were relatively sharp and spike-like" (VT47:28)

norto (ñ) noun "a horror" (VT46:4. In Tengwar writing, the initial N would be represented by the letter noldo , not númen .)

nosse noun "clan, family, 'house' " (NŌ ) , "kindred, family" (PM:320) , "kin, people" (LT1:250, LT1:272, LT2:338)

nosta noun "birth, birthday" (LT1:272; maybe not a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya because the meaning of the corresponding verb was changed from "give birth" to "beget")

nosta- vb. , variously glossed "beget" (SD:73 ) or passive “be begotten” (PE17:170) ; in earlier "Qenya" the gloss was "give birth" (LT1:272)

nostale noun "species, kind" (LT1:272)

nostari pl. noun "parents", pl. of *nostar or *nostaro "parent" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)

not- vb. "reckon" (NOT) ; compare onot-. Passive participle nótina "counted, *reckoned" (FS) , nótima“countable” (PE17:68) , #notie *"counting, reckoning" in maquanotie "decimal system" (VT47:10) , variant #nótie in caistanótie of similar meaning (VT48:11) .

nóte noun "number" (NOT)

#notesse noun "numeral" (VT47:14, there in plural form notessi) Also #nótesse pl. nótessi with a long ó (VT48:14)

#nótie "counting", isolated from caistanótie, q.v.

nótima adj. “countable” (PE17:68, 172) , negated únótima “uncountable”, q.v.

*notto (ñ)noun “enemy”, reconstructed simplex form of the second element of the Moringotto “Dark Enemy”, a Quenya form of Morgoth(VT49:25) . Compare #cotto.

Nótuile noun alternative name of May (PM:135)

-nt ending for dual dative (Plotz)

-nta (1) ending for dual allative (Plotz) ; see -nna

-nta (2) possessive 3rd person pl. pronominal ending: “their” (VT49:17) . Lintienta “their speed” (PE17:58) , nassentar “their true-being[s]” (PE17:175) . This ending corresponds to -nte“they” (other versions of Quenya uses -lte for “they” and hence -ltafor “their”). Also -ntya, q.v. According to VT49:17, the ending -nta appears as -inta following a consonant (other sources point to -e- rather than -i- as the connecting vowel in such cases).

-nte “they”, pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3rd person plural when no subject is previously mentioned (CO; see also VT49:49) . This ending competes with -lte (q.v.) in Tolkien's conception (VT49:57; for “they do”, both carinte and carilte are attested, VT49:16 vs. 17). The corresponding pronominal possessive suffix appears as -ntya or -nta in various sources.

-nten ending for dual instrumental (Plotz)

[-ntye “you”, abandonded pronominal ending for 2nd person pl. familiar (VT49:49) ]

-ntya, possessive 3rd person pl. pronominal ending: “their” (VT49:17) , corresponding to -nte as the ending for “they”. Besides -ntya the form -nta is also attested, but the latter clashes with the ending for dual allative. (Other variants of Quenya uses -lta for “their”, corresponding to -lte as the ending for “they”.) According to VT49:17, the ending -ntya appears as -intya following a consonant (other sources point to -e- rather than -i- as the connecting vowel in such cases).

nu prep. "under" (LR:56, Markirya, Nam, RGEO:66, MC:214; the Etymologies alone gives no [q.v.] instead) . In Mar-nu-Falmar, nuhuinenna, q.v. Prefix - in nútil, q.v.

Núaran noun *"West-king"; Núaran Númenoren *"West-king of Númenor"; changed (according to LR:71) to Núraran Númenen, *"West-king of the West" (all of this is "Qenya" with genitive in -n instead of -o, as in Tolkien's later Quenya) (LR:60)

nucumna adj. (or passive participle) "humbled" (SD:246) . This probably contains a verbal stem #nucum- "to humble, humiliate"; compare naham- with passive participle nahamna (q.v.)

nuhta- vb. "stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue" (WJ:413)

nuhuinenna adj. "under shadow" (allativic: nu-huine-nna "under-shadow-to") (SD:246) ; see huine.

nuine noun "river (of large volume, and liable to flooding)". The word is said to be archaic, surviving chiefly in topographical names. It comes from earlier duine , hence appearing in that form in a name like Nunduine (VT48:30-31) , apparently also Anduine (q.v.) Tolkien struck out the paragraph where nuine occurs, but the name Nunduine/Anduine would suggest that the word as such is conceptually valid.

núla (“ñ”)adj. “dark, occult, mysterious” (PE17:125)

nulda adj. "secret" (DUL)

núle (“ñ”)noun “black arts, secrecy” (PE17:125)

nulla adj. "dark, dusky, obscure" (NDUL) , "secret" (DUL) . See also VT45:11.

numba adj. “bent, humped” (PE17:168)

[ numbe noun "root, foundation", also núve (VT45:38) ]

núme noun "going down, occident" (Letters:361) , “the West” (PE17:18) , núme- "west" (VT45:38, LT1:263) , “the West” In númeheruen and numeheruvi, q.v.

númea adj. "in the West" (actually an adjective *"western", in Tolkien's later Quenya rather númenya ) (LT1:263)

# númeheru noun "Lord of the West" ( núme + heru) in these inflected forms: 1) númeheruen *"of [the] Lord of the West" (Manwe) (SD:290); this is "Qenya" with genitive in - en instead of - o as in LotR-style Quenya; 2) pl. númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" (*"West-lords" = Valar) in SD:246.

númen noun "west, the way of the sunset" (SA:andúne, cf. NDŪ , MEN; capitalized Númen under SA:men and in CO) , "going down, occudent" (Letters:361) , also name of tengwa #17 (Appendix E). According to VT45:38, the word is actually cited as " nú-men" in Tolkien's Etymologies manuscript. Allative númenna "Westward" (LR:47, SD:310, VT49:20, capitalized Númenna , VT49:22; numenna with a short u , VT49:23) ; adj. númenquerna “turned westward” (VT49:18, 20) . See also númenyaron, númessier. - In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , " nú-men" was intended as the name of tengwa #21, to which letter Tolkien at this stage assigned the value n (VT45:38) . However, this tengwa was later given the Quenya value r instead and was renamed óre.

Númen(n)óre noun "people of the west", confused with Númendor "land of the west" (SA:dôr) ; hence Númenor as the name of the great isle given to the Edain by the Valar (FS, LR:56) ; full form Númenóre (LR:47, SD:247, NDŪ ) ; allative númenórenna "to Númenor" (LR:56)

numenda- vb. "get low (of the Sun)" (also númeta-) (LT1:263; in Tolkien's later Quenya núta -)

Númendor noun "land of the west", confused with and replaced by Númen(n)óre "people of the west" (SA:dôr)

númenya adj. "western" (NDŪ )

númenyaron inflected adj. used as noun? , a word occurring in a phrase from an earlier version of Fíriel's Song , Valion númenyaron, "of the Lords [Valar] of the West". But númenyaron cannot simply mean "of the West"; it seems to be the plural genitive of númenya "western", hence literally *"of the western (things, persons, realms)" or "of the Westerners".

Númerrámar noun "West-wings", name of a ship ( Númen + rámar, note assimilation nr > rr) (UT:175)

númessier vb. "they are in the west", a construction occurring in Fíriel's Song , evidently núme( n)-sse-ie-r "west-in-are-they"; the stative-verb suffix -ie is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya (FS)

númeta- vb. "get low (of the Sun)" (also numenda-) (LT1:263; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather núta-) ; inflected númetar "set" ("went down in the West") (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

Númevalion noun *"of the West-powers" (SD:290); cf. Valion

nún 1) adv . "down below, underneath" (NŪ )

núna adj. “western” (PE17:18) , compare the element #nún- "west(ern)" in certain compounds, such as Núnatani and Nunduine, q.v. (in the latter word, ú is apparently shortened as u before a consonant cluster). Compare númen.

Núnatani noun "Western Men" = Sindarin Dúnedain (WJ:386) . Sg. #Núnatan "Dúnadan".

Nunduine noun *"West-flow", name of a river in Númenor (UT:168) . Compare nuine. Since this comes from earlier duine , the name appears with the d intact following n: The initial element of Nunduine is #nún, q.v.

**nuntixe ("ks") , misreading for unutixe, q.v.

nuquerna adj. "reversed", or perhaps rather *"turned upside down". Attested in the phrases silme nuquerna and áre nuquerna, q.v.

Nur-menel noun the lesser firmament, a great dome covering Valinor, made by Varda and full of star-imagines (see tinwe, nille). It was a simulacrum of Tar-menel, the true firmament (MR:388)

núra adj. "deep" (NŪ )

núro noun "servant" (NDŪ ; in Etym as published in LR, the gloss is misread as "sunset"; see VT45:38)

Nurquendi ("q") noun "Gnomes" (lit. *"Deep Elves"), sg. * Nurquende (NŪ )

nurru- vb. "murmur, grumble" (cf. "Qenya" núru-); participle nurrula in Markirya , changed to nurrua, perhaps a kind of verbal adjective of the same meaning (translated "mumbling" in MC:215)

# nurta- vb. "hide", verbal stem isolated from nurtale "hiding", q.v.

nurtale noun "hiding" (evidently a verbal stem # nurta- "hide" with the verbal noun ending - le); Nurtale Valinóreva "the Hiding of Valinor" (Silm)

nuru, Nuru noun "death, Death" (ÑGUR). This represents earlier ñuru (VT46:4) and should be spelt accordingly in Tengwar writing. When personalized, Nuru refers to Mandos.Cf. Nurufantur.

núru- vb. "growl (of dogs), grumble" (LT1:263) . Perhaps replaced by nurru- (q.v.) in Tolkien's later Quenya.

Nurufantur noun "lord of Death-cloud", surname of Mandos (SPAN, ÑGUR)

nuruhuine noun "death-shadow" (LR:47, 56, SD:310)

nut- vb. "tie" (1st pers. aorist nutin "I tie") (NUT)

núta- vb. "set, sink" (of Sun or Moon) (NDŪ ) . In early "Qenya", the word was glossed "stoop, sink" (LT1:263)

núte noun "bond, knot" (NUT)

nútil ( nútill-, pl. nútilli given) noun "under-point", term used in children's play for "toe" (the counterpart of ortil, q.v.) (VT47:10)

[ núve noun "root, foundation", also numbe (VT45:38) ]

nuxo noun “Petty dwarf” (PE17:45; the spellings “nukso” and “nuxo” both occur in the source) . Elsewhere the Petty-dwarves are called Picinaucor or Pitya-naucor, q.v.

-nwa is said to be “a passive suffix” irregularly occurring in the word vanwa “lost” (PE17:63) , the word seems to be irregular since the underlying root means “go away” and so vanwa is in a sense a past active participle, *“having gone”. Compare PE17:68.

nwalca adj. "cruel" (ÑGWAL; this must represent earlier *ñwalca = *ngwalca; these forms are not given in Etym, but compare nwalme below. In Tengwar writing, the initial NW would be represented by the letter nwalme .)

nwalma noun "pain" (VT46:4. In Tengwar writing, the initial NW would be represented by the letter nwalme .)

nwalme noun "torment", also name of tengwa #20. Originally pronounced ngwalme; initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation (Appendix E) . In Tengwar writing, the initial NW would be represented by the letter nwalme .

nwalya- vb. "to pain, torment" (ÑGWAL; this must represent earlier *ñwalya = *ngwalya; these forms are not given in Etym, but compare nwalme above. In Tengwar writing, the initial NW would be represented by the letter nwalme .)

nwin, see ngwin

-nya pronominal suffix, 1st person sg. possessive, "my" (VT49:16, 38, 48) , e.g. tatanya *"my daddy" (UT:191, VT48:17) , meldonya *”my [male] friend” (VT49:38) , meldenya *"my [female] friend” ( Elaine inscription), omentienya *”my meeting” (PE17:68) , tyenya “my tye ” ( tye being an intimate form of “you”), used = “dear kinsman” (VT49:51, 56) . This ending seems to prefer i as its connecting vowel where one is needed, cf. Anarinya "my sun" in LR:72, so also in hildinyar "my heirs". It was previously theorized by some that a final -e would also be changed to -i- before -nya, but the example órenya "my heart [ óre]" indicates that this is not the case (VT41:11) .

nyano, see nyarro

nyar- vb. "to tell" (1st pers. aorist nyarin "I tell") (NAR 2 , VT45:36)

nyáre noun "tale, saga, history".Compounded in Eldanyáre "History of the Elves", lumenyáre "history, chronological account" (NAR 2 , LR:199)

nyarna noun "tale, saga" (NAR 2 )

nyarro noun "rat", the most likely reading of Tolkien's manuscript. Christopher Tolkien originally read the word as " nyano" (so in the published Etymologies, entry NYAD ), but the "Noldorin"/Sindarin cognates nadhr , nadhor (VT46:7) indicate that the primitive form is meant to be * nyadrō , which form could hardly yield " nyano" in Quenya.

- nye, 1st person sg. pronominal suffix "I"; also short form - n (q.v.). Carin or carinye *“I do” (VT49:16) . With object - s following in utúvienyes “I have found it” (see tuv-). It may be that Tolkien at one point considered nye (or ne, inye) as an independent emphatic pronoun “I”, but this was struck out (VT49:49) .

[ nyel an (incomplete?) word occurring in the deleted entry NYELED in the Etymologies , VT46:7). Compare perhaps the final element of Falanyel, # Solonyel]

nyelecca noun "onyx" (PE15:76)

nyelet noun "nail" (of the finger), pl. nyelexi (PE15:75)

nyelle noun "bell" (NYEL) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , nyelle was also the name of tengwa #21 with overposed dots to indicate "following y", the whole symbol having the value ny (VT46:7)

nyello noun "singer" (NYEL) . Compare the final element of Falanyel, #Solonyel, q.v

nyéna- vb. "lament" (LT1:262) . Compare naina- in Tolkien's later Quenya.

nyéni noun "she-goat" (LT1:262)

Nyenna noun alternative form of Nienna (LT1:262)

nyenye noun "weeping" (LT1:262)

nyére noun "grief" (LT1:261) , "sorrow" (GL:60)


Ó noun "the sea" (poetic word, hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya) (LT1:263, there spelt Ô)

o (1) conj. "and", occurring solely in SD:246; all other sources give ar.

o (2) prep. "with" (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; WJ:367 states that no independent preposition o was used in Quenya. Writers may rather use as.) See ó- below.

o (3) prep.? variant (along with au and va) of the stem awa “away from” (VT49:24) . It is uncertain whether this o is a Quenya word; Patrick Wynne suggests it could be the first element of the preposition ollo “away from” (ibid.)

-o (1) genitive ending, as in Altariello, Oromeo, Elenna-nóreo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanóreo, neldeo, omentielvo, sindieo, veryanwesto, q.v. In words ending in -a, the genitive ending replaces this final vowel, hence atto, Ráno, Vardo, vorondo as the genitive forms of atta, Rána, Varda, voronda (q.v.) Following a noun in -ie, the ending can have the longer form -no, e.g. *máriéno “of goodness” (PE17:59, but contrast sindieo “of greyness” in PE17:72) . Where the word ends in -o already, the genitive is not distinct in form, e.g. ciryamo (q.v.) = “mariner” or “mariner's”. Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.; dual -to (but possibly -uo in the case of nouns that have nominative dual forms in -u rather than -t). The Quenya genitive describes source , origin or former ownership rather than current ownership (which is rather covered by the possessive-adjectival case in -va). The ending -o may also take on an ablativic sense, “from”, as in Oiolosseo “from (Mount) Oiolosse” (Nam) , sio “hence” (VT49:18) .

-o (2), also -ó, "a person, somebody", pronominal suffix (PM:340)

ó- (usually reduced to o- when unstressed) a prefix "used in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units". In omentie, onóna, ónoni, q.v. (WJ:367, PE17:191; in the Etymologies , stem WŌ , the prefix o -, ó - is simply defined as "together".) In VT43:29 is found a table showing how pronominal endings can be added to the preposition ó-; the resulting forms are onye or óni *"with me", óme *"with us" [also in VT43:36, where "us" is said to be exclusive], ólye or óle *"with you" ( olye only sg. "you", whereas óle can be either sg. or pl.), óse *"with him/her", óte *"with them" (of animates – where "them" refers to non-persons, óta [or shortened ót] is used, though the conceptual validity of ta as a pl. pronoun is questionable), ósa (or shortened ós) "with it". (Two additional forms, ótar and ótari, presumably mean “with them” of inanimate things; see VT49:56 for a possible second attestation of tar as the word for plural inanimate “they”.) However, Tolkien's later decision to the effect that ó- refers to two parties only may throw doubt upon the conceptual validity of some of these forms, where at least three persons would be implied (like óte "with them", where one person is "with" two or more others – though Tolkien indicates that two groups may also be involved where the preposition ó- is used). The explicit statement in WJ:367 that the prepostion o (variant of ó) did not exist independently in Quenya is however difficult to get around, so instead using the preposition ó/ o (with or without endings) for "with", writers may rather use as, the form appearing in the last version of Tolkien's Quenya Hail Mary (also attested with a pronominal suffix: aselye "with you").

oa (1), also oar ("oa, oar") , adverbs, "away", with the idea of movement away (WJ:366, gloss in VT39:6) . Compare au #2.

oa (2) noun "wool" (LT1:249; evidently replaced by in Tolkien's later Quenya)

oante vb. "went away (to another place)"; past tense of auta-. Also perfect oantie. (WJ:366, VT48:32)

oar(1) = oa #1, q.v.

oar (2) noun "child of the sea, merchild" (LT1:263; hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Oarel ("Oarel")noun "Elf who departed from Beleriand to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there). Stem Oareld-, as in pl. Oareldi (WJ:363, 374) . Older form Oazeldi.

oaris ( oarits-), also oarwen, noun "mermaid" (LT1:263; read perhaps ear- for oar- in LotR-style Quenya)

Oazeldi, Vanyarin (and original) form of Oareldi; see Oarel (WJ:374)

ócama- vb. "have mercy" (VT44:12-14; Tolkien may have abandoned this form in favour of órava-)

ocamna noun "diphthong" (VT44:13)

#ócom- vb. “gather, assemble” (intransitive)(PE17:157, 158) . Cited in the form ócome “gathers, assembles”, evidently an endingless aorist. Perfect ócómie given.

occa noun "knee" (QL:70)

[ #ócom- intr. vb. “gather, assemble” (PE17:157, 158) ]

ocombe (“k”) noun “gathering, assembly, assemblage, collection”. Also combe (PE17:158)

ohlon (pl. ohloni is attested) noun "diphthong", used of both vocalic diphthongs and "consonantal diphthongs" like mb (VT39:9)

oholima adj. “confidential” (PE17:129) , a form also used to describe the 1st person dual inclusive pronoun.

ohta noun "war" (OKTA, KOT > KOTH) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , ohta was also the name of tengwa #15 (VT46:7) , but Tolkien would later call this letter anca instead – changing its value from ht to nc.

#ohtacar- stem of the past tense ohtacáre (-"káre")vb. "war-made", made war (+ allative = make war upon) (LR:47, SD:246; ohtacárie in LR:56). The past tense could probably also be *ohtacarne with the better-attested pa.t. of car- “make”.

[ ohtacáro] noun "warrior" (KAR) . In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the accent of the word ohtacáro was omitted (VT45:19) .

ohtar noun "warrior, soldier" (UT:282)

oi adv. "ever" (OY)

oia adj. "everlasting" (OY) ; according to VT46:8 the word is both adjective and adverb. An explicitly adverbial form oiave is mentioned elsewhere (PE17:74)

Oiacúma = Avacúma , noun the Exterior Void beyond the World (OY, cf. AWA; in the published Etymologies the final -a was misread as -i, see VT46:8)

oiala adj. “unceasing, without end, forever” (PE17:68)

oiale noun "everlasting [?age]" (Reading of gloss uncertain)(OY) .Also adverb "eternally, in eternity” (PE17:59) or “forever” (PE17:69) , so used in Namárie (Nam, RGEO:67)

oialea adj. “eternal” (PE17:59)

oïcta ??? (twice in Narqelion ; the combination ct would have to become ht in LotR-style Quenya, and the hiatic combination does not occur.)

oiencarme Eruo noun "the One's [Eru's] perpetual production", free rendering: "God's management of the Drama" (MR:471)

oilima adj. "last" (MC:213, 214; this is "Qenya") , inflected or lengthened form oilimain "last (pl.)" (MC:221) , oilimaisen " (MC:221) , oilimaite "last" (MC:214, 221)

oio noun "an endless period" (CO) or adv. "ever" (SA:los) . Oiolaire "Ever-summer" (name of a tree, UT:167; also in the name Coron Oiolaire, "Mound of Ever-summer". Oiolosse "Everwhite, Ever-snowwhite", a name of Taniquetil (OY) , hence the translation "Mount Everwhite" in Tolkien's rendering of Namárie . See also SA:los . Explicit "mount" in Oron Oiolosse "Mount Everwhite" (WJ:403) . Ablativic genitive Oiolosseo "from Mount Everwhite" in Namárie ( Nam, RGEO:67, OY)

Oiomúre place-name; noun *"Ever-?mist" (Silm)

oiórie, perfect tense of yor-, q.v. (PE17:43)

oira adj. "eternal" (OY)

oire noun "everlasting [?age]" (Reading of gloss uncertain)(OY)

ol- vb. "grow" (VT45:13; this may be a primitive root rather than a Quenya verb)

óla- vb. "to dream" (said to be "impersonal", probably meaning that the dreamer is mentioned in the dative rather than the nominative) (UT:396)

olassie noun "collection of leaves, foliage" (Letters:283) . A shorter form #olasse is apparently present in laicolasse “green-foliage” (PE17:56) .

olba noun "branch" (PM:340; the form *olva may be more frequent; olba can only occur in the Quenya variant that uses lb for lv. The Etymologies , stem GÓLOB, has olwa. See also olvar.)

olca adj. "evil, bad, wicked" (VT43:23-24, VT48:32, VT49:14, PE17:149). The root meaning implies “wickedness as well as badness or lack of worth” (PE17:170) . Variant of ulca.

ole (1) adv. "much" (PE14:80)

ole (2) cardinal "three" (LT1:258; in LotR-style Quenya Tolkien replaced this "Qenya" form with nelde )

óleme noun "elbow" (LT1:258)

olla prep “over” (= beyond, of things passed over, as in “I went over a river” or “they went over the hill”) (PE17:65)

ollo (1) noun "cliff, seaward precipice" (also oldō - is this to be understood as the older form?) (LT1:252)

ollo (2) prep. “away from” (VT49:24)

olma cardinal "nine" (LT1:258; in Tolkien's later Quenya nerte )

olme noun "odour" (changed by Tolkien from holme , VT46:6)

Olofantur noun "lord of Dream-cloud", surname of the Vala Lórien (ÓLOS, SPAN, VT45:28)

? olo (reading uncertain), possibly a synonym of #1, hence noun "night" (VT45:28)

olombo noun "horse" (derived from a base LOB which Tolkien later changed to LOP; hence read * olompo for olombo ?)

oloire noun "great flood" (VT42:10)

oloiya- vb. "to inundate, flood" (VT42:10)

olor noun "dream" (LOS, ÓLOS, LT1:259 [the latter source also gives olóre]) ; perhaps changed by Tolkien to olos, q.v.

olórea adj. "dreamy" (LT1:259 – replaced by olosta, UT:396?)

Olórin noun name of the Maia that became Gandalf, connected to olos no. 1 (UT:396)

olos (1) noun "dream, vision" ( olor-, as in pl. olori from earlier olozi) (UT:396). Cf. olor and see lár #2.

olos (2) noun "snow, fallen snow" (prob. oloss-, cf. the longer form olosse below; this form should be preferred since olos also = "dream, vision") (GOLOS)

olosse noun "snow, fallen snow" (GOLÓS, LOT[H])

olosta adj. "dreamy" (UT:396)

olóte noun "bloom, the flowers collectively of a single plant" (VT42:18)

olpe noun “bottle” (QL:69)

olvar (sg. #olva) noun "growing things with roots in the earth, *plants" (Silm) . Apparently more or less the same word as olwa, olba, which is however glossed “branch”. Cf. laima.

olwa noun "branch" (GÓLOB) . Read perhaps *olva in LotR-style Quenya (since the root indicates that lw originates from lb , which in Tolkien's later scheme would rather yield lv , reverting to lb in some forms of late pronunciation; the form olba is attested in PM:340).

Olwe noun masc. name (PM:340) , difficult to interpret (PM:341)

olwen ( olwenn-) noun "branch, wand, stick" (LT2:342)

olya adj. "much" (PE14:80)

óma noun "voice" (OM) , "voice, resonance of the vocal chords" (VT39:16) , “voice /vowel” (PE17:138, where it is said that the root OM refers to “drawn-out” sounds; contrast tomba, q.v.) . With pronominal suffix #ómarya "his/her voice", genitive ómaryo "of his/her voice" (Nam, RGEO:67) . Instrumental pl. ómainen "with voices" (WJ:391). Adj. ómalóra "voiceless" (VT45:28) . The term óma is closely associated with vowels , see óma-tengwe, ómea; cf. also the compounds ómataina "vocalic extension", the addition to the base a final vowel identical to the stem-vowel (WJ:371, 417; also called ómataima, VT42:24, 25) , ómatehtar "vowel-signs", signs used for vowels (usually called simply tehtar, but the latter term strictly includes all kinds of diacritics, not just the vowel-signs) (WJ:396)

ómalingwe ?"voice-???" ( Narqelion ; in Tolkien's later Quenya, óma means "voice" or "vowel" and lingwe means "fish", but at least the latter gloss can hardly be relevant here)

#óma-tengwe noun "vowel" (only pl. óma-tengwi attested); this refers to vowels considered as independent phonemes, according to Feanor's new insights on phonemics. Also #ómea. (VT39:8; ómatengwi ["ñ"] with no hyphen in VT39:16)

óman noun "vowel" (stem omand- as in the pl. omandi, which form was misread as "amandi" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry OM ; see VT46:7). The terms óma-tengwe, ómea from a later source are probably to be preferred.

ómataina, ómataima – see óma.

óme prep. + pron. "with us" (exclusive); see ó

#ómea noun "vowel" (only pl. ómear attested); this refers to vowels considered as independent phonemes, according to Feanor's new insights on phonemics. Also #óma-tengwe. (VT39:8)

ómen prep.+ pron. ?"on/for us" ( órava ómen "have mercy on us", VT44:12, changed by Tolkien from the simple dative form men "for us", then replaced by ( o) messe)

omentie noun "meeting" (meeting or junction of the directions of two people) (WJ:367) , *omentielva "our meeting", only attested in the genitive: omentielvo "of our meeting" (discussed in VT48:11) . See -lv-. Concerning the alternative reading omentielmo, see -lma. Omentienya*”my meeting” (PE17:58) .– The form omentiemman appears in early material, with the ending -mma (at the time plural inclusive “our”) and the ending -n (at the time the genitive ending) (RS:324, VT49:55)

omesse, ómesse, see me

ompa adv. “forward” (VT49:12) , also póna

ómu conj.? word of uncertain meaning occurring in an untranslated "Qenya" text; Christopher Gilson argues that it could mean *"although" (or *"notwithstanding") (PE15:32, 37)

-on gen.pl. ending (3O) , in aldaron, aranion, elenion, Eldaron, #esseron, Ingweron, Istarion, Númevalion, Quendion, Silmarillion, Sindaron, tasarion (see Nan-Tasarion), Valion, wenderon, yénion. Normally the ending -on is added to the nominative plural, whether it ends in -i or -r, but some nouns in -e that would have nominative plurals in -i seem to prefer the ending -ron in the genitive (hence #esseron as the gen. pl. of esse "name", though the nominative pl. is attested as essi and we might have expected the gen. pl. *ession; similarly wenderon, Ingweron).

on, ondo noun "stone" (LT2:342, LT1:254 - probably only ondo in LotR-style Quenya, see below). Various "Qenya" forms: ondoli"rocks" (MC:213; this would be a partitive plural in LotR-style Quenya) , ondolin"rocks" (MC:220) , ondoisen "upon rocks" (MC:221) , ondolissen "rocks-on" (MC:214; the latter form, partitive plural locative, is still valid in LotR-style Quenya) .

ondo noun "stone" as a material, also "rock" (UT:459, GOND) . Pl. ondorin an earlier variant of Markirya ; partitive pl. locative ondolisse "on rocks" in the final version; Ondoher masc.name, *"Stone-lord" ( ondo alluding to Ondonóre = Sindarin Gondor , "stone-land") (Appendix A) . #Ondolunca (“k”) “stonewain”, possessive form in the place-name Nand' Ondoluncava “Stonewain Valley” ( PE17:28 , also Ondoluncanan(do)as a compound). Ondolinde place-name "Gondolin" (SA:gond, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 193 ) ; see Ondo. Earlier "Qenya" has Ondolinda (changed from Ondolin ) "singing stone, Gondolin" (LT1:254)

Ondonóre, #Ondóre place-name "Gondor" (Stone-land). The shorter form of the name is attested in the genitive in the phrase aran Ondóreo, “a king of Gondor”. (VT42:17, VT49:27)

one conj. "but" (VT43:23)

óne one pa.t. of onta- vb. "beget, create" (the pa.t. may also be ontane) (ONO)

ongwe noun “crime” (PE17:170)

óni, see ó-

onna noun "creature" (ONO) , “child” (PE17:170) , also translated "child" in the plural compound Auleonnar "Children of Aule", a name of the Dwarves (PM:391) , and apparently also used = “child” in the untranslated sentence nai amanya onnalya ter coivierya (“k”) *”be it that your child [will be] blessed thoughout his/her life” (VT49:41) . The form onya (q.v.), used as a vocative *"my child", is perhaps shortened from * onnanya.

ono conj. "but" (VT43:23, VT44:5/9)

onóna (1) adj . "twin-born"; (2) noun "one of a pair of twins"; pl. ónoni "twins" (WJ:367)

onóne see onóre

onóre noun "sister" (of blood-kin) ( THEL/THELES, NŌ ; both of these entries in the Etymologies as reproduced in LR have the reading "onóne", but the "Old Noldorin" cognate wanúre listed in the entry THEL / THELES seems to indicate that the Quenya word should be onóre ; the letters n and r are easily confused in Tolkien's handwriting. There is no clear evidence for a feminine ending - ne in Quenya, but - re is relatively well attested; cf. for instance ontare.) – A later source gives the word for “sister” as nésa instead.

onóro noun "brother" (of blood-kinship) (TOR, NŌ (WŌ ) )

onot- vb. "count up" (NOT) . Compare not-.

#onótie noun "reckoning" (isolated from Yénonótie *"reckoning of years", MR:51)

Onótimo noun *"Reckoner" (the untranslated title of one Quennar, an expert of chronology) (MR:48-51)

onta- (pa.t. óne or ontane) vb. "beget, create" (ONO, PE17:170)

ontamo noun “mason (sculptor)” (PE17:107-108) ; this is a compound on( do) “stone” + tamo “smith”.

ontani form cited in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry ONO : supposedly the pl. of ontaro , ontarenoun "parent" (m. and. f.) Comparison with the singulars indicate that the n of ontani should actually be r. Thus ontani could be a misreading for ontari (SD:73), but according to VT46:7 the actual manuscript reading is ontaru, evidently a dual form referring to two parents.

ontar noun prob. *"begetter, parent" (a gender-neutral term, applied to a woman in the source; compare the various gender-specific forms below) (VT44:7) . Dual ontaru “(two) parents” (see ontani above).

ontare noun "begetter, parent" (fem); the pl. ontari or dual ontaru(see ontani) covers both sexes. (ONO, VT46:7)

ontari noun "mother" or etymologically "begetter, parent" (fem.); clashing with the plural ontari "parents", this was apparently an emphemeral form (see ontare, ontaril, ontarie for other feminine forms of "begetter, parent") (VT44:7)

ontarie noun "begetter, parent" (fem.) (VT44:7)

ontaril noun "mother", female *"begetter" (cf. onta-). Variant of ontare. (VT43:32)

ontaro noun "begetter, parent" (evidently masc.); pl. ontari or dual ontaru(see ontani) covers both sexes. (ONO, VT46:7)

onwe noun “child” (PE17:170)

onya noun *"my child", *"my son" (not the normal word for "son", however [cf. yondo] – onya seems to be derived from the stem ONO "beget") This may be a shortened form of *onnanya (see onna), like hinya "my child" (q.v.) is shortened from hinanya. It may be, then, that onya (like hinya) is only used in vocative. (UT:174)

ópa noun “mouth”, in the sense of mouth-opening with lips as the edges (PE17:126)

opele noun "walled house or village, 'town' " (PEL(ES) )

opo prep. “before, in front of” (of spatial relationships); "after" (of time), also , po or pono, poto (VT49:12, VT44:36, evidently a variant of apa) .

or prep. "over" (CO) ; in early "Qenya", this preposition was also defined as "on, upon" (LT1:256, MC:216) . Prefixed or- is translated "up" in ortil, q.v.

#or- vb. "urge, impel, move", only of "mental" impulse. Constructed as an impersonal verb: ore nin caritas "I would like/feel moved to do so" (VT41:13) , literally *"it impels for me to do so" (notice that what is the subject in English appears in the dative in Quenya). Elsewhere this verb is presented as an A-stem ora- instead (so that the aorist would be ora instead of ore, cf. ora nin "it warns me" in VT41:15), with past tense orane or orne, future tense oruv[ a], present tense órea and a form orie that may be the gerund; the forms orórie and ohórie were rejected but may have been intended as perfect forms (VT41:13, 18, VT49:54)

órava- vb. "have mercy", followed by locative: "have mercy on". Órava( o) messe "have mercy on us" (VT44:12)

orco noun "Orc", pl. orcoror orqui (WJ:390, ÓROK; pl. Orcor also in MR:74, 194) . If the pl. form orqui is preferred, the word should be assigned the stem-form orcu-. Early "Qenya" has orc ( orqu-) ("q") "monster, demon" (LT1:264; in LotR-style Quenya, no word can end in -rc.)

ore ( ori-) noun "grain" (QL:50)

óre (1) noun "heart" (inner mind), also name of tengwa #21 (Appendix E) , "premonition" (VT41:13) , "nearest equivalent of 'heart' in our application to feelings, or emotions (courage, fear, hope, pity, etc.)" (VT41:13) . The óre apparently defines a person's personality, cf. the description of Galadriel in PM:337, that "there dwelt in her the noble and generous spirit ( óre ) of the Vanyar". Órenya "my heart" (VT41:11) .

óre (2) noun "rising", anaróre "sunrise" ( ORO ). Cf. early "Qenya" óre "the dawn, Sunrise, East" (LT1:264) . See under Melkor concerning the final element of Melkóre.

órea adj. "of the dawn, Eastern" (LT1:264)

óresse noun "in morning" (MC:214) , evidently the locative of óre # 2 above.

orma noun "physical matter" (MR:218, 231, 471)

Ormal noun , one of the Lamps of the Valar: *"High-Gold"??? (Silm)

orme (1) noun "haste, violence, wrath", "rushing" (GOR, KHOR)

orme (2) noun "summit, crest" (LT1:256; this "Qenya" word is probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

orna adj. (1) "hasty" (GOR)

orna adj. (2) “tall, high, lofty” (PE17:112, 186) , also orwa

orne noun "tree" (Letters:308, SD:302: "when smaller and more slender like a birch or rowan", Etym stem ÓR-NI: "tree, high isolated tree"). For the etymology, see Letters:426; for (original) difference in meaning between orneand alda, see alda. In ornemalin "tree-yellow"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308) , also as final element in malinorne “yellow-tree, mallorn” (q.v.) Masc. name Ornendil *"Tree-friend" (Appendix A) , compound Ornelie “tree-folk” (Quenya name of the Galadhrim , the tree-people of Lórien) (TI:239) .

ornemalin adj. “bearing yellow flowers” (PE17:80) ; this is Entish-style Quenya. See laurelindórenan lindelorendor

oro (1) noun “mount, mountain” (PE17:64) , cf. Qenya oro noun "hill" (LT1:256; rather ambo in LotR-style Quenya, though #oro "mountain, hill" appears in Orocarni and orofarne, q.v. [PE17:83], also with the meaning “high” in oromar, q.v.) Cf. oro- element “up, aloft” (PE17:64) .

oro- (2) vb. "rise" (LT1:256; Tolkien's later Quenya has orta-, but cf. oro #1)

Orocarni noun "the Red Mountains", place-name: literally rather *"Mountain-Reds": a plural form of carne "red" with the element oro- "mountain" or "high" prefixed (Silm)

orofarne noun occurring in LotR2:III ch. 4, variously translated "mountain-dwelling" (Letters:224) and “mountain ash” (PE17:83)

oromandin noun "wood-spirits" (MC:215; this is "Qenya")

oromar ( oromard-) noun "high (lofty) dwelling, `hall'“ (PM17:63-64) , pl oromardi “high halls” or “high mansions” in Namárie (cf. RGEO:66, PE17:64) , referring to the mansions of Manwe and Varda upon Mt. Taniquetil. See mar #1. Distinguish oromardi noun “mountain-dwellers” (PE16:96) , pl. of *oromar(d-).

Orome noun name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin. Observes Pengolodh, "the Eldar now take the name to singify 'horn-blowing' or 'horn-blower', but to the Valar it had no such meaning" (WJ:400-401, cf. SA:rom and ROM, TÁWAR in Etym, VT14:5). Genitive Oromeo and possessive Oroméva in WJ:368. A deleted entry in the Etymologies cited the name as Oróme with a long middle vowel (VT45:15) . Oromendil, masc. name *"Friend of Orome" (UT:210)

Oromet noun place-name of obscure meaning (Silm)

oron ( oront-, as in pl. oronti) noun "mountain" (ÓROT; the root occurs in orotinga, q.v.) Oron Oiolosse "Mount Everwhite" (WJ:403)

oronye, pa.t. of orya-, q.v.

oronta adj. "steep" (LT1:256)

oronte, oronto noun "Sunrise" (LT1:264) . Notice that in Tolkien's later Quenya, oronte is also the intransitive pa.t. (“rose”) of the verb orta- “rise/raise” (q.v.)

orosta noun "ascension" (LT1:256)

orotinga noun "mountain-top" (VT47:28) . Cf. ingor.

orqui ("q") pl. of orco , q.v. (ÓROK, LT2:336)

orro (also horro) "ugh, alas! ow!" (interjection "of horror, pain, disgust") (VT45:17)

orró-, hró- “uprising, sunrise, east” (PE17:18) , element underlying words like the following, and also hróna (q.v.)

orróna adj. “eastern” (PE17:18)

Orrostar place-name , the "Eastlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

orta- vb. "rise”, also transitive “raise, lift up", pa.t. ortane (Nam, RGEO:67, ORO; misreading "ortani" in Letters:426) . According to PE17:63-64, this pa.t. form ortane is only transitive (*”raised”), whereas the intransitive pa.t. (*”rose”) is oronte. Cf. orya-.

ortil ( ortill-, pl. ortilli given) noun "up-point", term used in children's play for "finger", the counterpart of nútil, q.v. (VT47:10)

#ortírie noun "patronage", isolated from ortírielyanna "to thy patronage" (VT44:7) . A verbal stem #ortir- “over-watch” (look after, care for, protect) seems implied.

orto noun "mountain-top" (ÓROT) , “mount, mountain” (PE17:64)

orto- vb. "raise" (LT1:256; in Tolkien's later Quenya orta-)

orva noun "apple" (PE13:116)

orwa adj. (2) “tall, high, lofty” (PE17:112, 186) , also orna

orya- vb. “rise” (intrasitive only, contrast orta-), pa.t. oronye (PE17:64)

os ( ost-) noun "house, cottage" (LT2:336; hardly valid in LotR-style Quenya – writers may use coa or már)

osamnar, noun a word for "diphthong" (actually plural "diphthongs", sg. #osamna?) which Tolkien in the late thirties (?) replaced by ocamna, q.v.

ósanwe noun "interchange of thought", "communication of thought", i.e. telepathy (VT39:23, PE17:183, cf. MR:415) ; Ósanwe-centa noun "Enquiry into the Communication of Thought" (VT39:23 cf. MR:415)

óse, see ó-

oselle ( þ) noun "sister, [female] associate" (THEL/THELES, WŌ ) . Cf. otorno.

ossa noun "wall and moat" (LT2:336)

osse noun "terror" (GOS/GOTH) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , osse was also the name of a Tengwa similar to Roman c , which in a full-vowel mode apparently had the value o. (VT45:15; in the Sindarin "Mode of Beleriand", exemplified in the LotR itself, this letter has the value a instead. Elsewhere in the Etymologies itself, this symbol is called Elwe (q.v.) and is assigned the value e.)

Osse noun name of a Maia, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400) , though connected with the common noun osse "terror" in Etym (GOS/GOTH)

osta (1) fraction "one seventh" (1/7). Also otosta, otsat. (VT48:11)

osta (2) noun "homestead" (LT2:336)

ostar noun "township" (LT2:336)

ostime (pl. ostimi is attested) noun "blend", in linguistics a term for a kind of "strengthened" elements within a stem, where a single sound has been expanded into two different elements while maintaining a unitary effect and significance: such as s - being turned into st -, or m being strengthened to mb . (VT39:9)

ostirion noun “fort” (TI:423)

osto(1) noun "a strong or fortified building or place, strong place, fortress" (MR:350, 471; WJ:414) ; "city, town with wall round" (OS, VT46:8)

osto (2) noun "the gates of the Sun" (LT1:264; this "Qenya" word was probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

Ostoher noun masc. name, *"City-lord" (Appendix A)

oswe noun "hip" (QL:71) . If this “Qenya” word is used in Tolkien's later Quenya (and no other term for “hip” seems available), one would have to assume that the s represents older þ (or it would have become z > r).

otoque cardinal "seventeen" (VT48:21)

otornasse noun "brotherhood" (TOR)

otorno noun "brother, sworn brother, [male] associate" (TOR, WŌ ) . Cf. oselle.

otosta fraction "one seventh" (1/7). Also osta, otsat. (VT48:11)

otsea ordinal "seventh" (VT42:25) . See otso.

Otselen noun "Seven Stars" ( otso + elen), a name of the Great Bear (constellation) (OT/OTOS/OTOK)

otsat fraction "one seventh" (1/7). Also otosta, osta (VT48:11)

otso cardinal "seven" (SA:sîr, OT/OTOS/OTOK, VT48:6) ; otsea ordinal "seventh" (VT42:25)

otsola noun "week" (evidently referring to a week of seven days like our own, since otso = seven). (GL:62) . Compare enquie, the Eldarin six-day week, and lemnar, a five-day week.

ovéa adj. “(con)similar, alike”, also vávea, q.v. (PE17:189)

[ ovesta] noun "contract, compact, treaty" (WED, WŌ )


, pa (1) prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall); also used = "touching, as regards, concerning" (VT43:26) . Another variant gives (and apa) with the meaning “on (above but touching)”. (2) Variants of apa "after" (VT44:36) , which preposition is in one source also ascribed the first meaning here discussed. For Neo-Quenya purposes, and pa may be used for "on" or "concerning", whereas apa is used for "after" (see entries for apa #1 and #2), or pa may also be seen as a shorter form of apa “after”, as in the phrase yéni pa yéni *“years upon years” (VT44:36)

paca noun "paved floor, court" (GL:63)

pahta (1) adj. "closed, shut, private" (VT39:23, VT41:6, PE17:171)

pahta (2) noun “speech”, i.e. language (PE17:126) ; accompanied by the intransitive verb pakta- “speak, talk”, which would be *pahta- in Quenya, of which the transitive equivalent is quet-, q.v. The intransitive verb “speak” is also given as carpa-, q.v.

paime noun "punishment" (QL:72)

paimeta- “exact or inflict a penalty; punish” (QL:72)

paimesta "chastisement" (QL:72)

paitya- vb. "repay, requite" (QL:72)

pal- (1) vb. “shake”, pa.t. palle given (PE16:143) .

[ pal- (2) vb. "beat", also in an alternative (extended?) form palap-, VT46:8. See palpa-.]

palan adv.? “afar” (PE17:86) . It is unclear if this word occurs by itself or is just a root-element appearing in compounds, with meaning "far, distant, wide, to a great extent" (PAL) , "wide, over a wide space, to a distance" (VT45:21) , "far and wide" in palantír (pl. palantíri)"Far-gazer", the magical far-seeing stones made by the Noldor in the First Age (SA:palan, PAL, PE17:86) . For etymology, see Letters:427. The spelling “pálan-tìr” in PE17:86 may seem to indicate an unusual stress pattern with primary stress on the initial syllable and a secondary stress on the final one (normally a Quenya word of this shape would be stressed on ant ); it is unclear if this source describes the Quenya accents or some older pattern. – Also Palantir masc. name, "Far-sighted" (Appendix A, SA:palan, PAL, TIR) ; assimilated palar- in Palarran "Far-Wanderer", name of a ship ( palan + ran) (UT:179)

palantír noun *"Far-seer", used = "Seeing Stone" (pl. palantíri is attested); see palan-.

[ palap-, see palpa-]

palar noun "flat field, 'wang', plain" (the editors indicate that the last gloss may also be read as "place", but "plain" seems more likely in light of the other glosses, VT46:8)

Palarran ship-name “Far-wanderer”; see palan

palis noun "sward, lawn" (LT1:264)

palla adj. "wide, expansive" (PAL)

palme noun "surface" (PAL)

palpa- vb. "to beat, batter" (PALAP) . The alternative form pal-, evidently with an extended form palap-, was struck out by Tolkien (VT46:8)

palta (1) noun "the flat of the hand, the hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed" (with fingers and thumb closed or spread) (VT47:8, 9)

palta- (2) vb. "feel with the hand, stroke" etc. (basic meaning: "pass the sensitive palm [ palta] over a surface") (VT47:9)

palu- vb. "open wide, spread, expand, extend" (PAL)

palúre noun "surface, bosom, bosom of Earth" (= Old English folde ) (PAL) ; cf. Palúrien.

Palúrien noun , surname of Yavanna (PAL)

Palurin place-name "the wide world" (LT1:264)

palya- vb. "open wide, spread, expand, extend" (PAL)

pan adv. “since” (in the sense of because ) (VT49:17, 18) . The word comes from a text that was later struck out; we cannot know whether Tolkien rejected the word as such.

panda noun "enclosure" (PAD)

pano (1) noun "piece of shaped wood" (PAN)

pano (2) noun “plan, arrangement” (QL:72)

panta adj. "open" (PAT)

panta- vb. "to unfurl, spread out, open" (PAT) .

pantie noun "unfolding, opening, revealing" (abstract formation or gerund formed from panta "open", adjective and noun) (QL:72)

panya- vb. "fix, set" (PAN) . The verb napan- (q.v.), “add” or literally *”to-set”, may argue the existence of a shorter stem # pan- as well.

paptalasselindeen inflected noun "like music of falling leaves" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

# par- vb. “learn” (acquire information, not by experience or observation, but by communication, by the instruction, or by written accounts, of others). Paranye (apárien) parmanen, “I am learning (have learnt) by means of a book” (PE17:180) . – If may be that Tolkien at some point intended the root par- to mean “write”, cf. loipare.

parca (1) adj. "dry" (PÁRAK)

parca (2) (“k”) adj. “naked”, of persons (PE17:86)

parma noun "book", also name of tengwa #2 (PAR, Appendix E) . In early "Qenya", the gloss was "skin, bark, parchment, book, writings" (LT2:346) ; Tolkien later revisited the idea that parma basically is a noun “peel” and refers to bark or skin (as primitive writing materials, PE17:86): “'peel', applied to bark or skin, hence “book”, `bark (literally skinning, peeling off), parchment, book'; `a book (or written document of some size”)'” (PE17:123) . In the meantimeTolkien had associated the word with a root PAR meaning “compose, put together” (LR:380) ; the word loipare “mistake in writing” (q.v.) may also suggest that the root PAR at one point was to mean “write”, so that a parma was a *“written thing”. – Instrumental form parmanen “with a book” or “by means of a book” (PE17:91, 180) , parmastanna “on your book” (with the endings - sta dual “your”, - nna allative) (VT49:47) , parmahentie noun “book reading” (PE17:77) . Other compounds: parmalambe noun "book-language" = Q[u]enya (PAR) , # parma-resta noun *“book-fair”, attested with the endings - lya “thy” and the allative ending - nna ( parma-restalyanna *”upon your book-fair”) (VT49:38, 39) . Parma as the name of the tengwa letter for P occurs compunded in parmatéma noun " p -series", labials, the second column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E) .

parna adj. “bare” (PE17:86) , also with variant form parne (PE17:171)

passa adj. “smooth, glabrous” (PE17:171)

pasta- vb. “to smooth, iron” (PE17:171)

pasta (2) adj. "smooth" (PATH) , variant of passa

pata- vb. “walk” (PE17:34)

#pataca noun "consonant" (only pl. patacar ["k"] is attested) (VT39:8)

páva noun "mouth" (including tongue, lips and teeth). Apparently changed by Tolkien to náva, q.v. (VT39:19)

pávatengwi, pávear, words Tolkien apperently changed to návatengwi, návear (q.v.) (VT39:19)

noun "lip", dual peu "the two lips, the mouth-opening" (VT39:9; VT47:12, 35) . In an earlier source, the Etymologies , was glossed "mouth" (PEG) , whereas in PE17:126 it is more specifically “the closed mouth”.

peanta- vb. “give instructions to” (QL:72)

pel- vb. "go round, revolve, return" (PEL) , apparently also transitive “encircle” (mentioned in the Silmarillion Appendix as a meaning of the root) , cf. also “Qenya” pele - “surround, fence in, pen in” (pa.t. pelle given, QL:73)

pelecco noun "axe" (LT2:346)

pelecta- vb. "hew" (this "Qenya" word may be adapted to LotR-style Quenya as *pelehta-)(LT2:346)

*pelehta- see pelecta-

Pelendur masc.name, *"Fence-servant"??? (Appendix A)

peler noun "fenced field" (Old English tún ) (PEL(ES) )

pella "beyond", apparently a postposition rather than a preposition: Andúne pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars" ( Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya ) In one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien used pell' (evidently an elided form of pella) as a pre position, but this version was abandoned (VT43:13)

pelo noun “a boundary (fence)” (PE17:92)

Pelóri place-name "Fencing Heights", the mountains raised by the Valar to protect Aman (SA:pel, WJ:403)

peltas ( peltax-, as in pl. peltaxi ["ks"] ) noun "pivot" (PEL, TAK)

# pempe noun ”lip” (attested only in pl. pempi, PE17:126); cf. .

[ pen prep. “without, not having” (PE17:171) .] Cf. ú #1.

pen- vb. negative of #sam- “to have” (q.v.), used as a negative answer to inquiries on ownership: penin “no / I haven't” (PE17:173)

penda adj. "sloping down, inclined" (PEN/PÉNED) , “steeply inclined, sloping down” (PE17:24)

penda- vb. “slope, incline” (PE17:171, 173)

pende noun "slope, downslope, declivity" (PEN/PÉNED) , “steep incline, hill side” (PE17:24)

penga- vb. "pout" (VT39:11)

#penna noun "vowel" (only pl. pennar is attested) (VT39:16)

penquanta ("peñ"-)adj. "full to the brim, with mouth full" (VT39:11)

pente, see #pet-

penya adj. "lacking, inadequate"; pl. penye in penye tengwi "lacking signs", "inadequate signs"; in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for vowels with no preceding consonant, held (in many cases incorrectly) to have lost such a consonant (VT39:6, 8)

Pereldar pl. noun "Half-elven" (= Sindarin Peredhil ) (Letters:282) , in the Etymologies used of the Danas or Nandor (PER) . Sg. #Perelda.

peresta fraction "one half" (1/2), also perta (VT48:11)

#Perian noun "Hobbit" (#Periand-), gen. pl. Periandion *"of Hobbits" in the Elaine inscription. VT49:40 gives the erroneous reading Peri o ndion.

perina adj.? *"divided in middle, halved" (PER) The word is not glossed, but seems to connect with the verb perya- "halve". If the relationship is the same as between the verb lerya- "to free" and the adj. lerina "free", then perina is most likely an adjective "halved"d.

perta fraction "one half" (1/2), also peresta (VT48:11)

perya- vb. "divide in middle, halve" (PER)

#pet- vb. "knock, strike" (cited as " pete", perhaps with a suffixed stem-vowel); pa.t. pente given. (QL:73)

peu dual noun "the two lips, the mouth-opening" (VT39:9) ; the dual of , q.v.

phin- noun “a single hair, filament” (PE17:17) ; this is may be seen as an “element” rather than a regular word; the spelling ph rather than f is unusual for Quenya. See fine.

phindele noun “mass of long hair” (PE17:17; the normal Quenya spelling should be findele, cf. findile

pia adj. “little” (PE17:115) ; variants picina (“k”) , pince (“k”) , pitya

noun "small insect, fly" (VT47:35)

pica (1) noun "small spot, dot" (PIK)

píca- (2) vb. "lessen, dwindle, waning"; participle pícala "waning" (with locative ending: pícalasse) in Markirya

píce prep.? "upon" (???) (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

picina, see pia

Picinaucor pl. noun "Petty-dwarves" (sg. #Picinauco, cf. nauco). Also Pitya-naucor (WJ:389) . A distinct term nuxo is listed in PE17:45.

pie noun “berry” (PE16:143)

pilin ( pilind-, as in pl. pilindi) noun "arrow" (PÍLIM)

pilinehtar noun unidentified plant, some kind of rush, or rush in general (J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 199, note 34 )

piliningeve ??? (Narqelion)

pilu noun "thief, robber" (QL:73)

pilwe noun “robbery, theft” (QL:73)

*pimpe noun “tail”. A possible adaptation of the word pint, pimp- from Tolkien's early “Qenya” (QL:74) , if the word is to be used in the context of LotR-style Quenya.

pinilya adj. "small" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

pince (“k”) , see pia

pinque ("q") ??? (Nabrqelion)

pior ??? (Narqelion)

pir- "spin, turn" (apparently intransitive) . Actually cited in the form piri-, perhaps with the connecting vowel of the aorist included. "Qenya" pa.t. píre. (QL:74)

pirne, variant of pirinde, q.v.

pire noun “toe”, dual piru (PE16:96) . Compare taltil.

pirinde noun “a flower that opened and shut quickly with any change of light at [?some ?not] even a pansy closed” (PE17:146; reading uncertain and meaning obscure; read perhaps “…at [ which] not even a pansy closed”) Also pirne.

pirucendea adj. “on the points of her toes” (PE16:96) ; see pire, cende. In earlier “Qenya”, the word had a wholly different meaning: adj. "whirling lightly" (MC:215) . Compare pirucenda "pirouetting" in QL:74.

pirya noun "juice, syrup" (PIS)

#pitya adj. "little" in Pityafinwe, Pitya-naucor

Pityafinwe masc. name "Little Finwe"; he was called Amrod in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Pityo (PM:353)

Pitya-naucor pl. noun "Petty-dwarves" (sg. #Pitya-nauco, cf. nauco) Also Picinaucor (WJ:389)

Pityo see Pityafinwe

piucca noun "blackberry" (PE16:143)

piuta vb.? and noun? "spit" (PIW)

po, prep. “before, in front of” (of spatial relationships) "after" (of time), also opo or pono, poto- (VT49:12, 32, VT44:36; evidently a variant of apa)

poa noun "beard" (GL:63) . Rather fanga in Tolkien's later Quenya

poica adj. "clean, pure" (POY)

poita- vb. "cleanse", pa.t. poine (QL:75, VT48:13)

pol- (1) vb. "can" = have physical power and ability, as in polin quete "I can speak (because mouth and tongue are free)". Cf. ista-, lerta- as verbs "can" with somewhat different shades of meaning. (VT41:6, PE17:181)

pol (2) adj. “large, big (strong)”. Since this would be the sole example of a monosyllabic Quenya adjective, it may be that Tolkien is here citing the root POL rather than a complete word. Cf. polda.

polca noun "pig" (QL:75)

polda adj. “big” (PE17:115) , "strong, burly" (POL/POLOD)

poldore noun? (not glossed, derived from polda "strong, burly": possibly "strength" as an abstract) (POL/POLOD)

Poldor, Poldomo noun “breaker up of the hard / tough”, Poldor- “land-breaker?”, variant forms of Poldórea, q.v., introduced at a time when Tolkien did not want the root POL to refer to strength or mightiness (PE17:181) , cf. polda from an earlier source.

Poldórea adj. "Valiant"; as title of Tulkas replaced by Astaldo (POL/POLOD, MR:146, 149. In GL:64, poldórea is glossed "mighty", in QL:75, "muscular".)

[ pole (stem poli-) noun ”meal, grist” (PE17:115, 181) , a word Tolkien decided to replace by mule; perhaps pole was a variant of pore.]

pono, see po,

póna adv. “forward” (VT49:12) , also ompa

ponte ( ponti-) noun "back, rear" (QL:75)

pore (stem *pori-, given the primitive form ¤ pori ) noun "flour, meal" (POR) . See pole.

poroce noun “hen; barn fowl” (PE16:132)

pota-, see po,

potai adv. “therefore”. Tolkien seems uncertain whether to use this form or etta (VT49:12) . Cf. also epetai.

puhta noun "coitus" (PE13:163, gloss specified to refer to "one act"; a more general word for "sex" could perhaps be derived by adding an abstract or generalizing ending like -le)

punta noun "stopped consonant" (PUT, see PUS; according to VT46:33, this does not refer to a "stop" or plosive consonant, but to a letter with a subscript dot indicating that it is not followed by a vowel. Compare putta.)

púrea adj. "smeared, discoloured" ( Markirya)

pusta (1) noun "stop", in punctuation full stop (PUS) . Compare putta.

pusta- (2) vb. "to stop, put a stop to"; also intr. "cease, stop" (PUS)

pustane participle? "blowing" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

putta noun "stop" (in punctuation) (PUT; see PUS). According to VT46:10, a dot under a letter is intended, possibly indicating that the consonant is not followed by a vowel; cf. VT46:33 and see VT49:38, 40 regarding an actual example of such punctuation in a Tengwar sample.


quáce noun "frog"; this replaced coace ("koake") , a form rejected by Tolkien (VT47:36)

quáco ("q")noun "crow" (WJ:395; Etym also has corco, q.v.)

quaincardinal "ten" (also quean); quainea ordinal "tenth" (VT48:6, 20; VT42:25) . Quain or quean replaced the form cainen in Tolkien's conception.

quaine ("q") adj.? or participle? "wailing (pl.)" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

quaican, cardinal "fourteen" (but *canaque may be preferred) (VT48:21)

quailepen, cardinal "fifteen" (but lepenque may be preferred) (VT48:21)

quainel, cardinal "thirteen" (but yunquente may be preferred) (VT48:21)

quainque, cardinal "sixteen" (but enenque may be preferred) (VT48:21)

*quaista, reconstructed/updated fraction "one tenth"; see caista.

qual- vb . “to die”, pa.t. qualle (PE16:143)

qualin ("q")adj. "dead" (KWAL, LT1:264)

qualme ("q")noun "agony, death" (KWAL, LT1:264)

qualume ("q") participle? "heaving" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

quama- (“q”) verb “vomit; be sick” (QL:76) . The “Qenya” past tense was “qáme” ( quáme); read perhaps *quamne or *quamane if the verb is to be adapted to Tolkien's later Quenya.

quáme ("q")noun "sickness" (KWAM) , “sickness, nausea” (QL:76)

quámea (“q”)adj. “sick” (evidently = nauseous, cf. quáme and the verb quama-) (QL:76)

quanda ("q")adj: i quanda "all the, the whole" (apparently to be followed by a noun). The article i should perhaps not be included when the following noun is already determined by being a proper name (*quanda Endor "the whole [of] Middle-earth") or a pronominal suffix (*quanda hroanya, "my whole body"), though we cannot be certain. (QL:70)

quanta (1) ("q") adj. "full" (KWAT, Narqelion, VT39:8, VT43:28) , “filled, full” (PE17:68) ; the gloss “filled” would suggest that quanta can be regarded as a passive participle of quat- (q.v.) In these phrases: quanta sarme "full writing", writing with separate letters for vowels (VT39:8) ; #quanta tengwe "full sign" (only pl. quante tengwi is attested), in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for a consonant + a vowel (then analyzed as a kind of unitary phoneme rather than two phonemes); hence a stem like mata - "eat" was analyzed as two quante tengwi , namely ma + ta . (VT39:5)

quanta- (2) vb. “fill” (PE17:68) , cf. enquantuva “will refill” in Namárie . This verb seems to spring from a secondary use of the adjective quanta “full” as a verbal stem, whereas the synonym quat- (q.v.) is the original primary verb representing the basic root KWAT .

Quantarie noun "Day of Completion, Oldyear's Day" (PM:127) (= the quantien of the Etymologies )

quanta emma, quantemma noun “'facsimile', a complete detailed visual reproduction (by any means) of a visible thing” (PE17:179) , literally *”full picture”, cf. emma, q.v.

quantien ("q") noun "last day of year" (YEN) or "full year" (VT46:23) . The latter gloss also turns up in PM: quantien "full year" = yén, a period of 144 solar years (PM:126; pl. quantiéni, PM:127) . Since the latter meaning comes from drafts for the LotR Appendices that did not make it into the published LotR, it is difficult to tell whether it is canonical.

quapta- vb. “exchange” (QL:76)

quáre (also quár) noun "fist" (SA:celeb, KWAR; in the Etymologies , Tolkien first wrote quár pl. quari, and quár is also found in PM:318 and VT47:8, in the latter case changed from quáre, VT47:22. As usual, the spelling of the Etym forms shows q instead of qu.) According to PM:318 and VT47:8, the "chief use [of this word] was in reference to the tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool rather than to the 'fist' as used in punching".

quat- vb. "fill" (WJ:392) , future #quantuva "shall fill" ( enquantuva "shall refill") ( Nam, RGEO:67) Irrespective of the prefix en- "re", the form enquatuva (VT48:11) displays the expected future tense of quat-. The Namárie form enqua n tuva seems to include a nasal infix as well, which is possibly an optional feature of the future tense. On the other hand, PE17:68 cites the verb as quanta- rather than quat-, and then the future-tense form quantuva is straightforward.

quea noun “vegetable”, apparently with variant ceula (latter word is not clearly defined). (PE17:159) .

quean cardinal "ten", also quain (VT48:6, 12, 20) . Quain or quean replaced the form cainen in Tolkien's conception.

#quel- ("q")vb. "to fail" (wane, wither, fade; compare the nouns quelie “waning”, quelle “fading”), only attested in the future tense ( queluva in FS).

quelet ("q") ( quelets-, as in pl. queletsi) noun "corpse" (KWEL; Markirya also has loico)

quelie noun "waning" in Narquelie, q.v.

quelle noun "fading", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition, for the latter part of autumn and the beginning of winter (Appendix D)

quén ( quen-, as in pl. queni; as final element in compounds -quen) noun "one, (some)body, person, individual, man or woman", pl. queni = "persons", "(some) people", "they" with the most general meaning (as in "they [= people in general] say that..."). The element is combined with noun and adjective stems in old compounds to denote habitual occupations or functions , or to describe those having some notable (permanent) quality ; examples include roquen, ciryaquen, arquen, q.v. Also in aiquen “whoever”, ilquen “everybody” (WJ:361 cf. 360, 372) .

quende noun "Elf", the little-used analogical sg. of Quendi, q.v. (KWEN(ED), WJ:361)

Quendelie ("q")noun *"the People of the Elves" (KWEN(ED) )

Quendendil (also contracted Quendil; pl. Quendili in WJ:410) masc. name "Elf-friend" (WJ:410)

Quenderin adj. "Quendian, belonging to the Elves as a whole" (a learned word) (WJ:407) . The phrase quenderinwe coar “Elvish bodies” (PE17:175) presupposes a longer form *quenderinwa, here attested in the pl.

Quendi noun "Elves" as a race (analogical sg. quende, not much used) (WJ:361;SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:372, KWEN(ED), spelt "qende, Qendi" in Etym). Gen. pl. Quendion (PM:395)

quendi noun "Elvish woman", pl. quendir given (MR:229; changed by Tolkien from quende pl. quender) ; the sg. quendi must not be confused with the pl. Quendi, see above. Compare masc. quendu.

Quendingoldo masc. name, apparently compound of Quendi "Elves" and -ngoldo "Noldo", Sindarin Pengolodh , a loremaster of Gondolin. (PM:401, 404-405, VT48:5) Shorter form Quengoldo (PM:404, VT48:14)

quendu noun *"Elvish man", pl. quendur given (MR:229; changed by Tolkien from quendo pl. quendor) . Compare fem. quendi.

Quendya original form of the word Quenya, preserved in the Vanyarin dialect ( Quenya is the Noldorin form) (WJ:361, 371)

quent ("q")noun "word" (LT2:348; in Tolkien's later Quenya quetta)

quenta ("q")noun "tale" (KWET) , "narrative, story" (VT39:16) ; Quenta Silmarillion "the Story/Tale of the Silmarils". Also translated "account" as in Valaquenta "Account of the Valar".

quentale ("q") noun "account, history" (KWET) , "narration, History" as abstract, but the word may also be used with a particular reference, as in quentale Noldoron or quentale Noldorinwa "the history of the Noldor", referring to the real events rather than an account of them: "that part of [universal] History which concerned the Noldor". (VT39:16; in this source the spelling really is "quentale" rather than "qentale")

quentaro ("q")noun "narrator" (KWET)

quentasta noun *"historical account", "any particular arrangement (by some author) of a series of records or evidences into a given historical account" (not History as such, which is quentale). (VT39:16, VT48:19) . May include the "group suffix" -asta.

quentele ("q") noun "sentence" (LT2:348)

quenya noun (original adj. ) "speech" (PM:399) ; the language-name Quenya is said to mean properly "language, speech" (WJ:393) ; cf. the phrase coirea quenya "living speech" (PM:399) .However, Quenya (archaic Quendya, still so in Vanyarin) is also interpreted "Elvish" (Letters:176) , sc. the adjective corresponding to Quendi (WJ:374) , but it was no longer used as a general adjective. Quenya lambe"Quenya tongue" (WJ:407) . The command queta Quenya! “speak Quenya!” was used in the sense of “speak precisely and intelligibly, put into actual words” (instead of using hand signs or looks); the word Quenya is here used adverbially (PE17:138) . The variant queta quenyā (PE17:137) appears to use the distinct accusative (formed by lengthening a final vowel) known from”Book Quenya”.

# quer- vb. “turn” (transitive), attested as pa.t. querne (VT49:18-20) . Compare kuere ( kwere ) as one variant of a stem meaning “turn” (PE14:65) . English intransitive “to turn” requires a reflexive pronoun in Quenya: mo querne immo *“one turned oneself” (VT49:6) , in idiomatic English simply “one turned”. Passive participle # querna “turned”, isolated from nuquerna (q.v.) *"under-turned" = reversed, turned upside down. Also in númenquerna *“turned westward” (VT49:18) , nanquerne *“turned back”, pl. form of *nanquerna (VT49:17-18, 20)

# queren noun “pivot” (PE17:65) , only cited as a stem-form querend-. (Cf. peltas.) It is unclear whether Tolkien rejected this word or not.

querma noun “spinning wheel, turn-table” (QL:82, PE17:65) . It is unclear whether Tolkien rejected this word or not.

quesse noun "feather", also name of tengwa #4 (Appendix E, WJ:417, KWES, VT45:24) ; súriquesse "wind feather" (referring to a "tuft of radiating grass" in a drawing by Tolkien) (J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, p. 197)

quesset ("q")noun "pillow"; probably *quessec- since the Sindarin (or "Noldorin") cognate pesseg points to a primitive form * kwessek - (compare filit, filic-) (KWES)

quessetéma noun " qu -series", velarized series: fourth column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E)

quet- vb. "say, speak" (SA:quen-/quet-, LT2:348) , sg. aorist quete in VT41:11 and VT49:19 (spelt “qete” in the latter source), not to be confused with the infinitival aorist stem in the example polin quete “I can speak” (VT41:6) ; pl. aorist quetir in VT49:10-11, present tense quétain VT41:13, pa.t. quente in PM:401, 404, apparent gerund quetie in VT49:28 (by Tolkien translated as “words”, but more literally evidently *”speaking”). Imperative in the command queta Quenya!“speak Quenya!” (PE17:138) , see Quenya regarding the meaning of this phrase. The verb is translated "tell" in the sentence órenya quete nin "my heart tells me" (VT41:15) . Cf. also #maquet-

quetil ("q")noun "tongue, language" (KWET)

quetta noun "word" (SA:quen-/quet-, GL:28) , pl. quettar (WJ:391) . An quetta “a word more” (phrase used = “to add to what has been said”) (PE17:91)

qui conj. “if” (VT49:19)

quie adv. “whenever”. Also quiquie. (VT49:23, 35)

quilde noun "hush, rest, quiet" (GL:23)

quile noun “hue, colour” (QL.77)

quilta noun "girdle, belt" (QL:78) ; the same source also lists a verb qilti- (sic) “gird, encircle”; one could perhaps read *quilta- if this verb were to be adapted to Tolkien's later Quenya.

químari ("q")noun in pl . "phantoms" (MC:213; in LotR-style Quenya rather fairi, sg. faire)

quimelle noun "lady" (GL:45)

quín, quíne noun “crest, ridge” (PE17:24. 173)

quinna adj. “crested” (PE17:24, 173)

quinde pa.t. of quir-, q.v.

quinga ("q")noun "bow" (for shooting) (KWIG, LT1:256)

quingi ("q")noun "twang, of strings, harp" (LT1:256; rather tinge, tango in LotR-style Quenya)

quiquie adv. “whenever”. Also quie. (VT49:23, 35, 36)

quín, quíne noun “crest, ridge” (PE17:24)

quinna adj. “crested” (PE17:24)

#quir- vb. "stir" or make spin (actually cited as quiri-, perhaps with the connecting vowel of the aorist included); pa.t. quinde (QL:77)

quorin ("q")adj. "drowned, choked" (LT1:264) Some think this is not a valid form in LotR-style Quenya, since quo- may not be a possible combination in this later version of the High-Elven language.

quoro- ("q")vb. "choke, suffocate" (LT1:264; verbal stems ending in -o are not known from Tolkien's later Quenya) . See quorin.


-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -ie, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier. Occasionally it is added also to nouns ending in -e(that normally take the ending -I in the pl.). This seems to regularly happen in the case of nouns in -le (see #fintale, malle, tyelle), sometimes also otherwise (see Ingwe, wende, esse #1). This plural ending was ("it is said") first used by the Noldor (PM:402) .

-r plural ending used on verbs with a plural subject (VT49:48, 50, 51) , e.g. lantar “fall” in Namárie (with the plural subject lassi “leaves”), or unduláveras the pl. form of unduláve “licked down, covered” (PE17:72) . The ending is sometimes missing where we might expect it; for instance, the verb tarne “stood” has multiple subjects and yet does not appear as *tarner in PE17:71.

(1) [changed by Tolkien from hrá], prep. "on behalf of", followed by dative: rá men or contracted rámen "for us, on our behalf" (VT43:27, 28, 33) . As these examples indicate, independent dative pronouns may be (but do not have to be) directly suffixed to . Nouns would presumably not be suffixed like this, e.g. *rá Eldan "for an Elf, on behalf of an Elf".

(2) noun "lion", stem #ráv- as in the pl. rávi (RAW) . Compare rau.

(3) noun "arm" (LT2:335, there spelt ; probably obsoleted by # 2 (and # 1) above. In Tolkien's later Quenya, "arm" is ranco)

rac- vb. "break", past participle rácina ("rákina") "broken" in Markirya

#racina adj. "stripped, deprived"; this adj. is only attested in the pl. ( racine ["k"] ). Compare rácina under rac- above. Cf. #racina tengwe (only pl. racine tengwi is attested) "stripped sign", "deprived sign"; in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for a consonant with no following vowel; the vowel was held to have disappeared or been omitted (VT39:6)

ráca noun "wolf" (DARÁK) . Another word for “wolf” is narmo.

racta- vb. "stretch out, reach" (LT2:335; read *rahta- if the word is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya)

*rahta- see racta-

raica adj. "crooked, bent, wrong" (RÁYAK, VT39:7) , pl. raicar in LR:47 (read perhaps *raice in LotR-style Quenya)

raima noun "net" (VT42:12)

raime noun "network, lace" (VT42:28) . – In the Etymologies as printed in LR, a word raime "hunt, hunting" is also cited in the entry ROY1 , but this is a misreading for roime in Tolkien's manuscript (VT46:12)

raina (1) adj. "nettled, enlaced" (VT42:11)

raina (2) adj. "smiling, gracious, sweet-faced" (VT44:35, PE17:182) . Cf. raita #3.

raine noun "peace" (VT44:34-35)

raita- 1) vb. "make network or lace" (also rea-)(VT42:12)

raita- 2) vb. "catch in a net" (VT42:12)

raita- 3) vb. “smile”, pa.t. reante (PE17:182)

[ raiwe noun "lace" (VT42:12) ]

ráma noun "wing", pl. rámar (RAM, Nam, RGEO:66, LT2:335) ; Markirya has both nominative pl. rámar "wings" and instrumental pl. rámainen *"with wings" (translated "on wings" by Tolkien); rámali "wings" in MC:213 would be a partitive pl. in LotR-style Quenya. Variant ráme in the names Earráme, Alquaráme, q.v.

rama- vb. "to shout" (LT1:259)

rámalóce noun "winged dragon" (LOK)

rámavoite adj. "having wings" (LT2:335, Narqelion )

ramba noun "wall" (RAM, SA, VT46:10)

rambe noun "a shout" (LT1:259)

rámen, see

ran ( ram-) noun "noise" (LT1:259, QL:79)

Rána place-name "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198, MC:221, Silm) ; genitive Ráno in the phrase Ráno tie "the path of the Moon" (VT47:11) . See also ceuran-, ránasta. According to one late source, Rána is not properly the Moon itself but is rather the "name of the spirit (Máya) that was said to abide in the Moon as its guardian" (VT42:13) . The Etymologies gives Rana with a short vowel (RAN) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system there presupposed, Rana was also the name of tengwa #25 (VT45:10) , which letter Tolkien would later call Rómen instead.

ránasta noun "lunar month" ( Rána + asta, q.v.) (VT48:11)

ranco noun "arm", stem *rancu- given the primitive form ¤ ranku , hence also pl. ranqui ("q")(RAK)

randa noun "cycle, age" (100 Valian Years) (RAD)

ráne noun "straying, wandering" (RAN)

ránen adj. "errant" (RAN; may be a misreading for *ránea)

ranga (pl. rangar is attested) noun "yard, full pace". This Númenórean linar measure was "slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". (UT:285, 461)

rangwe noun "fathom" (RAK)

ranqui ("q") pl. of ranco(RAK)

#ranta noun "part”. Pl. rantali attested. (PE14:117)

ranya- (1) vb. "to stray" (RAN) , (2) ranya noun "erratic wandering" (VT42:13) , (3) ranya, also aranya, adj. "free". Another gloss was not certainly legible, but the editors suggest "uncontrolling" (VT46:10)

Rása noun "the Sea" (LT2:347; rather ear in Tolkien's later Quenya)

rasco, see rasse

rasse, also rasco, noun "horn" (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) (RAS/VT46:10, PM:69)

#rasta cardinal "twelve" (isolated from yurasta "24", two times 12; cf. the stem RÁSAT "twelve" listed in the Etymologies ) . See yunque. (PE14:17)

ráta- vb. “excel, surpass” (PE17:147)

rato adv. "soon" (Arct)

rau (pl. rávi) noun "lion" (LT1:260; the pl. of this "Qenya" form is valid in Tolkien's later Quenya as well, but the sg. he changed to , q.v.)

rauca (“k”) noun “demon” (PE17:48) . Variant of rauco, q.v.

rauco noun "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature", "very terrible creature", especially in the compound Valarauco noun "Demon of Might" (WJ:415, VT39:10, cf. SA:raukor. In the Etymologies , stem RUK, the gloss is "demon".) Longer variant arauco. The plural form Valaraucar "Balrogs" seems to contain the variant rauca.

raumo noun "(noise of a) storm" ( Markirya)

raust noun "hunting, preying" (LT1:260; in LotR-style Quenya rather roime [misreading "raime" in LR:384]. Normally, LotR-style Quenya does not permit final consonant clusters.)

rauta noun "metal" [meaning changed by Tolkien from "copper"]. The word tinco, q.v., occurs with the same gloss in the LotR itself. (RAUTĀ )

rauta- vb. "to hunt" (LT1:260; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather roita -)

? ravanda noun? , a form cited by Tolkien to elucidate the Noldorin word rhofan "wilderness"; it is not clear whether ravanda is meant as a Quenya cognate or just as an etymological (Old Noldorin?) form (VT46:10)

ráva (1) adj. “free, unfettered, uncontrolled, lawless” (PE17:78) , "wild, untamed" (RAB). In PE17:78, the gloss “wild” is given to the variant hráva instead.

ráva (2) noun "bank" (especially of a river) (RAMBĀ )

ráve noun "roaring noise" (Markirya)

rávea adj. "roaring" (Markirya)

ravenne noun "she-lion" (LT1:260)

raxa noun “a drag of any large, flat vehicle on wheels or rollers for hauling stone or other weighty material” (PE17:28)

# raxe noun "danger" (pl. ablative raxellor, VT44:9); Tolkien also considered the form # raxale (pl. ablative raxalellor) (ibid.)

[ re, possibly a 3rd person singular emphatic pronoun, struck out by Tolkien (VT49:49) ]

noun "day" (of the sun), a full 24-hour cycle (Appendix D) composed of aure (day, daylight) and lóme “night” (VT49:45) . Short -re in compounds like Ringare (q.v.). Allative rénna (VT49:45) .

rea- vb. "make network; make lace" (VT42:12)

rehtie noun “rescue, saving” (seemingly the gerund of a verb *rehta- “rescue, save”; the underlying root REK is defined as “recover, get out/away, save from ruin/peril/loss”) (PE17:38)

#rem- vb. "snare"; cited in the form " remi-", apparently including the connecting vowel of the aorist tense (as in *remin "I snare"). (VT42:12)

remba- vb. "net, entrap" (VT42:12)

rembe noun "mesh" (Appendix E, in a footnote) , "hunter's or fisher's net" (VT42:29)

rembina adj. "entangled" (VT42:12) ; aldarembina pl. aldarembine ”tree-tangled”, Quenya equivalent of Sindarin galadhremmin(PE17:26)

remma noun "snare" (VT42:12)

rempa adj. "crooked, hooked" (REP)

réna noun "edge, border, margin" (REG)

rende pa.t. of #rer-, q.v. (RED)

#rer- vb. "to sow" (1st pers. aorist rerin "I sow"), pa.t. rende (RED)

resta noun "sown field, acre" (VT46:11 cf. RED-) . The word parma-restalyanna, probably meaning *”(up)on your book-fair”, seems to use #resta in the sense of “fair” (as held in a field?) Carl F. Hostetter however suggests that #resta “fair” may be related to “day” (VT49:39-40) ; if so this word is wholly distinct from resta “sown field”.

ría noun "wreath" (PM:347)

#ric- (“k”) (1) vb. “try, put forth effort, strive, endeavour” (PE17:93, 94, 167) , imperative á rice “try!”, pl. á ricir “let them try”, á rice am(a)ricie “try harder!” (or more idiomatically á care (sí) ancarie, lit. *“do (now) with more doing!”

#ric- (2) vb. "twist", perfect irície "has twisted" (VT39:9)

ríe noun "crown" (RIG; VT46:11 indicates that the vowel í should be long)

rie noun “garland”, also apparently riende (PE17:182) .

riel (* riell-) noun "garlanded maiden" (SA:kal-) , full form rielle noun "a maiden crowned with a festival garland" (PM:347). In Altariel, Altarielle. Compare rie.

r iende, see rie

rihta- vb. "jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch" (RIK(H) )

rille noun "brilliance" (both the word and the gloss are uncertain, VT46:11)

rilma noun "glittering light" (RIL)

rilya adj.? noun? "glittering" (RIL; in the printed Etymologies the word is also glossed "brilliance", but according to VT46:11 this gloss does not properly apply to this word)

ríma noun "edge, hem, border" (RĪ )

rimba adj. "frequent, numerous" (RIM)

rimbe noun "crowd, host, great number" (RIM, SA:rim, Letters:282)

rimpa adj.? noun? "rushing, flying" (RIP; the word is more likely an adjective)

rin noun "dew" (LT1:265; rather rosse in LotR-style Quenya)

rína adj. "crowned" (RIG) , also used as a suffix “garlanded, crowned” (PE17:182)

rinca noun "twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move" (VT46:11 cf. RIK(H) )

rince (stem *rinci-, given the primitive form ¤ rinki ) noun "flourish, quick stroke" (RIK(H); the Etymologies as printed in LR reads "quick shake", but according to VT46:11 the correct reading is "quick stroke")

rinda adj. "circular" (RIN)

rinde noun "circle" (RIN)

ringa adj. "cold" ( Markirya) ; the Etymologies gives ringe ( RINGI ), but it seems that ringa is to be preferred (cf. Ringare below). Yá hríve tene, ringa ná “when winter comes, it is cold” (VT49:23) . According to VT46:11, Tolkien originally used the form ringa in Etym as well; later he would restore it. - In early "Qenya", ringa is glossed "damp, cold, chilly" (LT1:265)

Ringare noun , the twelfth and last month of the year, "December" (Appendix D, SA:ring) ; the word seems to mean *"Cold-day".

ringe adj. "cold", also ringa (which form is to be preferred; cf. Ringare in LotR). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, ringe is also given as a noun "cold pool or lake (in mountains)", but according to VT46:11 this noun should read ringwe. (RINGI)

Ringil noun , name of one of the great Lamps (pillared on ice), apparently contains ringe (RINGI) . The name was later abandoned, as Tolkien decided to call the great Lamps Illuin and Ormal.

ringwe (1) noun "cold pool or lake (in mountains)" (VT46:11) . The misreading ringe appears in Etym as printed in LR, entry RINGI .

ringwe (2) noun "rime, frost" (LT1:265)

*risil ( þ) noun "ring" (on the ground) in Rithil-Anamo, q.v.

risse noun? The word is not clearly glossed but apparently means “cut” or “cleft” (ravine), the cognate of the final element of Imladris , Sindarin name of Rivendell. (PE17:87)

rista- (1) vb. "cut" (RIS), “cleave” (PE17:87)

rista (2) noun “cut” (RIS) , cf. #1 above.

Rithil-Anamo place name "Ring of Doom", translation of the foreign word Máhanaxar that was adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:401) . Compare Anamo, q.v. Presumably *Risil-Anamo in Exilic Quenya, since the digraph th of rithil must represent the spirant þ(expressed by the letter súle, older thúle, in Tengwar writing).

-ro pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v. In Tolkien's later Quenya, the ending -s covers both “he”, “she” and “it”.

roa noun "dog" (VT47:35) . Also huo.

[ rocca] noun "wheel" (VT46:12)

rocco noun "horse" (ROK, SA:roch; Letters:382; cf. 282 where the spelling really is rocco, not rokko). In Letters:382 the word is defined as "swift horse for riding". VT46:12 refers to an alternative form of the entry ROK that was inserted into the Etymologies; here rocco, which Tolkien revised from ronco , was similarly glossed "swift horse". Nése nórima rocco (“k”) “he was a horse strong/swift at running” (VT49:29)

#rocindi noun "debtors" (attested in the pl. in the allative case and with a pronominal ending attached: rocindillomman "from our debtors") (VT43:20-21) . Variant #rucindi (similarly isolated from rucindillomman). These forms seem to have been ephemeral; Tolkien came up with them while attempting to translate the Lord's Prayer into Quenya, but the final version uses another construction.

#rohta noun "debt, trespass" (attested in the pl.: rohtar, and with a pronominal suffix: rohtammar "our trespasses") (VT43:19) Variant #ruhta. #Rohtalie, #ruhtalie *"trespass-people" = those who trespass (attested in the ablative: rohtaliello, ruhtaliello "from [our] debtors" (VT43:21)

roime noun "hunt, hunting" (the spelling "raime" in the entry ROY1 in the Etymologies as printed in LR is a misreading, VT46:12)

roina adj. "ruddy" (ROY2)

roita- vb. "pursue" (ROY1)

róma (1) noun "horn" (WJ:368 - this refers to a "horn" as an instrument rather than as part of an animal; see rasse, tarca)

róma (2) noun "loud sound, trumpet-sound" (ROM) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , róma was also the name of tengwa #30, which letter Tolkien would later call silme nuquerna instead.

róma (3) noun "shoulder" (LT2:335; evidently obsoleted by # 1 and # 2 above.)

romba noun "horn, trumpet" (ROM)

Róme noun ”east”, variant of Rómen (PE17:59) . Possessive romeva (read rómeva?), genitive rómeo (Ibid.)

rómen, Rómen noun "east" (RŌ , MEN, SA:men) , "uprising, sunrise, east" (SA:rómen ); also name of tengwa #25 (Appendix E) . Possessive form rómenwa (PE17:59) .Variant hrómen, PE17:18. Rómenna, a place in the eastern part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward" (SA:rómen) , cf. also rómenna in LR:47, 56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in his rendering of Namárie ( Nam , RGEO:67, PE17:59; Romello with a short o in VT49:32) . Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor" (Appendix A; cf. Letters:425) . Masc. name Rómestámo, Róme( n) star "East-helper" (PM:384, 391; probably ? Rómenstar must always become Rómestar , but Tolkien cited the form as Róme ( n ) star to indicate the connection with rómen "east")

rómenya adj. "eastern" (RŌ )

róna adj.? "east" (RŌ ) . Compare hróna.

[ ronco], see rocco

ronda adj. “solid, firm” (PE17:183)

rondo noun "a vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below" (and usually not visible from outside); "a (large) hall or chamber so roofed", "vaulted hall" (WJ:414; VT39:9; in the Etymologies , stem ROD, the gloss is simply "cave" or "roof"; see VT46:12 for the latter gloss) . Cf. *Elerondo.

ronta adj.? noun? "hollow" (also rotwa) (LT2:347. In Tolkien's later Quenya, the preferred words for "hollow" are unqua adj. and unque noun.)

ronya noun " 'chaser', hound of chase" (ROY1)

roquen noun "horseman [but the Quenya word does not show gender] , rider, knight" (WJ:372, UT:282)

rosse noun "fine rain, dew" (ROS1, PM:371)

rosta noun "ascent" (LT1:267)

róta noun "tube" (LT2:347)

rotele noun "cave" (LT2:347)

rotse noun "pipe" (LT2:347) ; pl. rotser (?) in Narqelion ? (Cf. QL:xiv )

rotto noun "a small grot or tunnel" (PM:365) , "cave, tunnel" (VT46:12)

rotwa adj.? noun? "hollow" (also ronta) (LT2:347. In Tolkien's later Quenya, the preferred words for "hollow" are unqua adj. and unque noun.)

noun "Drûg", Rúatan pl. Rúatani "Drúedain" (UT:385)

#ruc- (1) vb. "feel fear or horror" (1st pers. aorist rucin "I feel fear or horror"); the verb is said to be constructed with "from" (sc. the ablative case, or prepositions like ho or va?) of the object feared. (WJ:415) Hence e.g. *rucin i ulundollo (or, *rucin ho/ va i ulundo) for "I fear the monster"?

#ruc- (2) vb. "fly (to)", in the phrase ortírielyanna rucimme, "to thy patronage we fly" (VT44:7) . If this is really the same verb as ruc- #1 above, it would indicate that ruc- combined with the allative case implies flying in horror to some refuge (denoted by the allative noun).

rúcare noun “evil-doing”. Variant of hrúcare. (PE17:170)

rúcima adj. "terrible" (WJ:415)

rúcina adj. (or passive participle?) "confused, shattered, disordered, ruined" in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "red skies", MC:215, changed to "ruined skies" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8)

#rucindi, see rocindi

ruhta- (1) vb. "terrify" (WJ:415)

ruhta (2), see rohta

ruimen noun “fireplace, hearth” (PE17:183)

ruina adj. “blazing, fiery” (PE17:183) . Cf. ruine.

ruine noun “a fire, a blaze” (PE17:183) . Compare náre.

ruive, also aparuive, noun “wild fire – fire as conflagration” (PE17:183)

rúma- vb. "shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)"; participle rúmala in Markirya ; this was changed to rúma, evidently the naked verbal stem used as participle

Rúmil masc. name, genitive Rúmilo (WJ:398)

rúna- vb. "[to] free" (VT43:23) . Compare eterúna-, etrúna-, q.v. It is not quite clear whether rúna by itself is an adjective or a verb; the gloss "free" makes room for both interpretations. If #runando "redeemer" (q.v.) is formed from this noun, it would cover "to redeem" as well.

#runando noun "redeemer", isolated from Mardorunando masc. name "Redeemer of the world" (VT44:17)

runda (1) adj. “smooth, polished” (PE17:89)

runda (2) noun "rough piece of wood" (RUD)

rúnya noun "red flame" (SA:ruin; PM:366 gives runya)

runya noun "slot, footprint" (RUN; according to PM:366 runya also means "red flame", but SA:ruin has rúnya for this meaning)

rusca (1), also ruxa, adj. “wroth” (PE17:188)

[ rusca] (2) adj. "red-brown" (VT41:10)

rusco (stem ruscu-, pl. rusqui) noun "fox" (PM:353, VT41:10)

ruscuite adj. "foxy" (VT41:10)

rúse ( þ) noun “wrath” (PE17:188)

rúsea ( þ) adj. “wrathful” (PE17:188)

russa adj. "red-haired" (VT41:10)

Russandol masc. name "Copper-top", a nickname ( epesse) of Maitimo/Nelyafinwe (= Maedhros) (PM:354)

russe (1) noun "(a head or pelt of) red hair" (VT41:10)

russe (2) noun "corruscation, †sword-blade" (RUS)

rusta adj.? "broken" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

ruste adj.? or participle? "crumbling" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

rúvina adj. (or passive particle) “burst”. A verb #ruv- “to burst” may be extrapolated; the root is given as RUVU “burst asunder” (QL:81)

ruxa (1) adj. “wroth” (PE17:188) . Also rusca.

# ruxa- (2) vb. "crumble"; verbal stem only attested as a participle ruxal' "crumbling" in the Markirya poem, elided from * ruxala (since the next word begins in an a).

- rya 3rd person sg. pronominal ending "his, her" and probably “its” (VT49:16, 38, 48, Nam, RGEO:67) , attested in coivierya *”his/her life”, máryat "her hands", ómaryo "of her voice" (genitive of * ómarya "her voice"), súmaryasse "in her bosom" (locative of súmarya "her bosom"); for the meaning "his" cf. coarya "his house" (WJ:369) . The ending is descended from primitive¤- sjā via - zya (VT49:17) and therefore connects with the 3rd person ending - s “he, she, it”. – In colloquial Quenya the ending - rya could be used for “their” rather than “his/her”, because it was felt to be related to the plural ending - r,e.g. símaryassen “in their [not his/her] imaginations” (VT49:16, 17) . See - ya #4.


-s (1) 3rd person sg. pronominal ending "he/him, she/her, it" (VT49:48, 51) , occurring in caris *“he/she/it does” (VT49:16, PE17:129) , caitas *“it lies” (PE17:65) , tentanes“it pointed” (VT49:26) , tulis *”(s)he comes” (VT49:19) , eques(q.v.), anes(see #1), also (in object position) in camnelyes, caritas, caritalya( s), melinyes, tiruvantes, and utúvienyes, q.v. (Tolkien mentions -s as an “objective” ending for the 3rd person sg. in PE17:110.) The longer form -se (perhaps with personal meaning “he, she” only) is said to be “rare” (VT49:51) ; cf. náse “he is”, nése“he was” (see #1). In nése the ending is suggested to be shortened from - sse (VT49:28), an ending that may also be attested in the untranslated verbal form tankassen (PE17:76), where it is perhaps followed by a second pronominal ending -n *”me”. According to PE17:129, the 3rd person sg. ending at one stage appeared as -ze “when pronominal affixes followed” (Tolkien citing the form carize-, e.g. apparently *carizet for “he makes them”); normally z would later become r, but it actually became (historically: reverted to) s by analogy with the short form caris as well as the independent pronoun se. Exilic Quenya would then evidently have (e.g.) *cariset for “he made them”, with a rare example of intervocalic s that is not derived from older þ.

-s (2) ending for the mysterious case sometimes called "respective", actually probably a shorter variant of the locative in -sse. Pl. -is, dual -tes, partitive pl. -lis.

sa pron. "it", 3rd person sg, corresponding to the ending -s (VT49:30) . Used of inanimate things or abstracts (VT49:37; plants are considered animate; see se). For sa as object, cf. the sentence ece nin care sa “I can do it” (VT49:34) . Stressed (VT49:51) . Ósa *"with it" (VT43:36) . Also compare the reflexive pronoun insa *"itself", q.v. – In one text, sa is also defined as “that” (VT49:18) ; apparently Tolkien also at one point considered giving sa a plural significance, so that it meant *“they, them” of inanimate things, the counterpart of “personal” (VT49:51) .

sa-rince , apparently the name of the "hook" that may be attached to a tengwa letter to indicate a following s (VT46:11) . If so, sa may be a name of S (as a sound).

noun "fire" (LT1:265; "Qenya" spelling . Rather náre in LotR-style Quenya.)

saca- (1) vb. "pursue, look for, search" (QL:81; pa.t. sáce .)

saca- ( þ) (2) vb. "draw, pull" (VT43:23; this word must come from older *þaca- because it is said to be related to sahta-, older þahta-, "induce", q.v.)

saccante vb. "rent" (past tense of an otherwise unattested verb #saccata- "rend"?) (SD:246)

Sahóra "the South" (LT1:248, 255; rather Hyarmen in LotR-style Quenya)

#sahta- ( þ) vb. "induce", apparently primarily in negative sense: *"tempt". Compare the gerund or abstract noun sahtie( þ) "pressure or force (to do something against one's will or conscience)" (VT43:22-23; compare úsahtie.)

#saila adj. "wise" (isolated from alasaila [q.v.] "unwise" in a late source)

saira adj. "wise" (SAY, VT46:12; a later source has the alternative formation #saila as above)

sairina adj.? "magic" (evidently adj. rather than noun) (GL:72)

sairon noun "wizard" (SAY) ; according to LT2:337 and GL:29, Sairon is also the Quenya (or Qenya) name of Dairon (Daeron).

saiwa adj. "hot" (LT1:248, 255, 265) ; rather lauca in Tolkien's later Quenya

salma noun "lyre" (LT1:265)

Salmar masc. name; etymology unclear - cf. salma? (Silm)

salme noun "harp-playing" (LT1:265; rather nandele in Tolkien's later Quenya)

salpa- (1) vb. "lick up, sup, sip" (SÁLAP) , "take a sup of" (LT1:266)

salpa (2) noun "bowl" (LT1:266) , also #salpe isolated from tanyasalpe"Bowl of Fire") – LT1:292

salque ("q") noun "grass" (SALÁK-(WĒ ) )

# sam- vb. “have” (cited as samin, 1st person sg. aorist), pa.t. sáme (PE17:173)

sáma noun "mind" (pl. sámar and dual samat [sic, read *sámat?] are given) (VT39:23, VT41:5, VT49:33, PE17:183)

sambe ( þ) noun "room, chamber" (STAB)

samin ( samind-) noun “silk” (QL:81)

saminda, saminwa adj. “silken” (QL:81)

samna ( þ) noun "wooden post" (STAB)

samnar noun "diphthongs" (sg. #samna "diphthong"?) (SAM; in one text probably dating to late 1930s, Tolkien rejects " osamnar" as the word for "diphthong", introducing the form ocamna to replace it. See VT44:13-14.)

samno ( þ) noun "carpenter, wright, builder" (STAB)

#sámo ( þ) noun “helper”, tentatively isolated from Rómestámo “East-helper”, q.v. When initial, st- would normally simplify as s-, for archaic þ-.

sampa noun “spade” (QL:82, PE16:145) ; cf. the verb sapa- “dig”

san (1) adv. "then" (MC:216; also twice in Narqelion) , a “Qenya” term apparently replaced by in Tolkien's later conception. In his later Quenya, san would be the dative form of sa “it”, hence “for it; to it”.

san (2) adv. ephemeral word for "so" ( ya( n)... san "as...so"; san na "thus be" = let it be so, "amen"); this form was apparently quickly abandoned by Tolkien (VT43:16, 24, VT49.18)

sana (1) demonstrative “that very thing (already referred to)” (PE16:97) . Sana wende “that maiden” (PE16:96 cf. 90)

sana (2) noun "day (24 hours)" (LT1:250; the later word is to be preferred to this early "Qenya" form)

sanar noun "mind" (literally "thinker" or "reflector", suggesting an underlying verb #sana- "to think, to reflect") (VT41:13)

Sanavaldo noun "the Almighty" (SD:401) . Compare iluvala.

sanca ( þ) noun? (or adj, or both?) "cleft, split" (STAK)

sance adj. "hateful" (LT2:341)

Sancossi pl. noun "the Goblins" (LT2:341)

sanda ( þ) (1) adj. "firm, true, abiding" (STAN)

[ sanda, sande] ( þ) (2) noun "name" (VT46:16)

sandastan noun "shield-barrier", a battle-formation (UT:282; probably with stem sandastam - since the final element is derived from a stem stama - "bar, exclude". Compare talan with stem talam - from the root TALAM.)

sáne ( þ) noun “pine” (PE17:81) , stem sáni- (? – the primitive form is given as¤ thā , which would normally give Quenya sáne/ sáni-, but the Quenya noun is also cited as sáne- as if e persists before an ending).

sanga ( þ) noun "crowd, press, throng" (STAG, SA:thang, LT2:342; pl. sangar (?) twice in Narqelion) . In Sangahyando ( þ) masc. name "Throng-cleaver", name of a man in Gondor (SA:thang; a footnote in Letters:425 explains that "throng" here means a closely formed body of enemy soldiers. In the Etymologies , stems STAG, SYAD, sangahyando is said to be a swordname, and LT2:342 likewise defines the word as a name of Turambar's sword: "cleaver of throngs, Throng-cleaver".)

#sangie (evidently þ, cf. sanga above) noun "necessity" (evidently in the sense of *"tribulation, pressure"; compare sanga, of which #sangie is an abstract formation). Isolated from sangiessemman "in our necessities" (VT44:8)

sangane vb.? "gather" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

sangwa noun "poison" (SAG)

sanome adv. “there” (PE17:71) . Cf. sinome, tanome.

sanwe noun "thought, an act of thinking" (VT39:23, 30; VT41:5, 13, PE17:183)

sanwecenda noun "thought-inspection, thought-reading" (VT41:5, PE17:183)

sanwe-latya noun "thought-opening", direct, telepathic thought-transfer (VT39:23)

sanwe-menta noun "thought-sending, mental message" ((VT41:5, PE17:183)

sanya ( þ) (1) adj. "regular, law-abiding, normal" (STAN) ; variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning "ever" (VT46:16)

[ sanya] ( þ) (2) noun ?"name" (reading of gloss uncertain, VT46:16)

[ sanya] ( þ) (3) noun "truth, fact" (VT46:16)

sanye ( þ) noun "rule, law" (STAN)

sap- or sapa- vb. “dig”, pa.t. sampe (PE16:145, QL:82) ; cf. sampa, and sapsanta below.

sapsanta noun in allative: "grave-into" (MC:221; this is "Qenya"; notice old allative in -nta, later dual allative only)

sar ( sard-, as in pl. sardi) noun "(small) stone" (SAR) . In Elessar, q.v. Since Tolkien let this name have a stem in -sarn- (genitive Ele[ s] sarno, VT49:28), he may seem to have changed the stem-form of sar from sard- to sarn-.

sára (1) adj. "bitter" (SAG)

sára (2) adj. "fiery" (LT1:248; this "Qenya" word may have been obsoleted by # 1 above)

sara ( þ) noun "stiff dry grass, bent" (STAR)

sarat (pl. sarati given) noun "letter", any individual significant mark, used of the letters of Rúmil after the invention of Feanor's tengwar (WJ:396) . Cf. sarme.

sarco noun "flesh" (LT2:347; Tolkien's later Quenya has hráve)

sarcuva adj. "corporeal, bodily" (LT2:347; hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, since it connects with sarco above)

sarda adj. "hard" (VT39:17) ; pl. sarde "hards" may be used in the same sense as sarda tengwi, q.v. (As an independent form we would rather expect a nominal pl. sardar.)

#sarda tengwe noun "hard sound", a term for "consonant", but not used of semi-vowels ( y , w ) and continuants ( l , r , m , noun ). (Only pl. sarda tengwi [ñ] is attested; we would rather expect #sarde tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective.) Sarda tengwi are also simply called sarde "hards", see sarda. (VT39:17)

sarme noun "writing" (VT39:8) . Cf. sarat.

sarna adj. "of stone" (SAR)

sarne noun "stony place" (SAR; in the Etymologies as printed in LR, the gloss reads "strong place", but according to VT46:12 the proper reading is "stony place")

sarnie ( sarniye) noun "shingle, pebble-bank" (UT:463, VT42:11)

sarno noun “table” (QL:82)

sarqua ("q")adj. "fleshy" (LT2:347) Compare sarco, sarcuva.

Sarquindi ("q")pl. noun "Cannibal-ogres" (LT2:347)

sarta adj. “steadfast, trusty, loyal” (PE17:183)

sarto noun “trusty follower, loyal companion (member of `comitatus' of a lord, or prince)”, also satar (PE17:183)

# sat- vb. "set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner" (VT42:20) . Cited in the form " sati-"; the final - i may be simply the connecting vowel of the aorist (as in * satin "I set aside"). This verb "was in Quenya applied to time as well as space" (VT42:20)

satar noun “trusty follower, loyal companion (member of `comitatus' of a lord, or prince)”, often in form sarto (PE17:183)

satto, “Qenya” numeral “two” (in Tolkien's later Quenya atta) (VT49:54)

satya adj. "private, separate, not common, excluded" (VT42:20)

sau- prefix denoting doing something very badly, as in saucare, q.v. (PE17:183)

saucare noun “doing or making a thing very badly” (PE17:183).

saucarya adj. “evil-doing” (PE17:68) . Cf. saucare.

[ sauna] ( þ) noun "wooden post", changed by Tolkien to samna (VT46:15)

saura ( þ) adj. "foul, evil-smelling, putrid" (THUS) , “foul, vile” (PE17:183) . This adjective underlies the name Sauro, Sauron (q.v.) Alternatively explained to mean “cruel” (PE17:184) ; a deleted gloss defined the word as “bad, unhealthy, ill, wretched” (PE17:172) . Tolkien did not consistently hold that the initial s represents older þ; sometimes he derived saura (and so implicitly Sauron) from stems with original s-.

Sauro ( þ) (1), usually in longer form Sauron ( þ), masc. name "the Abhorred", name of a Maia, the second Dark Lord (said to be the name by which he was "afterwards called", MR:147; according to PE17:183, his original name was Mairon, q.v.). Earlier Thauron (SA:thaur, THUS) , archaic * aurond- (Letters:380, where the initial Greek letter represents th ) . The stem of Sauron would then be * Saurond-. – Another form of the name is Súro.

[ sauro] (2) ( þ) noun "carpenter, wright, builder", changed by Tolkien to samno (VT46:15)

sav- vb. “believe (that statements, reports, traditions, etc. are) true, accept as fact” (VT49:27; the fist person aorist savin is given) . Not used with a person as object (in the sense of believing that this person tells the truth); with a noun, name or corresponding pronoun as object, sav- implies “I believe that he/she/it really exists/existed”: Savin Elessar “I believe that Elessar really existed” (VT49:27) . To “believe in” someone meaning “believe that (s)he tells the truth” can be paraphrased as (for instance) savin Elesarno quetie “I believe in Elessar's words” (lit. speaking). (VT49:28)

sáva noun "juice" (SAB)

Sáya, name of the fire-fay (GL:66)

se (1) pron. "he, she, it" also object "him, her, it", 3rd person sg. Used “of living things including plants” (VT49:37; the corresponding inaimate pronoun is sa). The pronoun comes directly from seas the original stem-form (VT49:50) . Stressed form , VT49:51, attested in object position in melin sé“I love him” (VT49:21) . Óse *"with him/her", VT43:29; see ó-. Long dative/allative sena“[to/for] him” or “at him”, VT49:14, allative senna *“to him/her” (VT49:45, 46) . Compare the reflexive pronoun inse *"himself, herself".

se (2), also long , preposition "at, in" (VT43:30; compare the "locative prefix" se- possibly occurring in an early "Qenya" text, VT27:25)

selda adj.? noun? (meaning not clear, related to selde "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter") and seldo *"boy". Thus selda may be an adjective *"childlike", since -a is a frequent adjectival ending. Alternatively, as suggested in VT46:13, selda may be a neuter noun "child", corresponding to masc. seldo *"boy" and fem. selde *"girl" (before Tolkien changed the meaning of the latter to "child"). (SEL-D, cf. VT46:22-23)

selde noun "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter"; in his later texts the Quenya word for "child" is rather hína, and the final status of selde is uncertain. See also tindómerel.) (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23) In one late source, Tolkien reverts to the meaning “daughter”, but this may have been replaced by anel, q.v.

seldo noun (meaning not quite clear, likely the masculine form of selde "child", hence *"boy") (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23)

seler ( þ) ( sell-, as in pl. selli) noun "sister" (THEL/THELES) . In a later source, the word nésa (q.v.) appears instead, leaving the conceptual status of seler uncertain.

selli ( þ) pl. of seler(THEL/THELES)

*selma ( þ) noun "a fixed idea, will" (WJ:319; only the archaic/Vanyarin form þelma [ thelma] is given)

[ selye noun "daughter", used in children's play for "fourth finger" or "fourth toe" (VT47:10, 15, VT48:4) It is unclear whether it was the word selye "daughter" itself that was rejected, or just its use as a play-name of a digit. Compare yelde, yende.]

sen- vb. "let loose, free, let go" (VT43:18)

#sén collective (?) noun “children”, isolated from Erusén "the children of God" (RGEO:74, VT49:35) . The word would seem to be a collective, since it has no plural ending.

sena dative/allative pronoun “to him [/her/it]”, “at him [/her/it]”; see se. (VT49:14)

senda adj. "resting, at peace" (SED)

*sende, see ser-

senna (1), see se #1

senna( þ, cf. older form thenna) adj. “short” (PE17:185) . This is a later (TLT) variant of sinta.

senwa, also senya, adj. “usual” (VT49:22, 35) . Notice that *senya may conceivably also function as a genitive pronoun “his, her”, derived from *sen as the dative form of se #1 (compare ninya, menya).

-ser noun "friend" (SER)

ser- vb. "rest" (1st pers. aorist serin "I rest"); pa.t. probably *sende since the R of ser- was originally D (cf. stem SED; compare rer- pa.t. rende from RED concerning the past tense)

serce noun "blood" (SA:sereg, PE17:184; the Etymologies gives yár as the Quenya word for "blood")

sére noun "rest, repose, peace" ( SED, VT44:35 ); see under úye concerning the sentence úye sére indo-ninya símen in Fíriel's Song

Serinde ( þ) fem. name; "Broideress" (Silm) or "Needlewoman" (PM:333) . Original form Therinde, q.v.

serme noun "friend" (fem.) (SER)

sermo noun "friend" (evidently masc., since serme is stated to be fem.) (SER)

seron noun "friend" (SER)

sesta- vb. “to liken, compare” (QL:82)

[ setta, setya adj. "first" (possibly also "primary", but Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible) (VT46:13) ]

si adv. “here” (VT49:33; this may be a root or “element” rather than a Quenya word; see sisse, sinome)

adv. "now" (Nam, RGEO:67, LR:47, SD:310, VT43:34, VT49:18, PE17:94) , sin (SI, LR:47) or sín (SD:247, 310) before vowels. Compare the distribution of a / an in English, though in his Quenya version of Hail Mary, Tolkien used also before a vowel ( sí ar "now and", VT43:28). Si, a short (or incompletely annotated) form of (VT43:26, 34) . – In Fíriel's Song, is translated "here".

siar, siare adv. "this day", a form Tolkien apparently abandoned in favour of síra, q.v. (VT43:18)

sicil noun "dagger, knife" (SIK)

sie adv. "thus" (VT43:24, VT49:18)

sil- vb. "shine" (white), present tense síla "shines, is shining" (FG) ; aorist sile, pl. silir ( RS:324 ), frequentative sisíla- ( Markirya comments), future tense siluva (VT49:38) , dual siluvat (VT49:44, 45)

#sil-cal- vb. "to shine" (silver and gold) < "Qenya" sílankálan *"they shine (silver and gold)" (VT27:20, 27) ; cf. sil-, cal-, q.v.

sisilcala- vb. "to shine continuously (silver and gold)" ("Qenya" inflected form sisilkalan) (VT27:20, 26, 27)

silda-ránar noun in locative "in gleaming-moon" (locative -r) (MC:213; this is "Qenya"; cf. silde)

sildai ??? (Narqelion)

silde adj.? "gleaming" (?) (MC:214; this is "Qenya"; cf. silda-ránar)

silima noun the substance the Silmarils were made of, invented by Feanor (SA:sil)

Silindo "Jupiter" (LT1:265; this planet is called Alcarinque in Tolkien's later Quenya)

#sillume noun "this hour", ablative sillumello "from this hour" (VT44:35) . Compare silume.

silma adj. "silver, shining white" (SIL) , “crystal (white)” (PE17:23)

Silmarien (sometimes "-rien") fem. name, apparently incorporates sil( i) ma (Appendix A) and the feminine ending -ien, or -rien as a variant of -riel (garlanded maiden) as in Altariel (Galadriel).

Silmaril ( Silmarill-, as in pl. Silmarilli), noun , name of the shining jewels made by Feanor; full sg. form Silmarille (SA:sil, SIL, RIL, MIR) .Translated "radiance of pure light" in Letters:148. Gen. pl. Silmarillion, as in ( Quenta) Silmarillion "(the Story) of the Silmarils".

silme noun "starlight", also name of tengwa #29 (Appendix E) , though in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , the name silme instead applied to tengwa #3 (VT46:13) . Silme nuquerna " s reversed", name of tengwa #30, similar to normal silme but turned upside down (Appendix E) . In the Etymologies , stem SIL, silme is defined as the "light of Silpion" (Telperion), and also a poetic word for "silver".

Silmeráno noun in genitive , "of silver moon" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

Silmerosse, a name of Silpion (Telperion) (ROS1, SIL)

silo adv. “hence” (from here), also sio (VT49:18) . The words seem to incorporate -lo, a shorter version of the ablative ending -llo, and -o, the genitive ending that may also be used in an ablativic sense. Compare talo, “thence”.

Silpion, a name of the Elder of the Two Trees of Valinor (Telperion, the White Tree). (Silm, SIL, SÍLIP, BAL, ROS1, LR:385) In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , the name Silpion is also applied to tengwa #29, which letter Tolkien would later call silme instead.

silquelosseen ("q") noun "blossom-white hair" (MC:216; this is "Qenya", but compare losse)

silume adv. “at this time” (VT49:11, 18) . Compare talume, #sillume.

síma noun “mind, imagination” (VT49:16) ; variant isima. Also attested with endings: símaryassen “in their imaginations” (with the ending -rya used = “their” rather than “his/her”, according to colloquial useage) (VT49:16)

simen adv. “hither” (VT49:33) , símen "here" (FS; cf. sinome in EO) . Compare tamen.

simpa noun "pipe, flute" (LT1:266)

simpetalla??? (Narqelion)

simpetar noun "piper" (LT1:266)

simpina noun "pipe, flute" (LT1:266)

simpise noun? "piping" (LT1:266)

sin (1) a word either meaning "thus" (adverb) or "this" (as an independent word in the sentence, not modifying another word like sina does). Attested in the sentence sin quente Quendingoldo Elendilenna, either *"this Pengolodh said to Elendil" or "thus spoke Pengolodh to Elendil" (PM:401) . Patrick Wynne argues that sin is an adverb “thus” derived from the stem si - “this (by me)” (VT49:18)

sin (2) adv. , a form of "now" (q.v.) often occurring before vowels; also sín (SI) . However, itself (q.v.) may also appear before a vowel.

sina demonstrative "this" ( following its noun in our sole example: vanda sina "this oath"). (CO, VT49:18; in the latter source, sina is called an adjective). This word would, like Sindarin hen , be derived from primitive¤ sĭnā (VT49:34) .Cf. sin #1.

sína passive participle “known, certain, ascertained” (PE17:68) , connecting with ista- and sinte. Also sinwa.

sincahonda adj. "flint-hearted" (LotR3:VI ch. 6) . Hence noun #sinca "flint-[stone]"?

sinda ( þ) adj. "grey" (PE17:72) ; nominal pl. Sindar used = "Grey-elves", lit. *"Grey ones"; see WJ:375. Gen. pl. Sindaronin WJ:369. With general meaning "grey" also in Sindacollo > Singollo "Grey-cloak, Thingol" (SA:thin(d), PE17:72; see also sinde, Sindicollo) ;† sindanórie "grey land", ablative sindanóriello "from/out of a grey country" (Nam) ; the reference is to a “mythical region of shadows lying at outer feet of the Mountains of Valinor” (PE17:72) . However, other sources give sinde (q.v.) as the Quenya word for "grey"; perhaps sinda came to mean primarily "Grey-elf" as a noun. Derived adjective Sindarin "Grey-elven", normally used as a noun to refer to the Grey-elven language . (Appendix F)

sindarinwa ( þ) adj. "Grey-elven" in the phrase hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw " (Appendix E); it may really be "Sindarin" (as a noun) with the possessive ending -va, -wa appended, hence literally " hw of [the] Sindarin [language]"

sinde ( þ) adj. "grey, pale or silvery grey" (the Vanyarin dialect preserves the older form þinde) (WJ:384, THIN; in SA:thin(d) the form given is sinda, cf. also sindanóriello "from a grey country" in Namárie. Sinde and sinda are apparently variants of the same word.) Stem sindi-, given the primitive form ¤ thindi ; cf. Sindicollo (q.v.)

sindie ( þ) noun "greyness", sindie-nóre *”land of greyness”, also (more literally corresponding to the English translation) nóre sindieo (PE17:72) , other names of sindanórie, see sinda.

sinen adv. “in this way; so” (VT49:18)

Sindel ( þ) ( Sindeld-, as in pl. Sindeldi) noun "Grey-elf" = Sinda pl. Sindar, but less common (WJ:384)

sindi noun "river" (LT1:265; rather síre in LotR-style Quenya)

Sindicollo ( þ) noun "Grey-cloak", title of Elwe (Elu). Sindarin Thingol . (WJ:410, MR:217) .( Sindi- in this name is a compound form of sinde, q.v.) Original form Thindicollo (WJ:333) . The Silmarillion appendix (SA:thin(d) ) gives Sindacollo.

Sindo ( þ) masc. name, Elwe's brother (THIN)

singe noun "salt" (QL:83)

singwa adj. "salt" (salty) (QL:83)

Singollo ( þ) contraction of Sindicollo, q.v. (Silm)

sinome compound noun "this place" ( EO ), used as adverb (or uninflected locative) = " in this place" = "here" (VT49:18) . Variant sínome (VT44:36) . Cf. sanome, tanome.

sinqui ("q") ??? (Narqelion)

sinquitálar ("q") ??? (Narqelion)

sinta ( þ) (1) adj. "short" (STINTĀ ) . Cf. senna #2.

sinta- ( þ) (2) vb. "fade", pa.t. sintane (THIN)

sintamo noun “smith” (PE17:107-108) , cf. more usual variant tamo, q.v.

sinte pa.t. vb. "knew", irregular pa.t. of ista- (besides isinte) (IS, VT48:25)

sinwa passive participle “known, certain, ascertained” (PE17:68) , connecting with ista- and sinte. Also sína.

sinya adj. "new" (SI)

sinye ( þ) noun "evening" (THIN)

sio adv. “hence” (from here), also silo (VT49:18)

sir- (1) vb. "flow" (SIR)

sir (2), also sira, adv. “hither” (primitive¤ sidasidā ) (VT49:18)

sír noun “river”, shorter form of sire (PE17:65, VT49:17)

síra compound noun "this day", used = *"today" as adverb (VT43:18)

síre noun "river" (SIR, VT46:13) , "stream" (LT1:265) . Also short form sír, q.v.Compare #sirya.

siril noun "rivulet" (SIR)

sirilla participle *"flowing", "Qenya" participle of siri- "flow" (Narqelion, cf. QL:xiv)

sírima adj. "liquid, flowing" (LT1:265)

Siriondil masc .name, *"Sirion-friend" (Appendix A)

sirpe noun "stem, stalk" (QL:84)

#sirya noun "river", attested in the dual form siryat (VT47:11) . Compare síre.

sís adv. “here” (VT49:18, 23) , also sisse

sisíla- is said to be the "frequentative" form of sil- (MC:223); the participle sisílala in Markirya is simply translated "shining".

sisse adv. “here” (VT49:18) , also sís

Sistar ??? (VT45:12; the word is not clearly defined)

*siste (*sisti-) may be a possible phonological updating of the "Qenya" noun sist ( sisty-) "ulcer". Adj. sistina "ulcerated" (QL:86)

site adj. “of this sort” (VT49:18)

siule noun "incitement" (SIW)

síve (1) prep. "as", apparently ve of similar meaning with the prefix - "this, here, now"; síve therefore makes a comparison with something close, whereas tambe (q.v.) refers to something remote. Síve... tambe "as...so" (VT43:17) . Elided sív' in VT43:12, since the next word begins in the vowel e-.

síve (2) noun "peace" (VT44:35)

síve (3) noun “knowing, knowledge” (PE17:68; probably never meant to coexist with #1 and #2 above, so istya may be preferred)

soa (“soa”)noun “filth” (PE17:186)

soica adj. "thirsty" (VT39:11)

solme noun "wave" (LT1:266)

Solonel ( Soloneld-) noun , a name of the Teleri (here in the sg, pl. Soloneldi). Note that this form is influenced by Telerin; pure Quenya has Solonyeldi, sg. #Solonyel. (PHAL/PHÁLAS, NYEL, SOL)

sól, also solma or solos, noun variant words apparently for ”helmet”, cf. castol, q.v. (PE17:188)

solma, see sól

solor noun "surf" (SOL) ; solor, solosse noun "surf, surge" (LT1:266)

solos, see sól

solosse noun "surf, surge" (LT1:266) ; also solor

sóma noun “state, condition” (QL:85) $

[ sonda adj. "dear, fond" (VT46:15) ]

[ sondo noun "friend" (VT46:15) ]

songa noun “mouth”, in the sense of “interior cavity behind the teeth, containing tongue” (PE17:126)

sor, sorne noun "eagle" (LT1:266) ; rather soron in LotR-style Quenya

sóra adj. "long, trailing" (LT2:344)

sorna ( þ) adj. "steadfast” (PE17:113)

sornion noun "eyrie" (LT1:266)

sorno ( þ) noun "eagle" (archaic thorno) (Letters:427). Also soron. Early "Qenya" has sor, sorne (LT1:266)

soron (or sorne) ( þ) noun "eagle", before an ending sorn- as in pl. sorni, "gen.sg.... sornen "; in LotR-style Quenya this would be the dative singular instead (THOR/THORON) . SD:290 has the pl. soroni "eagles", changed to sorni as in the Etymologies . Early "Qenya" has the forms sor, sorne (LT1:266)

Sorontar ( þ) masc. name "King of Eagles", Sindarin Thorondor , name of a great Eagle (SA:thoron, THOR/THORON, TĀ /TA3)

Soronto ( þ?), masc. name , seems to incorporate soron "eagle"; the ending - to is rare (occurs in suhto, q.v.), here apparently used to derive a masculine name.

Soronúme (prob. þ) (name of a constellation, apparently incorporating soron "eagle") (SA:thoron)

sovalle noun “washing, bathing; purification” (QL:86)

sovo- vb. “wash” (read perhaps #sov- if the verb is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya, since Tolkien's later versions of the language do not seem to have o-stem verbs), pa.t. sóve (QL:86)

-sse (1) locative ending (compare the preposition se, "at", q.v.); in Lóriendesse, lúmesse, máriesse(q.v. for reference); pl. -ssen in yassen, lúmissen, mahalmassen, símaryassen, tarmenissen, q.v. The part. pl. (-lisse or -lissen) and dual ( -tse) locative endings are known from the Plotz letter only.

-sse (2), 3rd person sg. reflexive ending, melisse “he loves himself”, possibly also quernesse*”he turned (himself)” (VT49:20-21) . Compare -tte #2. The ending -sse seems prone to confusion with the locative ending; an alternative wording would be the analytical construction *melis immo with a separate reflexive pronoun. Tolkien himself changed quernesse to quernes immo (VT49:20-21) .

-sse (3) possible longer form of the 3rd person ending -s; see -s #1. Such an ending probably could not coexist with -sse #2 above. In one source, Tolkien first queried, then deleted this ending (VT49:49) .

-sta (1) “your”, dual 2nd person possessive pronominal ending: “of you two” (VT49:45, 16) , cf. -ste (q.v.) Genitive -sto in veryanwesto “of your wedding” (VT49:45) and tengwiesto “of your reading” (VT49:47) , allative -stanna in parmastanna “on your book” (VT49:47) . An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual *“of the two of them” (but according to VT49:51, the corresponding subject ending was changed to -tte, and then the ending for “their” would presumably become *-tta)

-sta (2) ending occurring in the names of certain lands(VT43:15) , e.g. the Forostar or "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

-ste “you”, 2nd person dual pronominal ending (VT49:51, 53) , e.g. cariste *”the two of you do” (VT49:16) . Tolkien first wrote carinde, but changed the ending (VT49:33) . The ending -steis derived from earlier - dde (VT49:46, 51). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual, *“the two of them” (but see -tte #1).

noun "sound of wind" (VT47:12) , "noise of wind" (LT1:266, "Qenya" spelling )

suc- vb. "to drink" (1st pers. aorist sucin "I drink") (SUK)

sucte "resin, gum"; read *suhte if the word is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, since Tolkien decided that ct becomes ht in Quenya. (QL:86)

*suhte, see sucte

suhto noun "draught" (SUK)

sulca noun "root" (especially as edible) (SÚLUK)

súle ( þ) noun "spirit, breath", also name of tengwa #9; originally thúle ( þ úle), before the shift th > s that occurred shortly before the rebellion of the Noldor (Appendix E, THŪ) . Its gloss, “blowing forth”, was metaphorically used as “the emission of power (of will or desife) from a spirit” (PE17:124) . If the element súle appears in Súlime and Súlimo (q.v.), the stem-form may seem to be súli-.

súlimarya ??? (Narqelion)

Súlime noun , third month of the year, "March". The word apparently means *"windy one" (Appendix D; SA:sûl; not capitalized in the latter source) . Early "Qenya" has súlime "wind" (LT1:266)

Súlimo ( þ) surname of Manwe (wind-god) (THŪ , SA:sûl) . Compare súle and perhaps .

súlo (stem * súlu-, given the primitive form ¤ suglu ; the pl. may be * súlwi) noun "goblet" (SUG; see SUK; apparently changed by Tolkien from súla , VT46:16)

sulp- vb. "lick" (LT1:266; rather lav - in Tolkien's later Quenya)

sulpa noun "soup" (LT1:266)

súma noun "hollow cavity, bosom"; cf. súmaryasse "in her bosom" ( súma-rya-sse "bosom-her-in") in Markirya

sundo ( þ) noun "base, root, root-word" (SUD) , sc. a Quendian consonantal "base". According to VT46:16, Tolkien changed the root to STUD , thereby implying that sundo was originally þundo (compare Sindarin thond "root").

sundóma ( þ) noun *"base-vowel" ( sundo + óma), the determinant vowel of a "base" or root (Christopher Tolkien gives the example KAT, which stem has the sundóma A; the stem TALAT has the sundóma repeated; in derivative forms the sundóma might be placed before the first consonant; e.g. ATALAT) (WJ:319)

sungwa noun "drinking-vessel" (SUK)

súre noun "wind", stem súri- because of primitive form sū - (PE17:62),hence the instrumental form súrinen "in the wind" or more literally *"by the wind" ( Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator p. 197 ); Súrion masc.name, *"Wind-son" (Appendix A) . Early "Qenya" has súru (MC:213, 216, 220) . See also súriquesse.

# surie( þ), possibly a noun *"seeking"; see minasurie.

súriquesse noun "wind feather" (referring to a "tuft of radiating grass" in a drawing by Tolkien) (J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, p. 197)

Súro ( þ) masc. name, alternative form of Sauro(n) (THUS)

súru noun "wind" (MC:213, 216, 220; this is "Qenya"; Tolkien's later Quenya has súre )

surya noun "spirant consonant" (SUS)

súya- ( þ) vb. "breathe" (THŪ )

súyer ??? (Narqelion)


- t (1) dual ending, on nouns denoting a pair of something: attat "2 fathers or neighbours" (VT48:19; see atto ) , máryat "her (pair of) hands" ( Nam ), siryat "two rivers" (VT47:11) , ciriat "2 ships" (Letters:427 – read ciryat as in the Plotz Letter?) , maquat "group of ten" (from maqua, meaning among other things "group of five") (VT47:7) , nápat "thumb and index as a pair" (VT48:5) , also compare met "us two" as the dual form of me "us" (Nam, VT47:11) . Other dual endings known from the Plotz letter: genitive - to, possessive - twa, dative - nt, locative - tse, allative - nta, ablative - lto, instrumental - nten, plus - tes as a possible short locative. It may be that these endings only apply to nouns that would have nominative dual forms in - t, and that nouns preferring the alternative dual ending - u would simply add the otherwise "singular" case endings to this vowel, e.g. * Alduo rather than ? Alduto as the genitive form of "Two Trees" ( Aldu). – The ending - t is also used as a verbal inflection, corresponding to pl. - r ( elen atta siluva t, “two stars shall shine”, VT49:45; the verb carit “do” would also be used with a dual subject, VT49:16; cf. also the endings listed in VT49:48, 50).

- t (2) "them", pronominal ending; seen in the word laituvalmet "we shall bless them" ( lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them"). According to PE17:110, this - tcovers both sg. and dual. Also independent word te pl. and dual (possibly * tu when unstressed).

- t (3) reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.), the long form being - tye (both endings are listed in VT49:48) . See hecaregarding the example hecat (WJ:364) . However, in a later source, Tolkien denies that - tye has any short form (VT49:51, 57) . The status of the ending - t is therefore doubtful.

ta (1) pron. "that, it" (TA) ; compare antaró ta "he gave it" (FS) ; see anta-. The forms tar/ tara/tanna “thither”, talo/ “thence” and tás/ tasse “there” are originally inflected forms of this pronoun: *”to that”, *”from that” and *”in that” (place), respectively. Compare “there” as one gloss of ta (see #4).

ta (2) adv. “so, like that, also”, e.g. ta mára “so good” (VT49:12)

ta (3) pron. "they, them", an "impersonal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring "only to 'abstracts' or to things (such as inanimates) not by the Eldar regarded as persons" (VT43:20, cf. ta as an inanimate Common Eldarin plural pronoun, VT49:52) . Compare te, q.v. The word ta occurring in some versions of Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer may exemplify this use of ta as an "impersonal" plural pronoun: emme avatyarir ta "we forgive them" (VT43:8, 9; this refers to trespasses, not the trespassers). However, since Tolkien also wanted ta to mean “that” (see #1 above), he may seem to be somewhat dissatisfied with ta “they, them”, introducing variant forms like tai (VT49:32) to free up ta as a sg. pronoun. In one document, tai was in turn altered to te (VT49:33) , which could suggest that the distinction between animate and inanimate “they, them” was abandoned and the form te (q.v.) could be used for both. In some documents, Tolkien seems to use tar as the plural form (VT49:56 mentions this as an uncertain reading in a source where the word was struck out; compare ótar under ó-) .

ta (4) conj ., said to be a reducted form of “then”, used “before each new item in a series or list”; “if as often in English the equivalent of and was omitted, and placed only before a final item [e.g. `Tom, Dick, and Harriet'], this would in Quenya represent a discontinuity, and what followed after ta would be an addition of something overlooked or less important”. (PE17:70) Hence the use of arta ( ar ta , “and ta ”) for “et cetera”; in older languge ta ta or just ta.

ta (5) adv. “there” (VT49:33; this may be an Elvish root or “element” rather than a Quenya word; see tanome; see however also tar, tara, tanna under ta #1).

1) adv. “then” (VT49:11) . Cf. ta #4.

2) adj. "high" (LT1:264; there spelt . This is hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, but cf. tára "lofty".)

tac- vb. "fasten" (the form tace given in the Etymologies is translated "he fastens", evidently the 3rd person sg. aorist), pa.t. tance (TAK)

tai (1) pron. "that which, what", “which fact” (VT42:34, VT49:12, 20) . The word occurs in the sentence alasaila ná lá care tai mo nave mára, translated "it is unwise not to do what one judges good". So tai = "what", but it means more literally "that which" (VT49:12) , ta + i (cf. ta #1 and the use of i as a relative pronoun). In one note, Tolkien emended taito ita, reversing the elements (VT49:12) and also eliminating the ambiguity involving the homophone tai #2, see below.

tai (2) pron. “they, them”, 3rd person pl., used with reference to inanimates rather than persons or living things (VT49:32, see ta #3 above). Perhaps to avoid the clash with tai “that which”, the pronoun tai “they, them” was altered to te in at least one manuscript (VT49:33) , so that it would merge with the pronoun used of living beings and the distinction between animate and inanimate would be abandoned (see te).

tai (3) adv. “then”, also (which form may be preferred because tai has other meanings as well) (VT49:33)

taile noun "lengthening, extension" (TAY)

#taima noun "lengthening, extension" in ómataima, q.v.

Taimavar masc. name "Shepherd of the Sky", Orion (LT1:268; Orion is called Telumehtar or Menelmacar in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Taime, Taimie noun "the sky" (LT1:268; rather menel in LotR-style Quenya)

Taimondo, also Taimordo masc. name "Orion" (LT1:268; Orion is rather called Telumehtar or Menelmacar in Tolkien's later Quenya)

taina (1) adj. "lengthened, extended" (TAY) , "stretched, elongated" (VT39:7) , also noun "extension" in the compound ómataina, q.v.

#taina (2) noun “sign”, isolated from Tainacolli *”Sign-bearer” – MR:385

taita- vb. "to prolong" (TAY)

taite adj. “of that sort” (VT49:11) , *”such”

tál ( tal-, as in "g.sg. talen "; in LotR-style Quenya this is rather the dative singular) noun "foot" (TAL, VT49:17) . Also tala (VT49:42) . Pl. táli “feet” (PE16:96) ; here Tolkien did not use tal- with a short a as the stem-form. VT43:16 mentions "an unpublished declension" of this word dating from ca. 1967; here the locative is said to appear as talasse and talse. Cf. also talya“his foot”; see -ya #4. Early "Qenya" forms: tala "foot" (LT2:347) and dual talwi "the feet" (LT2:347) ; tálin "feet" (MC:216) ; instrumental talainen, talalínen (MC:213, 216, 220; this is "Qenya")

talaite adj. “footed” (VT49:42) ; cf. attalaite

talan ( talam-, e.g. pl. talami) noun "floor, base, ground" (TALAM)

talantie vb. "he is fallen" (FS; see -ie #2 concerning the doubtful authority of this stative verb ending in LotR-style Quenya)

talas noun "sole" (LT2:347; Tolkien's later Quenya has tallune)

talat- vb. a stem used for "slipping, sliding, falling down" (Letters:347) , cf. atalta-, talta- and talantie

#talca noun "post, mark" isolated from lantalca "boundary post or mark" (VT42:28)

tallune noun "sole of foot", stem probably talluni- given primitive form ¤ talrunya(TALAM, RUN)

talma noun "base, foundation, root" (TALAM) ; Talmar Ambaren (place-name, *"Foundations of the World" - this is pre-classical "Qenya" with genitive in -en instead of -o as in LotR-style Quenya) (TALAM) . Allative talmanna in the phrase telmello talmanna "from hood to base, top to bottom" (VT46:18; notice misreading "telmanna" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry TEL- , TELU- )

talo adv. “thence”. Also . Basically these are simple ablative/genitive forms of ta (#1) “that”; compare silo, sio. (VT49:11)

talume adv. “at this time” meaning “at the time we are thinking of of speaking of”, not referring to the present (which is silume = “at this time” in the narrower sense). (VT49:11)

talta adj ."sloping, tilted, leaning"; also "incline" as noun (TALÁT)

talta- vb. "slip, slide down, collapse, slope" (TALÁT) ; reduplicated stem in the participle talta- taltala in Markirya , simply translated "falling" in MC:215.Strong intransitive conjugation: present talta, aorist talt- [derived from talati > tal'ti , hence presumably *talti- with endings and *talte without any], past talante, perfect ataltie. Weak transitive conjugation: present taltea, aorist talta, past taltane. This is said to be the conjugation type of a certain class of verbs, namely “√TALAT stems” (PE17:186) .

taltil ( taltill-, pl. taltilli given) noun "toe" (VT47:10)

taltol noun "big toe" (VT47:10) ; also tolbo

tam- vb. "to tap" (1st pers. aorist tamin "I tap"), pa.t. tamne (TAM)

tama noun “that matter” (VT49:11)

taman noun “a thing made by handicraft” (PE17:107)

tamba- vb. "to knock, keep on knocking" (TAM)

tambaro noun "woodpecker" (TAM)

tambe prep. (1) "so" or "as" (referring to something remote; contrast síve). Síve... tambe "as...so" (VT43:17) .

tambe (2) noun "copper" (LT1:250; this is "Qenya"; see urus for a later word for "copper")

tambina adj. "of copper" (LT1:250; rather *urustina in later Quenya, see urus, urust-)

tamen adv. “thither” (VT49:33) . Compare simen.

tamin ( taminn-) noun "forge" (LT1:250, cf. QL:88)

tamma noun “tool” (PE17:108)

tamna adj. “artificial” or noun “artifact” (PE17:108)

tamo noun “smith” (PE17:108) , more usual (esp. among the Noldor) than the variant sintamo, q.v. Cf. tano.

tampa noun "stopper" (TAP)

tampe noun "copper" (LT1:268; in LotR-style Quenya tampe is [also?] the past tense of tap - "stop, block")

tampe pa.t. of tap-, q.v. (TAP)

tampo noun “well” (QL:93)

tana (1) demonstrative "that" (said to be "anaphoric") (TA) . According to VT49:11, tana is the adjective corresponding to ta, “that” as a pronoun.

tana- (2) vb. "to show, indicate" (MR:350, 385, 471) (cf. the demonstrative tana "that")

tána (meaning unclear, probably adj. "high, lofty, noble") (TĀ /TA3) . Compare tára.

tanca adj. "firm, fixed, sure" (TAK)

tance pa.t. of tac-, q.v. (TAK)

tancil noun "pin, brooch" (TAK)

Tancol noun "Signifer", "the significant star" = Venus (MR:385) . The literal meaning is apparently *”sign-bearer”, cf. tanna #1 and #col-.

tande adv. "thither" (MC:215; this is "Qenya")

tanen, tánen adv. “in that way”, “therefore” (VT49:11) . Basically the instrumental form of ta (#1) “that”.

tango noun "twang" (TING/TANG)

tangwa noun "hasp, clasp" (TAK)

taniquelasse noun name of tree (UT:167) , perhaps Tanique(til) + lasse "leaf"

Taniquetil ( Taniquetild-), place-name: the highest of the mountains of Valinor, upon which were the mansions of Manwe and Varda. Properly, this name refers to the topmost peak only, the whole mountain being called Oiolosse (SA:til) . The Etymologies has Taniquetil, Taniquetilde ("q") ( Ta-niqe-til) ("g.sg." Taniquetilden , in LotR-style Quenya this is the dative singular) "High White Horn" (NIK-W, TIL, TA/TA3, OY) . Variant Taníquetil with a long í, translated “high-snow-peak” (PE17:26, 168) .

tanna (1) noun "sign, token" (MR:385, PE17:186) , also tanwa (PE17:186)

tanna (2) pron. in allative "thither" (VT14:5,PE16:96; evidently to be understood as the allative of ta #2: "to that [place]") . Compare locative tasse.

tano noun "craftsman, smith" (TAN) , cf. final element -tan in calmatan “lampwright” (PE17:123) , Ciryatan *”ship-builder” (Appendix A) .

tanome adv. “in the place (referred to)” (VT49:11) . Cé tulis, tanome nauvan *”if (s)he comes, I will be there” (VT49:19) . Compare sanome, sinome.

tanta (1) noun "harp", also as verb tanta- "to play a harp" (VT41:10)

tanta (2) (prob. adj.) "double" (TATA)

tantila noun "harp" (VT41:10)

tanwa noun “sign, token” (Tolkien marked this word with a query, but it is not clearly rejected). Also tanna(#1). (PE17:186)

tanwe noun "craft, thing made, device, construction" (TAN)

tanyademonstrative "that" (MC:215; this is "Qenya", perhaps corresponding to later tana)

tap- vb. "stop, block" (the form tape given in the Etymologies is translated "he stops, blocks", evidently the 3rd person sg. aorist. In Etym as printed in LR, a was misprinted as á, VT46:17). Pa.t. tampe (TAP)

tapta adj. "impeded" (VT39:17) ; the nominal pl. taptar is used as a noun to express "consonants" ( = tapta tengwi, q.v.)

#tapta tengwe phrase only attested in the pl.: tapta tengwi ("ñ") "impeded elements", a term for consonants. (In the pl. we would rather expect *tapte tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective.) Also simply tapta pl. taptar (VT39:17)

tar(1) adv. or technically pron. with old allative ending: "thither" (TA) . This is ta #1 with the same allative ending - r (from primitive -da ) as in mir "into". According to VT49:11, tar may also appear in the logner form tara.

tar (2) prep. "beyond" (FS)

# tar- (3) vb .“stand”, attested in the past tense: tarne (PE17:71)

- tar or tar-, element meaning "king" or "queen" in compounds and names (TĀ /TA3) , e.g. Valatar; compare the independent nouns tár, tári. Prefix Tar- especially in the names of the Kings and Queens of Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names (like Amandil in this case), cf. also Tar-Mairon “King Excellent”, title used by Sauron (PE17:183) . Also in Tareldar "High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.

tár noun "king" (only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes); the pl. tári "kings" must not be confused with the sg. tári "queen" (TĀ /TA3) . Prefix tar-, compare - tar above. The normal Quenya word for "king" is aran, but compare Tarumbar.

tara adv. “thither”; see tar #1.

tára (1) adj. "lofty". (SA:tar, LT1:264, TĀ /TA3 (AYAK, TÁWAR), VT45:6) , "tall, high" (WJ:417) .Compare antara. Adverb táro in an early "Qenya" text (VT27:20, 26) . The adj. tárais not to be confused with the continuative form of the verb # tar- “stand”.

tára (2) ?“wise”. (From tentative notes trying to explain Daur [unlenited * Taur ] as Sindarin name of Frodo; the more normal word for “wise” seems to be saila/ saira.)

taracu- noun "ox" (LT2:347, GL:69) . Tolkien apparently invented the word mundo for his later form of Quenya.

taran (1) noun “king”, possibly ephemeral variant of aran, q.v. (PE17:186)

taran (2), also tarambo, noun "buffet" (= a blow, a bang) (LT2:337, QL:89)

Tarannon masc. name; ?"High-gift"? Or, if -annon is a Sindarin-influenced form of andon "great gate" rather than a masculinized form of anna "gift", "Lord of the Gate"??? (Appendix A)

taras noun , Quenya equilvalent of Sindarin barad “a great towering building, (fort, city, castle) tower” (PE17:22) , also tarminas. Barad-dûr (Dark Tower) = Quenya Taras Lúna (or Lúnaturco, q.v.)

tarasse ??? (Narqelion)

tarca noun "horn" (TARÁK)

tarcalion = Tar-Calion, masc. name, Quenya name of Ar-Pharazôn (LR:47, SD:246) ; see Calion

Tar-culu , name listed in the Etymologies but not elsewhere attested. The second element is apparently culu "gold" (a word Tolkien seems to have abandoned); Hostetter and Wynne suggest that this may be an alternative name of Tar-Calion (= Ar-Pharazôn "the Golden"); see VT45:24.

Tarcil ( #Tarcild-, as in pl. Tarcildi) masc. name,"high-Man", also used as a term for Númenórean (Appendix A, TUR, KHIL, VT46:17, PE17:101; the latter source provides the gloss "Great Man of Numenor"; tarcil ( di ) = "high-men = Elf-friends of Númenor "). Cf. the variant tarhildi, q.v.

táre adv.? "in that day", not translated in its first occurrence in Fíriel's Song

Tareldar pl. noun "High-elves" (MR:349) , sg. # Tarelda

tarhildi, pl. noun “High-men, the Noble followers” (PE17:18) , referring to the Dúnedain. Sg. perhaps # tarhil (with stem # tarhild-), cf. tarcil.

tári noun "queen", used especially of Varda (TĀ /TA3, LT1:264) , etymologically "she that is high" (SA:tar) . Dative tárin in the Elaine inscription (VT49:40), genitive tário in Namárie . Elentári "Starqueen", a title of Varda. ( Nam, RGEO:67) . Tarinya "my queen" (UT:179; sic, not * tárinya ) . Táris or tárisse “queenship” (PE17:155)

tárie noun "height", allative tárienna "to [the] height" (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308 )

Tárion noun , alternative name of Valanya, the last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Powers (Valar) (Appendix D)

táris (*táriss-), tarisse noun “queenship” (PE17:155)

tarma noun "pillar" (SA:tar) ; Tarmasundar ( þ) "the Roots of the Pillar", the slopes of Mt. Meneltarma in Númenor (UT:166)

#tarmen noun "high place" (pl. locative tarmenissen in VT44:34)

Tarmenel place-name "High Heaven" (LotR1:II ch. 1, VT44:34, in the latter source also locative tarmenelde) , Tar-menel "the true firmament", as opposed to Nur-menel (q.v.) (MR:388)

tarminas noun “tower” etc. (Sindarin barad ); see taras (PE17:22)

tarna noun "crossing, passage" (LT2:347)

[ Tarnumen] place-name *"High west" (???) (VT45:38)

Tarondor masc. name, *"Lord of Ondor (Gondor)" (Appendix A)

Tarostar masc. name, *"Lord of ostar [?]" (Appendix A)

tarquendi ("q") noun "High-elves" = Lindar (= the later Vanyar ; Tolkien revised the names) Sg.# tarquende (TĀ /TA3)

tarquesta ("q") noun "high-speech" (that is Lindarin [later Vanyarin , Tolkien revised the names], or Qenya [Quenya]) (TĀ /TA3)

taru noun "horn" (LT2:337, 347; Tolkien's later Quenya has tarca)

tarucca adj. "horned" (LT2:347)

tarucco noun "bull" (also tarunco) (LT2:347; Tolkien's later Quenya has mundo)

Taructarna place-name "Oxford" (LT2:347; this "Qenya" word would have to become Taruhtarna in LotR-style Quenya)

*Taruhtarna see Taructarna

Tarumbar noun ; apparently "King of the World" (possibly an ephemeral form): this would be tár "king" (q.v.) + umbar as a variant of Ambar "world".

tarunco noun "bull" (also tarucco) (LT2:347; Tolkien's later Quenya has mundo)

tarwa noun “garden, enclosure” (QL:87)

tarwe noun “cross, Crucifix” (QL:89)

tarwesta- vb. “crucify” (QL:89)

tarya adj. "tough, stiff" (TÁRAG)

taryo, see ataryo

tás adv. “there” (VT49:11) ; also tasse, q.v.

tasar, tasare ( þ) noun "willow-tree" (TATHAR) . In Tasarinan *"Willow-valley", Nan-tasarion *"Valley of willows" (SA:tathar)

tasarin noun "willow" (LT2:346; in Tolkien's later Quenya tasar, tasare)

Tasarinan( þ) place-name *"Willow-vale", also Nan-Tasarion (LotR2:III ch. 4)

tassa noun "index finger"; also lepetas (VT48:5, 14)

tasse adv. “there” (VT49:11) , short form tás. These seem to be properly locative forms of ta“that, it”, hence “in that [place]”. Compare allative tanna “thither” and ablative talo“thence”.

[ tastil noun "index finger" (VT47:26) ]

táta noun "hat" (GL:71)

tatanya *"my father" or *"my daddy" (UT:190)

tatya archaic ordinal "second". Nominal pl. Tatyar *"Seconds, Second Ones", the original name of the Noldor as the Second Clan of the Elves (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original name, which was probably * Tatjā i ). (WJ:380) Later, tatya as an ordinal was replaced by attea (VT42:25) .

tatya- vb. "to double" (TATA)

tauca (“k”) “stiff, wooden” (PE17:115)

taule noun "great tree" (LT1:267)

tauno noun "forest" (LT1:267; in Tolkien's later Quenya taure)

taura adj. "mighty, masterful" (TUR, PE17:115) , "very mighty, vast, of unmeasured might or size" (VT39:10) . Cf. túrea.

taure noun "(great) wood, forest" (SA:taur, Letters:308, TÁWAR. VT39:7) , pl. tauri in Markirya

Taure Huinéva place-name "Forest of Shadow", Sindarin Taur na Fuin(PHUY, VT46:10)

#taurea adj. "forested" in Tumbaletaurea, see Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna...

taurelasselindon "like leaves of forests" (MC:213, 220; this is a "Qenya" similative form: taure-lasseli-ndon "forest-leaves-like")

Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea Lómeanor "Forestmanyshadowed-deepvalleyblack Deepvalleyforested Gloomyland", Quenya elements agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means something like "there is a black shadow in the deep dales of the forest" (LotR2:III ch. 4; translated in Appendix F under "Ents"; cf. also Letters:308) Earlier (TLT) version in TI:415: Tauretavárea Tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea landataváre, perhaps *"forest-wooden deepvalleyblack deepvalleyforested wide-wood."

Tauremorna place-name, "black forest" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in PE17:82) . Tauremornalóme place-name, *"Forest (of) Black Night" (LotR2:III ch. 4)

tauretavárea, see #tavárea

taurina adj. "of wood" (TÁWAR)

tautamo noun “carpenter (carver)” (PE17:106-107)

táva noun “great tree” (PE17:115)

tavar (1) noun "wood" (TÁWAR)

tavar (2), pl. tavarni, noun "dale-sprites" (LT1:267; perhaps obsoleted by # 1 above)

#tavárea ? adj. *"wooden" ( tauretavárea = *"forest-wooden"?) (TI:415) . If so perhaps a near-synonym of taurina.

Tavari pl. noun (name of the "fays of the Woods" in early "Qenya"; see The Book of Lost Tales 1 p. 267) (TÁWAR)

tavaril noun "dryad, spirit of woods" (evidently fem.) (TÁWAR)

tavaro, tavaron noun "dryad, spirit of woods" (evidently masc.) (TÁWAR)

tavas noun "woodland" (LT1:267)

taxe ("ks")noun "nail" (TAK)

te pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl. (VT49:51, LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308 ). The pronoun terepresents an original stem-form (VT49:50) . Dative ten, téna or tien “for them, to them” (q.v.) Stressed (VT49:51) . Óte *"with them", q.v. VT43:20 connects te "them" with a discussion of Common Eldarin pronominal stems (ca. 1940s), where te is the "personal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring to persons rather than abstracts or inanimates (which are denoted by ta instead; see, however, the entry ta #3 regarding the problems with this form, and the hints that te may possibly be used with reference to inanimates as well)). Also consider the reflexive pronoun inte *"themselves", the final element of which is apparently this pronoun te; see also for the dual form.

tea (1) noun "straight line, road" (TEÑ)

tea (2) vb. "indicates" (evidently a present-tense stem)(VT39:6) ; past tense tenge (VT43:38)

tec- vb. "write" (Etym gives the form tece "writes", evidently the 3rd person aorist) (TEK)

tecco noun "stroke of pen or brush (´) when not used as long mark" (TEK)

tecil noun "pen" (TEK, PM:318, VT47:8)

tehta noun "mark, sign" (TEK, VT39:17, Appendix E) , especially diacritics denoting vowels in Feanorian writing (pl. tehtar is attested); these diacritics are explicitly called ómatehtar "vowel-marks", q.v.

tel noun "roof" (LT1:268)

telar noun "brick" (PE13:153, PE16:138)

telco noun "stem" of a Tengwa symbol (Appendix E) . The Etymologies gives telco pl. telqui ("q") "leg" (the pl. form is said to be analogical) (TÉLEK) . It seems, then, that the word can refer to a "stem" or "leg" in general as well as the stem of a Tengwa. In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , telco is used to refer to a carrier symbol (VT46:18, 33)

Telcontar masc. name "Strider" (MR:216) . This word may suggest a verb *telconta- "to stride".

telda (1) adj. "last, final" (WJ:407)

telda (2) adj. "having a roof" (LT1:268, LT2:348; this "Qenya" word is perhaps obsoleted by # 1 above)

tele- vb. "finish, end" (intransitive), also "be the last thing or person in a series or sequence of events" (WJ:411; tele may be taken as the 3rd person aorist of a stem tel-, though it may also be interpreted as an example of an E-stem verb, as suggested by the final hyphen)

telella adj. corresponding to Telelle (LT1:267)

Telelle noun "little elf" (also Teler); the Telelli are said to be "young Elves of all clans who dwelt in Kôr to perfect their arts of singing and poetry" (LT1:267; see Teler)

Telellie noun "Teler-folk" (TELES) ; this is Teler + lie

Telemmaite masc. name, *"Silver-handed" (Appendix A)

telemna adj. "of silver" (KYELEP/TELEP) . Possibly this (like telpina and perhaps telepsa) describes something actually made of the metal silver, whereas telepta (q.v.) only refers to silver colour .%

Telemnar masc.name, "Silver-flame" (Appendix A; for *Telep-nar)

telempe noun "silver" (LT1:268; in Tolkien's later Quenya telpe, which is actually also found in early "Qenya")

telep- see telpe

telepsa adj. "of silver" (KYELEP/TELEP) .

telepta adj. "silver" (as adj.: silvery) (LT2:347) , used as noun in the phrase mi telepta of someone clad “in silver”, where the context (involving other colour-words) shows that this adj. describes something of silver colour(PE17:71) . Compare telemna, telepsa, telpina.

Teler noun "sea-elf", pl. Teleri, general (partitive) pl. Telelli, the third tribe of the Eldar (TELES (MIS) ) , also called Lindar . Teleri means "those at the end of the line, the hindmost", (WJ:382 cf. 371) , derived from the stem tel - "finish, end, be last" (SA:tel-) . The Lindar were so called because they lagged behind on the march from Cuiviénen. In early "Qenya", Teler, also Telelle, was defined "little elf" (LT1:267), but this is hardly a valid gloss in Tolkien's later Quenya.

telerea adj . corresponding to Teler (LT1:267; perhaps rather Telerin, telerinwa in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Telerin adj. "Telerian" (TELES) . Also telerinwa.

telerinwa adj. Telerin (paraphrased "of the Shores of Elfland" in MC:215, since the Teleri dwelt on the shores of the Blessed Realm.) (PE16:96, MC:216)

Telimbectar noun ,name of constellation:"Orion", lit. "Swordsman of Heaven". Also Telimectar . (LT1:268; in Tolkien's later Quenya Telumehtar, q.v. The combination ct is not found in LotR-style Quenya.)

telimbo noun "canopy, sky" (LT1:268)

Telimectar noun , name of constellation,"Orion", lit. "Swordsman of Heaven". Also Telimbectar . (LT1:268; in Tolkien's later Quenya Telumehtar )

tella adj. "hindmost, last" (TELES)

telle noun "rear" (TELES)

telluma noun "dome, copula", especially the "Dome of Varda" over Valinor, but also applied to the domes of the mansion of Manwe and Varda upon Taniquetil. Adopted from Valarin delgū mā under the influence of pure Quenya telume (WJ:399, 411). Pl. tellumar is attested (Nam, RGEO:66) .

telma noun "a conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair", often applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle (WJ:411) . Notice that the form telmanna in the entry TEL/TELU in the Etymologies is a misreading for talmanna (VT46:18) and therefore not the same word as telma.

telme noun "hood, covering" (apparently emended from telma, VT46:18); ablative in the phrase telmello talmanna "from hood to base, from crown to foot, top to bottom" (TEL/TELU; the form telmello t e lmanna occurring in the Etymologies as printed in LR is a typo, VT46:18)

telpe noun "silver" (in one example with generalized meaning “money”, PE14:54), telep- in some compounds like Teleporno; assimilated telem- in Telemnar and the adj. telemna (KYELEP/TELEP, SA:celeb, LT1:255, 268; also tyelpe , telep -, UT:266) . The true Quenya descendant of primitive ¤ kyelepē is tyelpe, but the Telerin form telpe was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266) . In various names: Telperion the White Tree of Valinor; Telperien ("Telperien") , fem. name including telp- "silver" (Appendix A) ; Telperinquar "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (SA:celeb - also Tyelperinquar ) ; Telporno, Teleporno "Silver-high" = Sindarin Celeborn (Letters:347, UT:266). It seems that Teleporno is properly Telerin, Quenyarized as Telporno. – Compare adjectives telemna, telpina, telepsa, telepta (q.v.)

telpina adj. "of silver" (KYELEP/TELEP) . Compare telemna, telepta.

telqui ("q")noun (analogical) pl. of telco(TÉLEK)

telta- vb. "to canopy, overshadow, screen" (TEL/TELU)

teltasse noun "awning" (GL:70)

Telufinwe noun "Last Finwe", masc. name; he was called Amras in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Telvo . (PM:353)

telume noun "dome, roof, canopy" (TEL/TELU, WJ:411 cf. 399; see also telluma) ; "firmament" (MC:214) , inflected telumenin MC:221 (the latter is "Qenya") . Telumehtar "warrior of the sky", older name of Menelmacar = Orion (Appendix E, TEL/TELU, WJ:411) ; Telumendil *"Sky-friend", name of a constellation (Silm)

telya- vb. "finish, wind up, conclude" (transitive) (WJ:411)

téma noun "row, series, line" (pl. témar attested) (TEÑ, Appendix E)

ten (1) pron. in dative “to them, for them” (VT49:14) , also tien, téna. See te.

ten (2) conj. "for", in Fíriel's Song ; apparently replaced by an in LotR-style Quenya.

[ ten- (3) vb. “go as far as”, 1st person sg. aorist tenin, ( tenin coaryanna “I arrive at [or come/get to] his house”), endingless aorist tene, present tense téna- “is on point of arrival, is just coming to an end”, past tense tenne “arrived, reached”, in this tense usually with locative rather than allative: tennen sís “I arrive[d] here”, perfect eténie “has just arrived”, future tenuva “will arrive”.] (VT49:23, 35, 36; Tolkien emended the initial consonant from t to m throughout)

ten- (4) vb. "hear", future tense tenuva (MC:213; in Tolkien's later Quenya, "hear" is hlar-)

téna (1) adj. "straight, right" (SD:310; see téra)

téna (2) dative pron. “to them”, changed to ten in the source (VT49:14)

tencele noun "writing system, spelling" (TEK)

tenge pa.t. vb. "indicated", pa.t. of tea (VT39:6)

tengwa (pl. tengwar is attested) (1) noun "letter" Tengwa (ñ) is defined as "any one visible sign representing (theoretically) any one audible teñgwe " (phoneme) (VT39:17) . In non-technical usage tengwa was equivalent to "consonant", since only the consonants were full signs (WJ:396, TEK) . In the Etymologies , tengwa was apparently emended from tengwe (VT46:17) .

tengwa- (2) vb. “to read written matter”, called a “weak verb”; aorist [ teng] wa “reads”, present tense [ teng] wea “is reading”, past tense [ teng] wane “read”, perfect e[ teng] wie “has read”, the latter without lengthening of the stem-vowel (not **eténgwie) because there is a consonant cluster following (VT49:55) . Gerund or “verbal noun” tengwie, also attested with a pronominal suffix + genitive: tengwiesto “of your (dual) reading” (VT49:47, 48, 52, 54)

tengwanda noun "alphabet" (TEK)

tengwe (pl. tengwi attested) noun "indication, sign, token", in linguistics used for phonemes(VT39:7, WJ:394) ; hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs" (WJ:395). The term tengwe was particularly associated with consonants (VT39:16) . In the Etymologies , stem TEK , tengwe is glossed "writing"; this gloss would seem to be obsolete (for this meaning the word sarme occurs in Tolkien's later material).

tengwele noun "Language" (in all its aspects), a general word for the grouping and composing of tengwi (linguistic "signs", phonemes) into a linguistic system (VT39:16)

tengwesta ("ñ")noun "a system or code of signs", "Language", referring particularly to structure, including morphology and grammar (VT39:15) . As a technical term for "language", this includes languages not made up of sounds (WJ:394) , but usually it means "spoken language" when unqualified (WJ:395) . In the Etymologies , tengwesta is glossed "grammar" (TEK) .

tengwestie noun "Language" as abstract or phenomenon (WJ:394)

#tengwie noun "language" in the compound mátengwie "language of the hands" (VT47:9) . Compare tengwe, tengwesta.

tenna prep. "until, up to, as far as" ( CO) , "unto" (VT44:35-36 ), “to the point”, “right up to a point” (of time/place), “until”, “to the object, up to, to (reach), as far as” (VT49:22, 23, 24, PE17:187) , elided tenn' in the phrase tenn' Ambar-metta "unto the ending of the world" in EO, because the next word begins in a similar vowel; cf. tennoio "for ever" ( tenna + oio, q.v.) The unelided form appears in PE17:105: Tenna Ambar-metta.

tenne, pa.t. of tenya-, q.v.

tennoio adv. “for ever” (CO) ; see tenna

tenta- vb. “point to, point out; indicate; direct toward, be directed toward” (VT49:22-24) . Compare hententa-, leptenta-, q.v. When constructed with a direct object, the verb may mean “go forth towards”. In our examples, tenta is constructed with an allative ( tentane numenna “pointed westward”, VT49:23; this may be the normal construction when the meaning is “point”). Pa.t. tentane is attested (also with ending -s: tentanes “it pointed”, VT49:26); there is also an alternative strong pa.t. form tenante (VT49:22-23) . Other examples of such double past tense forms (e.g. orta-) would suggest that the form tentane is transitive (“pointed to/out, directed towards, went forth towards”), while tenante is intransitive (“was directed towards”). – Tolkien also considered the pa.t. form tente, but emended it.

tenya- vb. “arrive” ( end at [?specific] place; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible); pa.t. tenne (VT49:24)

ter (1), also tere, prep. "through", *“throughout” (Notes on CO, UT:317, TER/TERES, Narqelion, VT44:33, 35, VT49:41, 42) . The preposition is used both with spatial and temporal reference: ter i·aldar *“through the trees” ( Narqelion , cf. VT49:42), ter coivierya *“throughout his/her life”, ter yénion yéni *“through years of years” (VT49:42, VT44:33, 35)

ter (2), also tér, prep. (?) ephemeral word for "so" (see ier), abandoned by Tolkien in favour of tambe (VT43:17)

téra adj. "straight, right" (TEÑ, see TE3; LR:47; in one text Tolkien changed it to téna, SD:310)

tercáno noun "herald" (PM:362)

tercen ("terken")noun "insight", literally *"through-sight" (MR:471) ; adj. #tercenya (only pl. tercenye attested) "of insight"; essi tercenye "names of insight", names given to a child by its mother, indicating some dominant feature of its nature as perceived by her (MR:216)

teren, terene adj. "slender" (TER/TERES)

Terendul masc. name "Slender-(and)-dark" (LR:59, TER/TERES, DUL, NDUL)

teret noun "auger, gimlet" (LT1:255)

tereva adj. "fine, acute" (TER/TERES) , "piercing" (LT1:255; though glossed "fine, acute" in the Etymologies , the stem TER is defined as "pierce")

terfantie noun "temptation" (VT43:9, 22) ; Tolkien may have abandoned this form in favour of úsahtie, q.v.

#terpellie noun "temptation" (allative terpellienna attested, VT43:8, 9) ; Tolkien may have abandoned this form in favour of úsahtie, q.v.

terhat- vb. "break apart" (SKAT) , past tense terhante "broke" (LR:47/56 )

termar- vb. "stand" meaning last ( ter-mar- "through-abide"); future tense termaruva in CO .

terra noun "fine pierced hole" (VT46:18)

[ tet, see ]

- tes ending for dual "short locative" (the exact function of the case is uncertain) (Plotz)

teve- vb. "to hate" (LT1:268; in Tolkien's later Quenya, teve may be understood as the 3rd person aorist, unless this is to be an E-stem verb.)

tévie noun "hatred" (LT1:268; according to QL:90 the first vowel should be long)

tevin adj . "hated" (QL:90, not to be glossed "hatred" as in LT1:268)

Thauron ( þauron) masc. name, earlier form of Sauron, before the change th > s (SA:thaur, cf. Letters:380, which suggests a stem aurond -; the initial Greek letter represents th ) . See Sauro, Sauron.

thelma ( þelma) see * selma

thenna, see senna #2

Therinde ( þerinde) fem. name, "Needlewoman", original form of Serinde, before the shift th > s (PM:333)

thinde ( þinde) older form of sinde, q.v., preserved in Vanyarin (WJ:384, there spelt with the special letter þ, not the digraph th)

Thindicollo ( þindicollo) masc. name, original form of Sindicollo, before the shift th > s (PM:337, there spelt with the special letter þ , not the digraph th)

tholon noun “helmet”, variant of castol (q.v.), though Tolkien might have mistakenly marked it as Quenya instead of Sindarin (PE17:186)

thorno ( þorno) archaic/Vanyarin form of sorno, q.v. (Letters:427)

thosso ( þosse) noun “fear” in Old Quenya (PE17:87, there spelt with the letter þ, not the digraph th)

thorya- ( þorya-) vb. “dread, feel fear”; this is Old Quenya (PE17:87, there spelt with the letter þ, not the digraph th)

thosta- ( þosta-) vb. “put to fright, terrify”; this is Old Quenya (PE17:87 there spelt with the letter þ, not the digraph th)

thúle ( þúle) archaic/Vanyarin form of súle, q.v.

tie noun "path, course, line, direction, way" (TE3, VT47:11) ; pl. tierin Namárie(Nam, RGEO:67) ; tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51; tie-lya-nna "path-your-upon")

tien would seem to be a dative pronoun *"for them". Whether this is somehow to be derived from the pronoun te "they, them", or whether it is the dative form of an otherwise unattested 3rd person pl. pronoun *tie, remains unclear. (VT43:12, 21) Ten (q.v.) as the straightforward dative form of te is attested elsewhere.

tier is, besides the pl. form of tie "path" above, an ephemeral word for "so", abandoned by Tolkien in favour of tambe (VT43:17)

tihta- vb. "blink, peer", participle tihtala in an earlier variant of Markirya

tilde noun "spike, horn" (TIL; in the Etymologies as printed in LR, the first gloss is quoted as "point", but according to VT46:19, the proper reading is "spike")

tille (pl. tilli given) noun "tip, point", used with reference to fingers and toes (VT47:10, 26) ; compare ortil, nútil, q.v.

Tilion masc. name, "the Horned", name of a Maia, steersman of the Moon (SA:til; according to the Etymologies , stem TIL, Tilion is a name of the "man in the Moon")

timbare noun "forehead" (PE14:117)

timpe noun "fine rain" (LT1:268, Narqelion)

timpine noun "spray" (LT1:268)

timpinen noun "a fluter" (LT1:268; hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, where this would look like an instrumental form. Compare simpetar.)

tin- vb. "glint, spark, glitter" (3rd pers. aorist tine "it glints") (TIN, PE17:69)

tinco noun "metal" (TINKŌ ) , also name of tengwa #1 (Appendix E, there spelt "tinco", but "tinko" in Etym) ; tincotéma noun " t -series", dental series, first column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E)

tinda (1) adj. "glinting, silver" (TIN)

tinda (2) noun "spike" (LT1:258; probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

tinde noun "glint" (TIN)

tindóme noun "starry twilight, starlit dusk" (DOMO, TIN, SA:tin) , usually of the time near dawn, not near evening (SA:tin)

tindómerel (also capitalized Tindómerel) fem. name "daughter of twilight", a kenning (poetic name) of the nightingale; = Sindarin Tinúviel . (TIN, SEL-D, SA:tin; " Tindómrl" in mirrored Tengwar in VT47:37 would seem to be an incomplete annotation of the same word) . The form Tindómiel (UT:210) could well be an alternative Quenya equivalent of Tinúviel , and it is possibly to be preferred because the status of the ending -rel "daughter" is uncertain (it was to represent older -zel, -sel corresponding to the independent word selde, but Tolkien changed the meaning of this word from "daughter" to "child", and since the word for "child" appears as hína in later texts, it may be that selde and the corresponding ending -rel were dropped altogether).

Tindómiel, fem. name (UT:210) , probably *"daughter of twilight" ( tindóme + -iel) and thus the equivalent of Sindarin Tinúviel . Compare tindómerel.

tindon pa.t. vb? "lay" (???) (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

tíne participle? "shining" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

tinga- vb. (not glossed, evidently meaning *"to twang, make a twang") (TING/TANG)

tinge noun "twang" (TING/TANG)

tingilinde noun "a twinkling star" (TIN, VT45:15)

tingilya noun "a twinkling star" (TIN) , also divided ting-ilya (VT45:15)

tinta- vb. "kindle, cause to sparkle", cf. Tintalle (TIN, SA:tin, MR:388)

Tintalle noun "Kindler", a title of Varda who kindled the stars (TIN, Nam, RGEO:67) . From tinta- "kindle, make to sparkle" (MR:388) . According to PE17:69, the form “should be Tintalde ”, apparently because -lle was at the time the ending for plural “you” and Tintalle could be taken as meaning *”you kindle” rather than as a noun “Kindler”. However, Tolkien later changed the pronominal suffix, eliminating the clash of forms while leaving Tintalle correct (after the revision, it was *tintalde itself that would be the verb “you kindle”).

Tintanie noun "Kindler" = Varda (TIN; Tintánie under TAN, which according to VT46:17 Tolkien interpreted both as "Star-maker" and "Star-making")

tintila- vb. "twinkle", present (or maybe rather aorist) pl. tintilar (Nam, RGEO:67)

tintina- vb. "sparkle" (actually glossed "it sparkles") (TIN)

tinwe noun "spark" (gloss misquoted as "sparkle" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, see VT46:19), also "star"; pl. tinwi "sparks", properly used of the star-imagines on Nur-menel (q.v.). Cf. nille. (TIN, MR:388) In early "Qenya", tinwe was simply glossed "star" (LT1:269, cf. MC:214) . In one late source, the meaning of tinwe is given as "spark", and it is said that this word (like Sindarin gil ) was used of the stars of heaven "in place of the older and more elevated el , elen - stem" (VT42:11) .

tinwelindon similative noun "like stars" (MC:213, MC:220; this is a "Qenya" similative form in -ndon and with pl. in -li)

Tinwerína adj. used as noun: place-name "Star-crowned", variant of Elerrína as a name of Taniquetil (RIG, PE17:182)

[ Tinwerontar] noun "star-queen, title of Varda" (TIN, TĀ /TA3)

[ Tinwetar] noun "star-queen, Queen of Stars", title of Varda (TIN, TĀ /TA3)

tir- vb. "watch, watch over, guard, heed", 1st pers. aorist tirin "I watch", pa.t. tirne (TIR) , imperative tira (VT47:31) or á tire (PE17:94) , future tense tiruva "shall heed" in Markirya (also MC:213, 214); also in CO with pronominal endings: tiruvantes "they will guard it" ( tir-uva-nte-s "guard-will-they-it"). The stem also occurs in palantíri (q.v.), Tirion place-name "Great Watchtower", a city of the Elves (SA:tir; in MR:176 the translation is "Watchful City")

tirin noun "tall tower" (LT1:258; this is a verb "I watch" in the Etymologies , stem TIR .)

tirion noun "watch-tower, tower" (TIR) ; in early "Qenya" the gloss was "a mighty tower, a city on a hill" (LT1:258) . Tirion "Great Watchtower", a city of the Elves in the Blessed Realm (SA:tir; in MR:176 the translation is "Watchful City")

tirios noun (probably *tiriost-) "a town with walls and towers" (LT1:258)

tiris ( tiriss-), also tirisse, noun "watch, vigil" (LT1:258, QL:93)

titta adj. "little, tiny" (TIT)

tiuca adj. "thick, fat" (TIW)

tiuco noun "thigh" (TIW)

tiuta- vb. "comfort, console" (QL:93; as for an obsolete meaning of tiuta-, see tiuya-)

tiutale noun "comfort, consolation, easement" (QL:93)

tiuya- vb. "swell, grow fat" (TIW; emended by Tolkien from tiuta-, VT46:19)

tixe ("ks")noun "dot, tiny mark, point" (TIK)

-to ending for dual genitive (Plotz)

1) noun "wool" (TOW)

2) adv. “thence” (for * tao , the pronoun ta “that, it” with the genitive ending -o, here used in an ablativic sense). Also talo, with -lo as a short form of the ablative ending -llo. (VT49:29, 11)

toa (1) ("toa")noun "wood" (VT39:6) , “wood as material” (PE17:115)

toa (2) adj . "of wool, woollen" (TOW; in GL:71 toa was glossed "wool", noun instead of adjective; but in Tolkien's later Quenya, the noun is )

tocot noun “cock” (PE16:132)

toi pron. "they" (FS; replaced by te in LotR-style Quenya?)

toina adj.? “wood – of material” (PE17:115) . Since -ina is normally an adjectival ending, the word is best understood as meaning “(made) of wood”.

tol noun "island, isle" (rising with sheer sides from the sea or from the river, SA:tol , VT47:26). In early "Qenya", the word was defined as "island, any rise standing alone in water, plain of green, etc" (LT1:269). The stem is toll-; the Etymologies as published in LR gives the pl. " tolle" (TOL2) , but this is a misreading for tolli (see VT46:19 and compare LT1:85). The primitive form of tol is variously cited as ¤ tolla (VT47:26) and ¤ tollo ( TOL2) .

Tol Eressea place-name "Lonely Isle" (LONO, Silm) , “Solitary Isle” (Letters:386) , also spelt Tol-Eressea (ERE) , Tol-eressea (TOL2)

tolbo noun "big toe" (VT47:10) , "a stump, stub (as of a truncated arm or branch)" (VT47:28) . Since it is elsewhere implied that the commonest form of Quenya shows lv for lb, the form *tolvo may also be usual. Compare tolmo.

toldea oridinal "eighth" (VT42:25), also toltea (VT42:31). See tolto.

toldo, see tolto

tóle noun "centre" (LT1:269; the word ende is to be preferred in Tolkien's later Quenya)

tollalinta noun in allative "upon hills" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

tollanta noun in allative "upon top(s?)" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

tolle noun "a steep isle". Another meaning, "thumb", was apparently abandoned by Tolkien (VT47:13, 26)

tollo, variant of tolyo, q.v. (VT48:6, 16)

tolma noun "a protuberance contrived to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle", etc. (VT47:28)

tolmen noun "boss (of shield)" (LT1:269)

[ tolmo noun "thumb", rejected by Tolkien in favour of nápo (VT48:15) ]

toloque ("kw") cardinal "eighteen" (VT48:21) . If "tolokwe" is seen as a Common Eldarin form, it is possible that the Quenya word should be *tolque instead, but the editor assumes that "tolokwe" is merely an unusual spelling of Quenya toloque (since "tolokwe" is listed together with forms that are definitely Quenya).

tolos noun "knob, lump" (LT1:269; this "Qenya" form would seem to be a precursor of Quenya tolma, q.v.)

tolosta fraction "one eighth" (1/8). Also tolsat, tosta. (VT48:11)

tolpe noun "thumb" (VT47:28, VT48:8) , a form Tolkien may have rejected in favour of nápo, q.v.

tolpo noun “bowl” (PE16:142)

tomba, also tompe, noun “voice / vowel”; the stem TOM is used of sounds “briefer” than the corresponding stem OM (cf. óma). (PE17:138)

tolsat fraction "one eighth" (1/8). Also tolosta, tosta. (VT48:11)

toltea ordinal "eighth" (VT42:31), also toldea (VT42:25). See tolto.

[ toltil noun "thumb" (VT47:26) ]

tolto cardinal "eight" (TOL1-OTH/OT) , variant toldo (VT48:6) . Ordinal toltea "eighth" (VT42:31), with variant toldea (VT42:25) to go with toldo.

tolu- vb. “roll up” (QL:94)

*tolvo, see tolbo

tolyo noun "sticker-up", "prominent one", term used in children's play for "middle finger" or "middle toe" (VT47:10, VT48:4) . The form tollo in VT48:6, 16 would seem to be a variant.

tombo noun "gong" (LT1:269)

tompe (1) pa.t. of top- ( tope ), q.v. (TOP) , (2) variant of tomba, q.v.

top- vb. "cover" (1st pers. aorist tope "covers"), pa.t. tompe (TOP) . Variant tup-, q.v.

tópa noun "roof" (TOP)

tópa- vb. "roof" (TOP)

[ tóquet- vb. ”answer” (PE17:166) ]

[ Tormen] noun "north" (MEN; replaced by Formen, q.v.)

#torna adj. “hard”, as in tornange(q.v.), seemingly -storna after prefixes ending in a vowel, as in the comparative forms aristorna, anastorna (PE17:56; the forms are untranslated and may not necessarily be the same adjective “hard”.)

tornanga adj. “iron hard” (the order of the elements is the opposite in Quenya). (PE17:56)

torni pl. of toron(TOR)

toron ( torn- as in pl. torni) noun "brother" (TOR; a later source gives háno, hanno [q.v.] as the word for "brother", leaving the status of toron uncertain)

torwa ??? (Narqelion)

tosta fraction "one eighth" (1/8). Also tolosta, tolsat (VT48:11)

-tse, dual locative ending (Plotz) ; see -sse

-tte (1) “they”, dual 3rd person pronominal ending (“the two of them”) (VT49:51) , replacing (also within the legendarium) the older ending -ste (which was later used for the second person only). This older ending -ste corresponds to a possessive ending -sta “their” (VT49:16) , but this was presumably likewise altered to *-tta as the new ending for dual “their” = “of the two of them”.

-tte (2), 3rd person pl. reflexive ending, as in melitte “they love themselves” (VT49:21) . This ending can hardly coexist with #1 above; an alternative wording would be the analytical construction *melilte inte. Compare -sse #2.

pron. “they, them”, 3rd person dual (“the two of them”), both “personal and neuter” (the pronoun can be used of persons and things alike). (VT49:51) Tolkien also considered tet for the same meaning, listing it alongside in one source (VT49:56) , but this form was apparently abandoned.

tuc- noun "draw" (1st pers. aorist tucin "I draw") (TUK)

tucalia ??? (Narqelion)

tuia- vb. "sprout, spring" (Tolkien's gloss is actually "sprouts, springs", since tuia is also the 3rd pers. sg. present tense) (TUY)

tuile noun "spring, spring-time", also used = "dayspring, early morn" (VT39:7, TUY) , in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition. Cf. tuilére, q.v. (Appendix D) - In early "Qenya", the word tuile is glossed "Spring", but it is said that it literally refers to a "budding", also used collectively for "buds, new shoots, fresh green" (LT1:269) . Cf. tuima in Tolkien's later Quenya.

tuilére noun *"Spring-day", a day outside the months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Súlime and Víresse (rough equivalents of March and April). In Tolkien's early "Qenya", Tuilére was simply glossed "Spring" (LT1:269) .

tuilindo noun "swallow", etymologically "spring-singer" (TUY, LIN2, LT1:269, LT2:338)

tuima noun "sprout, bud" (TUY)

tul- vb. "come" (WJ:368) , 1st pers. aorist tulin "I come" (TUL) , 3rd pers. sg. tulis “(s)he comes” (VT49:19) , perfect utúlie "has come" ( utúlien "I am come", EO ), utúlie'n aure "Day has come" (the function of the 'n is unclear; it may be a variant of the article "the", hence literally " the Day has come"). Past tense túle "came" in LR:47 and SD:246, though an alternative form *tulle has also been theorized. Túle in VT43:14 seems to be an abnormal aorist stem, later abandoned; tula in the same source would be an imperative. Prefixed future tense entuluva "shall come again" in the Silmarillion , future tuluva also in the phrase aranielya na tuluva "may thy kingdom come" (VT44:32/34), literally apparently *"thy kingdom, be-it-that (it) will come". In early "Qenya" we have the perfects tulielto "they have come" (LT1:114, 270, VT49:57) and tulier"have come", pl., in the phrase I·Eldar tulier "the Eldar have come" (LT1:114, 270) . Read probably *utúlielte, *Eldar utúlier in LotR-style Quenya.

tulca (1) adj. "firm, strong, immovable, steadfast" (TULUK)

tulca- (2) vb. "fix, set up, establish" (LT1:270)

tulca (3) adj. "yellow". Adopted and adapted from Valarin; the normal Quenya word for "yellow" is rather malina (WJ:399)

tulco noun "support, prop". Given the primitive form ¤ tulku , the word would have the stem-form *tulcu- and the plural form *tulqui. (TULUK)

Tulkas ( Tulkass-, as in dat.sg. Tulkassen) masc. name, used of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399, TULUK)

tulma noun "bier" (LT1:270)

tulta- vb. "send for, fetch, summon" (TUL) . Tultanelyes *"you summoned him", changed by Tolkien to leltanelyes *"you sent him" (possibly tulta- was meant to have the meaning "send" here, but Tolkien decided to use another word) (VT47:22)

tulu- vb. "fetch, bring, bear; move, come" (LT1:270; compare tulta- in Tolkien's later Quenya)

tulunca adj. "steady, firm" (LT1:270; in Tolkien's later Quenya tulca)

tulwe noun "pillar, standard, pole" (LT1:270)

tulya- vb. "lead" (+ allative: lead into) (VT43:22)

túma adj.? "moving" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

tumba noun "deep valley" (Letters:308; SA:tum and TUB gives tumbo "valley, deep valley") ; apparently an extended form *tumbale in tumbalemorna "deepvalleyblack" or (according to SA:tum ) "black deep valley", also tumbaletaurea "deepvalleyforested"; see Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna...

tumbe noun "trumpet" (LT1:269)

tumbo (stem *tumbu-, given the primitive form ¤ tumbu ) noun "(deep) valley", under or among hills (TUB, SA:tum) , “depth” (PE17:81) . - In early "Qenya", the gloss was "dark vale" (LT1:269) . See tumba.

Tumbolatsin noun (place-name, apparently incorporating tumbo) (LAT)

tumna adj. "lowlying, deep, low" (TUB) ; early "Qenya" glosses: "deep, profound, dark or hidden" (LT1:269, 271)

tumpo (stem *tumpu-, given the primitive form ¤ tumpu ) noun "hump" (TUMPU)

Túna (also Tún) place-name, used of the hill on which Tirion was built (Silm, TUN, KOR) , derived from a stem ( TUN ) apparently meaning simply *"hill, mound".

tunda adj. "tall" (TUN)

tunda- vb. "kindle" (LT1:270; rather tinta- or narta- in Tolkien's later Quenya)

tundo noun "hill, mound" (TUN)

tunga adj. "taut, tight" (of strings:) "resonant" (TUG)

tuo noun "muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength" (TUG)

#tup- vb. "cover", isolated from untúpa, q.v. Variant top- in the Etymologies .

tupse noun "thatch" (TUP)

tur- vb. "wield, control, govern" (1st pers. aorist turin "I wield" etc.), pa.t. turne (TUR) . The verb is elsewhere defined “master, conquer, win” (PE17:115) , virtually the same meanings are elsewhere assigned to turu- #1, q.v.

túr, tur noun "king" (PE16:138, LT1:260) ; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya, but cf. the verb tur-. Also compare the final element -tur, -ntur "lord" in names like Axantur, Falastur, Feanturi, Veantur (q.v.)

túra adj. “big, great” (PE17:115) , related to words for power and apparently referring to a more abstract greatness than words like haura “huge”. Cf. taura, túrea. Apparently initial element of Túrosto.

Turambar masc. name, "Master of Doom/Fate", name taken in pride by Túrin (Appendix A, SA:tur, TUR, MBARAT, VT49:42)

Turcafinwe masc. name, "strong, powerful (in body) Finwe", masc. name; he was called Celegorm in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Turco . (PM:352) , compare #turco "chief" (q.v.)

Turcil noun "Númenórean" (TUR) , stem turcild- as in pl. turcildi (LR:47, 56; SD:246) . Variant of Tarcil; see VT46:17.

#turco (1) noun "chief" (isolated from Turcomund "chief bull", Letters:423 ). Turco, masc. name, see Turcafinwe.

turco (“k”) (2) noun “tower”. In Lúnaturco, Quenya name of Barad-dûr (Dark Tower). Tolkien changed the word turcofrom turma (PE17:22) .

túre noun "mastery, victory" (TUR) , "strength, might" (QL:95) , "power" (QL:96)

turea adj. “mighty, masterful” (PE17:115) , also taura.

Túrin masc. name, apparently meaning *"victory-mood" (LR:395, s.v. TUR ). The Etymologies gives Turindo as the Quenya form of this name; Túrin seems to be properly the Sindarin form, though it fits Quenya style well enough and Nienor used it in a Quenya sentence (near the end of ch. 21 of the Silmarillion ). The name appears as Turin (with a short u) in the phrase nahtana ló Turin, *”slain by Túrin” (VT49:24)

#turinasta, #túrinasta noun "kingdom" ( turinastalya, túrinastalya "thy kingdom", VT43:15). These words for "kingdom" Tolkien perhaps abandoned in favour of #aranie, q.v.

#turindie, #túrindie noun "kingdom" ( turindielya, túrindielya "thy kingdom", VT43:15). These words for "kingdom" Tolkien perhaps abandoned in favour of #aranie, q.v.

Turindo masc. name; see Túrin (TUR)

turinqui ("q") noun "queen" (LT1:260; apparently the fem. of tur. In Tolkien's later Quenya, "queen" is tári.)

túrion ( túriond-) noun “palace” (QL:95)

turma (1) noun "shield" (TURÚM) .

[ turma] (2) noun “tower”. Tolkien changed this word to turco (#2), q.v. (PE17:22)

turmen noun “realm” (PE17:28) . Turmen Follondiéva ”Realm of the North-harbourage”, old name for Arnor, TurmenHallondiéva “Realm of the South-harbourage”, old name for Gondor (PE17:28)

turne pa.t. of tur-(TUR)

Turondo masc. name “Lord of stone” (PE17:112) ; see Turucáno.

Túrosto place-name "Gabilgathol", a dwelling of the Dwarves (Sindarin Belegost ; the names mean "Mickleburg", "Great Fortress"). Apparently túra + osto.

turu- (1) vb. “master, defeat, have victory over” (PE17:113, not clearly said to be Quenya, but the Q name Turucundo “Victory-prince” is listed immediately afterwards). Compare tur-; cf. also *turúna.

turu- (2) vb. "kindle" (LT1:270; rather tinta- in LotR-style Quenya)

turu(3) noun "wood" (properly firewood, but used of wood in general) (LT1:270)

Turucáno masc. name "Turgon" (PM:344) . The meaning is something like “powerful commander” (see cáno). Another version gives Turondo “lord of stone” as the Q name of Turgon(d). (PE17:115) , with a wholly distinct final element.

[ Turumbar] masc.name (MBARAT; changed by Tolkien to Turambar)

turun, see #turúna

*turúna passive participle "mastered", only attested attested in the elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete spelling turun in Silm ch. 21) . The form may be understood as the passive participle of the verb turu- “master, defeat, have victory over” (PE17:113) , the sole available example of a U-stem verb appearing in such a participle form. Compare -na #4.

turúva adj. "wooden" (LT1:270) ; cf. turu #3.

tussa noun "bush" (TUS)

tusture noun "tinder" (LT1:270)

#tuv- vb. "find", perfect #utúvie "has found" in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree: utúvienyes "I have found it" ( utúvie-nye-s "have found-I-it") (LotR3:VI ch. 5)

tuvu- vb. "receive" (GL:71; is this "Qenya" word related to #tuv- "find"?)

-twa 1) ending for dual possessive (Plotz)

-twa 2) an pronominal possessive ending mentioned in one chart of pronoun, apparently “their” referring to two persons (VT49:16) ; this may be an ending used in colloquial Quenya rather than formal language (it is listed together with the endings -ya ”his, her” and -rya “their”, that are explicitly said to belong to colloquial Quenya) (VT49:16-17)

-tya, pronominal ending, 2nd person sg. intimate/familiar “your, thy” (VT49:16, 38, 48) ; compare -tye

tyal- vb. "play" (1st pers. aorist tyalin "I play") (TYAL)

tyalangan noun "harp-player" (TYAL)

tyalie noun "sport, play, game" (TYAL, LT1:260)

tyar- vb. "cause" (KYAR)

tyaro noun "doer, actor, agent" (KAR)

tyasta- vb. "put to the test", pa.t. tyasante (QL:49)

tyav- vb. "taste" (1st pers. aorist tyavin "I taste") (KYAB)

tyáve noun "taste" (pl. #tyáver attested only in the compound lámatyáver, see lámatyáve.) (MR:215, 216) . It may be that the verb tyav- would also appear as tyáve in the past tense.

tye pron. “you, thou, thee”, 2nd person intimate/familar (LR:61, 70, Arct, VT49:36, 55) , corresponding to formal/polite lye. According to VT49:51, tye was used as an endearment especially between lovers, and (grand)parents and children also used it to address one another (“to use the adult lye was more stern”). Tyenya “my tye ”, used = “dear kinsman” (VT49:51) . The pronoun tye is derived from kie , sc. an original stem ki with an added - e(VT49:50) . Stressed tyé; dual tyet *“the two of you” (VT49:51 – another note reproduced on the same page however states that tye has no dual form, and VT49:52 likewise states that the 2nd person familiar “never deleloped” dual or plural forms) . Compare the reflexive pronoun intye *"yourself". Possibly related to the pronominal stem KE (2nd person sg.), if tye represents earlier * kye .

-tye pronominal ending “you, thou” (VT49:48, 51) , 2nd person familiar/intimate: caritye *”you do” (VT49:16; the corresponding formal/polite ending is -l, -lye, cf. PE17:135 where Tolkien states that hiruvalye“thou shalt find” from Namárie would be hiruvatye if the polite pronoun were replaced by the familiar one). Compare the independent pronoun tye. In VT49:51, Tolkien denies that the ending -tye has any short form (see, however, -t # 3). Cf. natye“you are”; see #1. Compare tye, -tya.

tyel (1) noun "end", stem tyeld- as in the pl. form tyeldi (FS, KYEL; the pl. form tyeldi was misread as "tyelde" in the Etymologies as printed in LR; cf. VT45:25 for this correction) . Cf. tyelma.

tyel- (2) vb. "end, cease" (KYEL)

tyelca adj. "swift, agile" (KYELEK) , "hasty" (PM:353)

Tyelcormo masc. name "hasty-riser", the amilesse or mother-name (never used in narrative) of Turcafinwe = Celegorm (PM:353)

[** tyelde], see tyel (KYEL)

tyelima adj. "final" (KYEL)

tyelle noun "grade" (pl. tyeller is attested) (Appendix E) , “grade, order; a step in a stairway, [or in a] ladder” (PE17:122, 157)

tyelma noun "ending" (FS, VT45:25)

tyelpe noun "silver" (KYELEP/TELEP) , etymology also in Letters:426 and UT:266. Tyelpe is the true Quenya descendant of primitive ¤ kyelepē , but the Telerin form telpe was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266) . In the Etymologies , tyelpe is also the name of Tengwa #1 with overposed dots, this symbol having the value ty ( VT45:25) . Cf. tyelpetéma as the name of the entire palatal series of the Tengwar system.

Tyelperinquar masc. name, "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (PM:318; also Telperinqar , q.v.)

tyelpetéma noun "palatal series" (Appendix E)

Tyelperion less common name of Telperion (UT:266) .

tyulma noun "mast" (TYUL, SD:419). " Qenya" pl. tyulmin"masts" in MC:216; read *tyulmar in LotR-style Quenya.

tyulusse noun "poplar-tree" (TYUL)

tyur noun "cheese" (QL:50 cf. GL:28)


#u- vb. "not do, not be" (1st pers. aorist uin "I do not, am not"), pa.t. úme (UGU/UMU) . A late (ca. 1968) source gives the forms uin, uin( ye) “I am not”, uil( ye) *”you are not”, uis “it is not”, uilme *”we are not”, uir “are not” and endingless ui *”is not” (VT49:29, 36) ; these forms were however struck out. The example uin care“I don't” (PE17:68) combines this negative verb with a following verb in the “simplest aorist infinitive”. Compare ua in another late source. See also ui, which (despite its use as an interjection “no”) seems to be the endingless 3rd person aorist.

ú (1) adv. and prep . "without, destitute of" (VT39:14). Usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light" ( cala ). – In one source, ú is seemingly also used as a negative verb “was not” (VT49:13) , but Tolkien revised the text in question.

ú- (2) prefix "not-, un-, in-", denying presence or possession of thing or quality (VT39:14, UGU/UMU/VT46:20, GŪ , LT1:272) , or simply suggesting something bad or immoral (see # úcar-, Úmaiar). Tolkien at one point considered redefining ú- as an element signifying "bad, uneasy, hard"; the already-published form únótima would then mean "difficult/impossible to count" rather than simply "uncountable" (VT42:33) . However, Tolkien's very last word on the matter seems to be that ú- was to remain a mere negative (VT44:4) . Compare úa, q.v. According to the Etymologies , the prefix ú- usually has a "bad sense", whereas according to early material u- ( uv-, um-, un-) is a "mere negation" (UGU/UMU vs. VT42:32) According to a later source, ú- could be used as an uninflected verbal prefix, mainly in verse, but in a normal style the prefix was “verbalized” as ua-, q.v. (PE17:144) . The stem Ū , as a negation, was accompanied by “pursed lips and shaking of the head” (PE17:145) .

ua- negative verb “not do, not be”. If a verb is to be negated, ua (coming before the verb) receives any pronominal endings (and presumably also any endings for plurality or duality, -r or - t), whereas the uninflected tense-stem of the verb follows: With the ending - n for “I”, one can thus have constructions like uan care *”I do not” (aorist), uan carne *“I did not” (past), uan cára *“I am not doing” (present), uan caruva *”I shall not do” (future). The verb ua- can itself be fully conjugated: # ua aorist (or present?), úne (past), úva “(future), # uie (perfect) (the aorist and perfect are attested only with the ending - n “I”). In “archaic Quenya” these tense-forms could be combined with an uninflected aorist stem, e.g. future * úvan care = later Quenya uan caruva, “I shall not do”. In later Quenya, only the forms ua (present or aorist) and “occasionally” the past tense form # úne were used in normal prose ( únen *”I did not, was not”). (PE17:144; compare FS for úva as a future-tense negative verb “will not”)

úa, with 1st person suffix úalye, imperative particle á, a combined with the negation ú- to express a prohibition ( úalye mittanya me, *"do not thou lead us", VT43:9, 21-22). However, Tolkien apparently abandoned úa in favour of ala, alalye, q.v. (later he also used the form áva for "don't"). Compare ua.

Úamanyar noun "those not of Aman" (sg. Úamanya, PE17:143), Elves who did not reach the Blessed Realm (but did leave Cuiviénen with the intention of going there) = Heceldi (WJ:371). Also Úmanyar and fuller Úmaneldi. (WJ:373) . Also called Lembi, q.v.

#úcar- vb. "to sin, trespass; to do wrong" (pl. aorist úcarer in VT43:12, we would rather expect *úcarir, a form seemingly indicated by an emendation in one variant of the text in question, VT43:21). The verb is car- "do" with the prefix ú-, here suggesting something morally bad (*"do wrong") rather than simple negation.

#úcare noun "debt, trespass" ( úcaremmar "our debts, our trespasses", VT43:19). The related words #úcar- “to sin” and #úcarindo “sinner” would suggest that #úcare can also be translated “sin”. – One may question whether the simplex form is #úcare or just #úcar (+ -e- as a mere connecting vowel before the pronominal ending in úcaremmar), but compare lacare.

#úcarindo (pl. úcarindor, VT43:27) noun "sinner"; cf. úcar-. The form úlcarindor occurring in an older variant of the text in question seems abnormal, since Quenya rarely has a long vowel in front of a consonant cluster (VT43:33)

ue noun "fleece" (LT1:249)

úfantima adj. “not concealable” (PE17:176) , also úfantuma (PE17:180) , cf. fanta-, q.v.

úfanwa adj. “not veiled or obscure, perspicuous” (PE17:176)

úfanwea adj. “not veiled, unveiled” (PE17:180), possibly a variant or replacement úfanwa, q.v.

ufárea adj. "not enough" (FS) . Cf. ú- "un-" and fárea "enough, sufficient" (read *úfárea?)

ui interjection “no” (originally an endingless negative verb in the 3rd person aorist: “it is not [so]”; see #u-). Apparently this is the word for “no” used to deny that something is true (compare , which is rather used to reject orders, or to issue negative orders). (VT49:28) Compare uito.

#uie, the perfect tense of the negative verb ua-, q.v. Only attested with a 1st person sg. pronominal suffix ( uien).

uile noun "long trailing plant", especially "seaweed" (UY)

uin (1) see #u-.

Uin (2) masc. name, "the primeval whale" (LT1:263)

Uinen( Uinend-, as in dative Uinenden) fem. name, used of a Maia, spouse of Osse (UY, NEN) . Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:404) , though it is also said that it contains -nen "water" (SA:nen) ; the latter explanation may be folk etymology. In the Etymologies , the name is derived from the same stem (UY) as uile "long trailing plant, especially seaweed".

uito interjection “it is not that” (emphatic word for “no”?) Compare ui, náto (VT49:28, 29)

ú๗arin adj. “unmarred” (PE17:150) , this would be úharin in more standard spelling (and later pronunciation). In a more widely published source, the word for “unmarred” is alahasta, q.v.

Úlairi pl. noun "Nazgûl" (sg. *Úlaire? *Úlair?) Etymology obscure.

Ulban ( Ulband-) noun "monster" (a name of Melko) (LT1:260)

ulca adj. "evil, bad, wicked, wrong" (QL:97, VT43:23-24, VT48:32, VT49:14; compounded in henulca "evileyed", SD:68) ; variant olca, q.v. Compare noun ulco. The adj. ulca may also itself be used as a noun “evil”, as in the ablative form ulcallo “from evil” (VT43:8, 10) and the sentence cé mo quete ulca *”if one speaks evil” (VT49:19) .

ulco (stem #ulcu-) noun "evil", pl. *ulqui (VT43:23-24; the stem-form is attested in the ablative case: ulcullo "from evil", VT43:12)

úlea adj. "pouring, flooding, flowing" (ULU)

ulle intr. pa.t. of ulya -, q.v. (ULU) . Cf. ullier "poured", a pl. past tense of ulya- "pour" occurring in LR:47; read probably *uller in Tolkien's later Quenya. In SD:247, ullier is translated "should flow".

ullume adv.? a word occurring in Fíriel's Song , evidently meaning "not for ever". Cf. ú-, lúme and úlume.

Ulmo masc. name, used of the Vala of all waters (ULU) , interpreted "the Pourer" by folk etymology, but the name was actually adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)

ulmula participle"mumbling" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

ulto- vb. "pour" (intransitive?) (LT1:270; in Tolkien's later Quenya ulya- pa.t. ulle)

ulu- vb. "pour" (transitive?) (LT1:270; in Tolkien's later Quenya ulya- pa.t. ulyane)

úlume adv. “ever”, at all times (in a series or period) (PE17:156) . Cf. ullume.

ulumpe noun "camel" (QL:97)

Ulumúri pl. noun , the great horns of Ulmo; etymology obscure (Silm)

ulunde noun "flood" (ULU)

ulundo noun "monster, deformed and hideous creature" (ÚLUG)

ulya- vb. "pour", intr. pa.t. ulle, tr. ulyane (ULU) . Cf. ullier "poured", a pl. past tense of ulya- occurring in LR:47; read probably *uller in Tolkien's later Quenya. In SD:247, ullier is translated "should flow".

# um- vb. "not to do, not to be" (1st pers. aorist umin "I do not, am not"), past tense úme (UGU/UMU) . Another version of this negative verb had the form # hum-, q.v., but Tolkien rejected it.

úma- vb. "teem" (VT48:32)

Úmaneldi noun *"Non-Aman Elves", Elves who never dwelt in Aman (= Úmanyar) (WJ:373) . Sg. # Úmanel, # Úmaneld-.

Úmanyar pl. noun "those not of Aman", Eldar that did not reach Aman, sc.Sindar and Nandor (SA:mā n). Sg. # Úmanya.Also Úamanyar.

[? umaquale] ("q") , possibly a synonym of anquale/ unquale, hence noun "agony, death" (VT45:24)

[ umba, umbacarin adj. unknown meaning relating badness (PE17:172) ]

umbar ( umbart-, as in dat.sg. umbarten) noun "fate, doom" (MBARAT) , also name of tengwa #6 (Appendix E) .Cf. Umbarto. In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , umbar was the name of letter #18 (VT45:33), which tengwa Tolkien would later call malta instead – changing its Quenya value from mb to m. – In the word Tarumbar "King of the World" (q.v.), umbar appears to be a variant of Ambar (q.v.) instead.

Umbardacil masc. name (or title) "Umbar-victor" (Appendix A) ; the place-name Umbar is not Quenya and has no connection with umbar "fate".

umbarta- vb. “to define, decree, destine”; this form of the verb was used “in more lofty senses”, otherwise marta- (PE17:104)

Umbarto masc. name, "Fated", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwe = Amras. The ominous name was altered to Ambarto by Feanor. (PM:353-354)

umba noun "swarm" (VT48:32)

umbas( þ) noun "shield" (VT45:33)

umbo, umbon noun “hill, lump, clump, mass” (PE17:93)

úme (1) vb. pa.t. of um - (and u-? ), q.v. (UGU/UMU)

úme (2) "great collection or crowd of things of same sort" (a struck-out note gave the rejected gloss "largeness") (VT48:32) , “throng, great concourse of things without order” (PE17:115) . Compare úve.

-úme (3) suffix "large" (of quantity)", as in liyúme "host" (VT48:32)

Úmaiar pl. noun , Maiar (see Maia) who became evil and followed Melkor, like the Balrogs (MR:79) . Sg. #Úmaia.

úmea (1) adj. "abundant, swarming, teeming" (VT48:32) , “large” (of throng) (PE17:115) .Compare úvea.

úmea (2) adj. "evil" (UGU/UMU) . Obsoleted by #1 above? Is this connected to úmeai in Narqelion , perhaps a "Qenya" plural form?

umne, see matumne under mat-

umpano noun "build" (read: building), alternative form of ampano, which form is probably to be preferred (VT45:36, compare PAN; VT46:8 records how Tolkien in one case altered umpano to ampano)

un- intensive prefix used before qu; the assimilated variant um- is said to occur before p, and "b" (the latter evidently = v developed from prehistoric b , but following um- its original quality would be preserved so that we would see umb-). This prefix is reportedly only used "in evil sense"; otherwise the intensive prefix is an- (and assimilated variants thereof). (VT45:5)

úna adj. "deprived of, destitute, forlorn" (VT39:14) . The plural form *úne is not to be confused with the pa.t. of the negative verb ua, q.v. – An unglossed word úna, cited in VT49:28, rather seems to be a negated form of “is”.

únat noun "a thing impossible to be or to be done" (VT39:26) Cf. ú- and nat.

unca- vb. "hollow out" (UNUK)

Undolaure masc. name "Glorund" (> Glaurung). Also Laurundo. (LT2:341)

undóme noun "twilight", usually of the time near evening, not near dawn (that is tindóme)

undu adv. (and prep.?) "down, under, beneath" (UNU, VT46:20) ; prefix undu- "down", in unduláve "down-licked" = covered. (Nam)

undulav- vb. , literally “lick down” = cover (glossed “swallow” in PE17:72). Lumbule unduláve ilye tier "(heavy) shadow down-licked all paths", lyrical translation "all paths are drowned deep in shadow" (Nam) . The pl. past tense would be unduláver (PE17:72).

undume noun "abyss" ( Markirya)

#úne vb ., the pa.t. of ua-, q.v. Only attested with a 1st person sg. pronominal suffix: únen.

Úner noun "Noman" (UT:211)

ungo noun "cloud, dark shadow" (UÑG)

Ungoliante fem. name "Ungoliant" (the Spider, ally of Morgoth); also Ungweliante (UÑG, DYEL, SLIG)

ungwale noun "torture" (ÑGWAL) Also nwalme in Tolkien's later Quenya.

ungwe noun "spider's web", also name of tengwa #8 (Appendix E) , or, in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , tengwa #20 – which letter Tolkien would later call nwalme (VT46:20) . The word as such was defined as "gloom" in the Etymologies(UÑG) , while in early "Qenya" it meant "spider" ("especially Ungwe the Gloomweaver" = Ungoliant) (LT1:271)

Ungweliante fem. name, the Spider, ally of Morgoth (UÑG)

unote, unotea (read *únote, *únotea?)adj. "not counted, uncounted" (VT39:14)

únótima adj. "not possible to count, countless" (VT39:14) , pl. únótime (translated "numberless") attested ( ú-nót-ime "not-count-able") (Nam, RGEO:66, Appendix E) . Cf. unnegated nótima, q.v.

unqua ("q")adj. "hollow" (UNUK)

unquale ("q")noun "agony, death" (KWAL, VT45:36) . See anquale. In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , unquale was the name of letter #8 (VT45:18), which tengwa Tolkien would later call ungwe instead – changing its Quenya value from nqu to ngw.

unque noun "hole, hollow" (VT46:20, UNUK) , also name of tengwa #16 (Appendix E; there spelt unque , while the Etymologies has unqe )

untúpa vb. "down-roofs" = covers (perhaps for *undutúpa-, cf. undu-). Present tense of untup- with lengthening of the stem vowel and the suffix -a (cf. síla "shines" from sil-)

unuhuine prep + noun "under-shadow" (LR:47) ; see huine.

unutixe ("ks")noun dot or point placed below the line of writing (TIK) . In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the initial element unu- was misread was nun- (VT46:19) . The variant unutexe ("ks" ) was rejected by Tolkien (VT46:20)

únyárima adj. "impossible to recount" (because all the facts are not known, or the tale is too long) (WJ:370)

[ uo adv. “together” (PE17:191) ]

úpa adj. “dumb” (i.e. unable to speak) (PE17:126)

úpahtea adj. “speechless” (synonym of úpa, q.v.) (PE17:126)

úquétima adj. "unspeakable", sc. impossible to say, put into words; also "unpronounceable" (WJ:370)

úr noun "fire" (UR) This stem was struck out in Etym, but a word that must be derived from it occurs in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it. Early "Qenya" also has Ûr , noun "the Sun" (also Úri , Úrinci , Urwen ) (LT1:271). Cf. Úri .

Úr-anar noun , word occurring in Fíriel's Song , translated "the red sun"; actually the prefixed element úr- must have to do with the element ur- "heat, be hot" mentioned in the Silmarillion Appendix. Also compare Ûr as an early Qenya word for "the Sun".

úra (1) adj. "evil, nasty" (VT43:24, VT48:32)

úra (2) adj. "large" (UR) , probably obsoleted by #1 above

urcárima, urcarne adj. “hard to make / do”. (PE17:154) . Cf. urucarin.

urco , stem * urcu- and pl. urqui, noun : an old word used in the lore of the Blessed Realm for anything that caused fear to the Elves during the March; by the Exiled Noldor the word was recognized as the cognate of Sindarin orch and used to mean "Orc". The Sindarin-influenced form orco was also used. (WJ:390)

urda adj. “hard, difficult, arduous” (PE17:154)

urdu noun "death" (LT2:342; rather nuru in Tolkien's later Quenya)

úre noun "heat", also name of tengwa #36 (Appendix E)

úri noun "sun" (MC:214, 221; this is "Qenya") ; genitive úrio "sun's" (MC:216)

Úrime (in some editions Urime, but this seems to be an error; cf. úre "heat") noun , name of the eighth month of the year, "August" (Appendix D, SA:ur-, UT:302)

úrin adj. "blazing hot" (LT1:271)

Úrin ( Úrind-, as in "g.sg. Úrinden ", in LotR-style Quenya this is dat.sg.) noun , a name of the Sun (UR, PE17:148; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

Úrion (Q?) noun , a title of Fionwe (= later Eonwe); see the LR index. (UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

urna noun "oven" (LT1:271)

úro noun "evil" (VT43:24) ; Tolkien may have abandoned this form in favour of ulco, q.v.

* urta-, see usta-

ur( u)- prefix denoting difficulty (PE17:154, 172) , cf. urcárima, urucarin

urnótima adj. perhaps *“difficult to count” (PE17:172)

uru noun "fire" (LT1:271)

urucarin adj. “made with difficulty” (PE17:154)

uruite adj. "fiery" (UR; thisstem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

urulóce noun "fire-dragon" (LOK) , pl. Urulóci (SA:ur-) . In the Silmarillion , the word Urulóci is both singular (as when Glaurung is called "the first of the Urulóki", Silm:138) and plural (as when Glaurung is called "the Urulóki", Silm:255).

Urundil masc. name, "copper-lover" (PM:365) ; this may suggest #urun as one word for "copper", unless this is the ending -ndil "friend, lover" suffixed to #uru- as a reduced form of urus, q.v.

urus ( urust-) noun "copper" (VT41:10)

úruva adj. "fiery" (from UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it. The word úruva also occurred in early "Qenya"; in LT1:271 it is glossed "like fire".)

uruvoite adj. "fiery" (LT1:271)

urwa adj. "on fire" (LT1:271)

urya- vb. “be hot” (PE17:148) , "burn" (intransitive) (LT1:271)

ursa( þ) noun “rage” ( PE17:188)

ursa- ( þ) vb. “to rage” (PE17:188)

us-( þ) prefix denoting something bad; cf. uscare

#us- vb. "escape" (given in the form usin "he escapes" in LT1:251; this would have to mean "I escape" if the word is to be adopted to Tolkien's later Quenya) . Cf. uswe.

úsahtie ( þ) noun "inducement to do wrong" (VT43:23) ; allative úsahtienna attested (the alternative form úsahtíenna with a long í must be erroneous, as pointed out by the editors [ibid.] ). Compare sahta-, sahtie.

uscare( þ) noun ”doing wrong” (PE17:151) . Also uxare. Cf. úcare.

úsie adv. “on the contrary” (VT49:8, 35) . Cf. lasi.

úsir adv. “on the contrary”, a form Tolkien may have abandoned in favor of úsie (VT49:18)

usque ("q")noun "reek" (USUK) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , usque was also the name of tengwa #16, which at this conceptual stage had the value squ (VT46:20) . Later, Tolkien would call this letter unque, with the value nqu.

usta- vb. "burn" (transitive) (LT1:271, QL:98) . This form reflects the stem USU listed in early material; however, since Tolkien seems to have changed it to UR later, we should perhaps read *urta- for usta-.

uswe noun "issue, escape" (LT1:251)

Uswevande noun "way of escape" (LT2:336)

utúlien see tul- (EO)

Utumno (stem *Utumnu-), place-name, the first great stronghold of Melkor in the North (SA:tum, TUB) . The etymology apparently has something to do with "very deep" or "very hidden"; the phrase "Utumno the Deep-hidden" in MR:67 may include a rough translation of the name. This later source derives the name from a root meaning "cover over, hide", whereas in Etym it was derived from the root TUB having to do with low-lying things. Whether the primitive form is ¤ Utubnu as in Etym ( TUB ) or ¤ Utupnu as in MR:69, the stem-form would be *Utumnu-.

utúvienyes, see *tuv-

úva (1) vb. "will not", future tense of a negative verb (present/aorist tense úye?) in Fíriel's Song . Compare #úva as the future tense of the negative verb ua- (q.v.) in a later source ( PE17:144, where the verb is cited with a 1st person sg. ending: úvan) .

úva- (2) vb. “impend, be imminent” – “nearly always in a bad sense: `threaten (to come)' “, as in hríve úva véna “winter is drawing near to us” (VT49:14)

-uva future tense ending. In avuva, caluva, cenuva, hiruva, ( en) quantuva, ( en) tuluva, laituvalmet, lauva, maruvan, termaruva, tiruvantes. A final -a drops out before the ending -uvais added: quanta- “fill”, future tense quantuva (PE17:68) . A verbal stem in -av- may be contracted when -uva follows, as when avuvais stated to have become auva (VT49:13) . Origin/etymology of the ending -uva, see VT48:32. In VT49:30, the future tense of the verb “to be” is given as uva, apparently the future-tense “ending” appearing independently, but several other sources rather give nauva for “will be” (see #1).

úvana adj. “unmarred” (PE17:150) , rejected meaning “monstrous” (PE17:149) . The word for “unmarred” is alahasta (q.v.) a better-published source.

úvane prep. + noun "without beauty", adj . úvanea (VT39:14)

úvanima noun "not fair, ugly" (VT39:14) . Negated form of vanima.

úvanimo noun "monster (creature of Melko[r]) (BAN, LT1:272) ; pl. úvanimor "monsters" is attested (UGU/UMU, (GŪ ). According to VT45:7, 16 Tolkien did not capitalize the word úvanimo , though it was so printed in the entries BAN and GŪ in the Etymologies as printed in LR. The (pl.) form húvanimor was abandoned along with rather than ú - as a negative prefix, VT45:17.

úve noun "abundance, great quantity" (UB) . Compare úme #2.

úvea adj. "abundant, in very great number, very large" (UB) . Compare úmea.

úvie noun "considering a matter (with a view to decision)" (VT48:32)

uxare noun ”doing wrong” (PE17:151) . Also uscare. Cf. úcare.

úye vb. , a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22 ) , apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" ( úye sére indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")


va prep. "from" (VT43:20; prefixed in the form var- in var-úra "from evil", VT43:24) . In VT49:24, va, au and o are quoted as variants of the stem awa “away from”.

exclamation "I will not!" or "Do not!", interjection accompanied by a “jerk back of head” (PE17:145) . It was inflected only in the 1st person sing. and 1st person pl. exclusive: ván, ványe "I won't!", vamme "we won't" (WJ:371, PE17:143; read *valme in Second Edition Quenya, after Tolkien revised the pronominal suffixes in the sixties) .

-va possessive ending, presumably related to the preposition va "from". In Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, rómeva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references), Follondiéva, Hyallondiéva (see under turmen for references). Following a consonant, the ending instead appears as -wa ( andamacilwa “of the long sword”, PE17:147, rómenwa*”of the East”, PE17:59). Pl. -ve when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407) , but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárie ). Pl. -iva (-ive), dual *-twa, partitive pl. -líva.

vacco noun "jacket, cloak" (GL:21, QL:100)

vaháya adj. "far away" (LR:47, SD:310) . Also spelt vahaiya (SD:247)

vahta- vb. "to soil, stain" (WA3)

vaia < waia (also vaiya < waiya) noun "envelope", especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY) . Cf. váya.

vaile noun “wind” (PE17:189)

vailima adj. “windy” (PE17:189)

Vaiaro masc. name, a name of Ulmo, lord of Vaiya (WAY)

vaima noun "wrap, robe" (QL:100, LT1:271)

vaina (1) adj. "clad" (LT1:272)

vaina (2) adj. , the “late” pronunciation of waina “blonde, fair of hair” (PE17:154)

vaine noun "sheath" (LT1:271)

vainole noun "quiver" (= case for holding arrows) (LT1:271)

Vaire (1) fem. name "the Weaver", name of a Valie, spouse of Mandos (Silm, WEY) . The name is translated "Ever-weaving" in VT39:10, and it is implied that the archaic form was * Wairē rather than ¤ Weirē , the reconstruction given in the Etymologies (entry WEY ). Tolkien considered changing the name to Vére (PE17:33) One source glosses the literal meaning as “weaving” rather than “weaver” (PE17:191) .

vaire (2) adj. ?“wavy” (according to the editor, the gloss is almost illegible, but further notes may be taken as saying that the word describes wavy locks rather than wavy fluids). (PE17:34)

vaiwe noun “wind” (PE17:189)

vaita- vb. "to enfold" (VT46:21) , "to wrap" (LT1:271) . Older (MET) form waita-.

vaiwa noun "wind" (WĀ /WAWA/WAIWA)

vaiya < waiya (also vaia, waia) noun "envelope", especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY, capitalized Vaiya under GEY; the latter entry was struck out) . In a "Qenya" text in MC:214, vaiya is simply translated "sky". In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , vaiya (/ waiya) was also the name of a tengwa letter that does not appear in Tolkien's later table, but which was apparently intended to have the value w > v, like the letter wilya > vilya in the later, canonical system (VT46:21) . According to Arden R. Smith, the form of the pre-classical letter is a variant of #21, which letter Tolkien would later call vala (VT46:32) .

Vala (1) noun "Power, God, angelic power", pl. Valar or Vali (BAL, Appendix E, LT2:348) . The Valar are a group of immensely powerful spirits guarding the world on behalf of its Creator; they are sometimes called Gods (as when Valacirca, q.v., is translated “Sickle of the Gods”), but this is strictly wrong according to Christian terminology: the Valar were created beings. The noun vala is also the name of tengwa #22 (Appendix E) . Genitive plural Valion "of the Valar" (FS, MR:18) ; this form shows the pl. Vali, (irregular) alternative to Valar (the straightforward gen. pl. Valaron is also attested, PE17:175). Pl. allative valannar *"to/on the Valar" (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Feminine form Valie (Silm) , in Tolkien's earlier material also Valde; his early writings also list Valon or Valmo (q.v.) as specifically masc. forms. The gender-specific forms are not obligatory; thus in PE17:22 Varda is called a Vala (not a Valie), likewise Yavanna in PE17:93. – Vala is properly or originally a verb "has power" (sc. over the matter of Ea , the universe), also used as a noun "a Power" (WJ:403). The verb vala- "rule, order", exclusively used with reference to the Valar, is only attested in the sentences á vala Manwe! "may Manwe order it!" and Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar will be done" (WJ:404). However, Tolkien did not originally intend the word Valar to signify "powers"; in his early conception it apparently meant "the happy ones", cf. valto, vald- (LT2:348) . – For various compounds including the word Vala( r), see below.

vala- (2) vb. "to rule", only with reference to the Valar (see Vala). Future tense valuva is attested (WJ:404)

Valacar masc. name, *"Vala-helmet"??? (Appendix A)

Valacirca noun "Sickle of the Gods", a name of the Great Bear (Big Dipper) constellation (SA:val-, MR:388, KIRIK, OT/OTOS/OTOK)

Valandil masc. name, "God-friend, *Vala-friend" (Appendix A, UT:210, translated in LR:60)

Valandur masc. name, *"Vala-servant" (Appendix A)

valaina adj. "of or belonging to the Valar, divine" (BAL)

Valandor place-name "the land of the Valar", confused with and replaced by Valinóre "the people of the Valar", short form Valinor (SA:dôr, Silm)

Valanya noun last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Valar ( Appendix D ). Etymology, see Letters:427. Also called Tárion.

Valaquenta noun "Account of the Valar" (SA:val-) . See quenta.

Valarauco noun "Demon of Might" (here vala- assumes its basic meaning "power, might") , Sindarin balrog(WJ:415) . Pl. Valaraucar (sic, not -or) "Balrogs", apparently containing rauca (q.v.) as an alternative form of rauco “demon” (SA:val-, SA:rauco) . Earlier forms from the "Qenya Lexicon" are Valcarauce, Malcarauce (q.v.), apparently abandoned in LotR-style Quenya.

#Valariande place-name "Beleriand" (genitive in the phrase Nyarna Valarianden "the annals of Beleriand" in LR:202; Tolkien later changed the genitive ending from -n to -o; hence read *Nyarna Valariandeo) In the essay Quendi and Eldar , Heceldamar turns up as another Quenya term for Beleriand.

Valarin adj. “Valian”, of or relating to the Valar , as noun = Lambe Valarinwa "Valarin tongue" (WJ:397) . It may be that Valarinwa is the normal form of the adjective “Valian” in Quenya.

Valarindi pl. noun "offspring of the Valar, their children begotten in Arda" (sg. #Valarinde). (MR:49) . Compare indi.

Valaróma noun "Vala-horn", Orome's horn (Silm, MR:7)

valasse noun "divinity" (or rather *"valahood"; the word should probably not be used with reference to the divinity of Eru). (BAL)

Valatar ( Valatár- as in "gen.sg. Valatáren ", in Tolkien's later Quenya this is a dative singular instead) noun "Vala-king", applied to the nine chief (male) Valar: Manwe, Ulmo, Aule, Mandos, Lorien, Tulkas, Osse, Orome, and Melko[r]. Note: This list, set down in the Etymologies, differs from the scenario of the published Silmarillion; Osse is not a Vala in Tolkien's later conception.(BAL, VT46:17) . Compare Valatári.

Valatári noun "Vala-queen" (BAL; this entry of the Etymologies states that Vala has no feminine form except this compound, but Silm gives Valie as a feminine form) . The word Valatári is apparently also the unchanged plural form, so used in this quote: "The Valatári were Varda, Yavanna, Nienna, Vana, Vaire, Este, Nessa, Uinen" ( BAL ; Tolkien later reclassified Uinen as a Maia, not a Valatári/Valie). Notice that the plural form of Valatar would apparently also be *Valatári.

valcane adj. "vague" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

Valcarauce noun "balrog", also Malcarauce (LT1:250; in Tolkien's later Quenya valarauco)

vald- noun "blessedness, happiness" (LT1:272 – a final vowel would seem to be required) . See valin regarding the dubious conceptual validity of this and related words.

valda adj. "worth, worthy, dear" (GL:23)

Valde noun "female Vala" (also Valis) (LT1:272, in Tolkien's later Quenya Valie, Valatári)

valdea adj. “of moment, important” (QL:102)

Valie noun female Vala; pl. Valier attested (Silm)

Valimar place-name "Vali-home" (Vali = Valar), the city of the Valar in Valinor, also in shorter form Valmar. Cf. the Silmarillion: “the city of Valimar where all is glad” ( Valaquenta ); “in the midst of the plain beyond the mountains they [the Valar] built their city, Valmar of many bells” (chapter 1). In Namárie , the word Valimar is used = Valinor, since Valimar was its chief city (Nam, RGEO:67)

valimo adj. "happy" (LT1:272; adjectives apparently cannot end in -o in LotR-style Quenya.) . See valin.

valin adj. "happy" (LT1:272) . This word, as well as valimo and vald-, connect with Tolkien's early concept of Valar meaning "happy ones", but since it was later reinterpreted as "the Powers", the conceptual validity of these terms for "happy" is doubtful.

Valinor place-name "the land (or people) of the Valar", *"Vali-land" (Vali = Valar), land of the Gods in the West (BAL, NDOR) ; cf. Valandor. Full form Valinóre (BAL; Vali-nóre under NDOR) .Said to be “the true Eldarin name of Aman ”, the latter name being explained as a borrowing from Valarin in some versions of the linguistic scenario (VT49:26) . In the early "Qenya Lexicon", Valinor, Valinóre is glossed "Asgard", the name of the city of the gods in Norse mythology (LT1:272) . It seems that in such more restricted use, Valinor is not the entire Blessed Realm but rather the specific region beyond the Pelóri where (most of) the Valar dwelt, with Val(i)mar as the chief city. Thus it is said of Earendil that he “went into Valinor and to the halls of Valimar” only after he had already left his ship and ventured as far as Tirion ( Silmarillion , chapter 24). – Possessive Valinóreva in Nurtale Valinóreva, the "Hiding of Valinor", the possessive case here assuming the function of object genitive (Silm ).

Valis noun "female Vala" (also Valde) (LT1:272; in Tolkien's later Quenya Valie)

Valmar alternative form of Valimar, q.v. (Silm)

Valmo noun "male Vala" (also Valon) (LT1:272; these forms may or may not be valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Valon noun "male Vala" (also Valmo) (LT1:272; these forms may or may not be valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Valsi = Valis? (LT1:272)

-valta suffix "-less", also -vilte (evidently endings used to derive adjectives like "lifeless") (GL:23) The ending -lóra appears with the same meaning in Tolkien's later Quenya.

valto noun "luck" (LT1:272)

valya adj . "having (divine) authority or power" (BAL; this word is of course etymologically connected to the Valar and should not be used with reference to the divinity of Eru.)

ván noun "goose"; pl. váni given (WA-N) . Older wán.

Vána fem. name, a Valie, the wife of Orome (Silm, WJ:383) ; the Etymologies gives Vana with no long vowel (BAN). The apparent meaning is *“beautiful (one)”, since she was “the most perfectly `beautiful' in form and feature…representing the natural unmarred perfection of form in living things” (PE17:150) .

Vanar or Vani pl. noun , = Valar (LT1:272)

vand- noun "way, path" (LT1:264; a final vowel would seem to be required, but in Tolkien's later Quenya, the words tie or malle are to be preferred)

vanda (1) noun "oath, pledge, solemn promise" (CO)

[ vanda] (2) noun "prison, Hell" (cf. Angavanda). (VT45:6; this word was apparently rejected in favour of mando)

vandl noun "staff" (LT1:264) (No word can end in - dl in Tolkien's later Quenya; the word may be adapted as *vandil. Compare findl, findil.)

vane adj. "fair" (LT1:272; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather vanya)

váne past tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:366)

vanesse noun "beauty" (LT1:272, PE17:56) . Also vanie.

vanga noun "beard" (LT2:344, GL:21; in Tolkien's later Quenya fanga)

vangwe noun “blow” (PE17:34) , i.e. a blast of wind

vanie noun “beauty” (PE17:56) , apparently formed from vanya #1. Synonym vanesse.

vánie vb. , an augmentless perfect of auta- (q.v.) that may occur in verse; regular form avánie (WJ:366)

vanima adj. "beautiful, fair" (BAN, VT39:14) (glossed "proper, right, fair" in early "Qenya", LT1:272, though a later source says the word is used “only of living things, especially Elves and Men”, PE17:150); nominal pl. vanimar "beautiful ones", partitive pl. genitive vanimálion, translated "of beautiful children", but literally meaning *"of [some] beautiful ones") (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308) . Arwen vanimalda "Beautiful Arwen", literally "Arwen your beauty" (see -lda for reference; changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR; see vanimelda).

vanimalda adj. with suffix *"your beautiful"; Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty = beautiful Arwen" (WJ:369, cf. PE17:55) .The ending for sg. "your" normally appears as -lya rather than -lda (which according to late sources is rather the ending for plural “your”, here inappropriate). Originally Tolkien seems to have intended vanimalda as an inflected form of vanima “beautiful”, the ending -lda expressing comparative, superlative or simply “exceedingly” (PE17:56: vanimalda= “exceeding fair”). However, since this ending was later revised out of existence, Tolkien reinterpreted the word. The Second Edition of LotR changes one letter to arrive at the reading vanim e lda, q.v. for Tolkien's new explanation.%

vanimelda adj. , said to be “the highest word of praise for beauty”, with two interpretations that were apparently considered equally valid and simultaneously true: “beautiful and beloved” ( vanima + melda, with haplology), i.e. “movingly lovely”, but also “elven-fair” (fair as an Elf) ( vanima + elda). The word was also used as the second name of Arwen. (PE17:56, Second Edition LotR1:II ch. 16) .

Vanimelde fem. name (Appendix A) , apparently a feminized form of the adj. vanimelda, q.v.

Vanimo (pl. Vanimor given), noun "the beautiful", children of the Valar (BAN) , or "fair folk" = (men and) elves (UGU/UMU, VT45:17) . Negated úvanimor = "monsters".

vanne pa.t. of vanya-(WAN)

vanta- (1) vb. "to walk" (BAT)

vanta (2) noun "walk" (BAT)

vanwa adj. "gone, lost, no longer to be had, vanished, departed, dead, past, past and over, gone on the road, over" (WJ:366, Nam, RGEO:67, WAN, LT1:264; older wanwa, PE17:143) . The word was “not applied to dead persons except those who would not return, either because of a special doom (as [in the case of] Men) or because of a special will of their own (as Felagund or Míriel ) or a special ban of Mandos (as Feanor )” (PE17:143) . Also see avanwa.

vanwie noun "the past, past time" (WAN)

vanya (1) adj. "fair" (FS) , "beautiful" (BAN) , a word referring to beauty that is “due to lack of fault , or blemish(PE17:150) , hence Arda Vanya as an alternative to Arda Alahasta for “Arda Unmarred” (ibid., compare MR:254) . Nominal pl. Vanyar "the Fair", the first clan of the Eldar; the original meaning of this stem was "pale, light-coloured, not brown or dark" (WJ:382, 383, stem given as WAN) , “properly = white complexion and blonde hair” (PE17:154, stem given as GWAN) ; stems BAN vs . WAN discussed, see PE17:150.

vanya- (2) vb. "go, depart, disappear", pa.t. vanne (WAN) . The verb auta- may have replaced this word in Tolkien's later conception.

váquet- vb. (1st pers. aorist váquetin and 1st pers. past tense váquenten are given) "to say no" (not denying that something is true, but denying to do or to allow something: "to say I will not/do not"; "to refuse", "to forbid" (WJ:370, 371)

var(1) conj. "or" (QL:100) . In Tolkien's later Quenya, the word hya appears for “or”. A phrase involving a double varvar may mean “either…or” in one early (untranslated) text, according to Christopher Gilson's interpretation (PE15:32, 39)

var- (2), see va

vára adj. "soiled, dirty" (WA3)

varanda adj. “sublime” (PE17:23) , related to the name Varda.

vard- vb. "rule, govern" (LT1:273; hardly valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Varda fem. name "the Sublime", name of a Valie, spouse of Manwe, the Queen of the Valar, called Elbereth in Sindarin (BARATH, BARÁD, WJ:402; in Letters:282 Varda is translated the "Lofty") . As a general adjective “sublime”, † varda could still occur as a poetic word in verse (PE17:23) , but normal prose would apparently rather use the related word varanda (q.v.) Genitive Vardo (for * Vardao ). (Nam, RGEO:66) . Vardamir masc. name, *"Varda-jewel" (Appendix A, UT:210) ; vardarianna ?"Varda-gift", name of a tree (but the ri element is obscure) (UT:167)

vardar noun "king" (LT1:273; rather aran in LotR-style Quenya)

Vardilme, fem. name (UT:210) , perhaps *"Varda-friend; one devoted to Varda" (if so this would be a contraction of *Vardandilme, with -( n) dilme as the feminine form of -ndil "friend")

Vardo Meoita noun "Prince of Cats" (LT2:348; vardo "prince" is hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya; cf. vard-, vardar. Later Quenya has cundu for "prince".)

varna adj. "safe, protected, secure" (BAR)

varnasse noun "security" (BAR)

varne (1) adj. "brown, swart, dark brown", stem-form varni- (BARÁN)

[ varne] (2) noun "protection" (BAR)

varni noun "queen" (LT1:273; rather tári in Tolkien's later Quenya)

[ varile] noun "protection" (VT45:7)

varya- vb. "to protect" (BAR)

Vása noun "the Consumer", a name of the Sun (MR:130, Silm)

vasar ( þ) noun "veil" (VT42:10, the word was "not in daily use", VT42:9) . Older form waþar.

vasarya- ( þ) vb. "to veil" (VT42:10)

váva vb.? “blow” (the wording used in the source is unclear, but wā -ya is said to mean “blow”, and after discussing Sindarin forms Tolkien instructs himself to “alter Quenya”, introducing a new primitive form¤ wā -wā with váva- as the Quenya outcome. Possibly this still means “blow” as a verb referring to wind.) –PE17:34

vávea adj. “(con)similar, alike”, also ovéa, q.v. (PE17:189)

váya noun ”sea” (considered as ”waters, motion”). The wording of the source indicates that Tolkien only tentatively considered such a word (PE17:33)

ve (1) prep. "as, like" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya, MC:213, 214, VT27:20, 27, VT49:22) ; in Narqelion ve may mean either "in" or "as". Ve fírimor quetir *”as mortals say” (VT49:10) , ve senwa (or senya) “as usual” (VT49:10) . Followed by genitive, ve apparently expresses “after the manner of”: ve quenderinwe coaron (“k”) “after the manner of bodies of Elven-kind” (PE17:174) . Tolkien variously derived Quenya ve from older wē , bē or vai (VT49:10, 32, PE17:189)

ve (2) pron . “we”, 1st person pl. inclusive (corresponding to exclusive me), derived from an original stem-form we (VT49:50, PE17:130) . Variant vi, q.v. Stressed , later (VT49:51) . Dative (* wéna >) véna, VT49:14. Dual wet, later * vet “the two of us” (inclusive; cf. exclusive met) (VT49:51) . Also compare the dative form ngwin or ngwen(q.v.), but this would apparently be * wen > * ven according to Tolkien's later ideas.

- ve, (3) apparently an ending used to derive adverbs from adjectives (see andave under anda and oiave under oia). May be related to the preposition ve “as, like”.

vea (1) adj. “seeming, apparent” (PE17:189)

vea (2) adj . "adult, manly, vigorous" (WEG)

vea(3) noun "sea" (MC:213, 214, 216; possibly obsoleted by #1 and #2 above, though some argue that the initial element of the late names Veantur and Veandur [q.v.] could be vea #3 rather than #2 (it can hardly be #1) . In any case, the normal word for "sea" in LotR-style Quenya seems to be ear.) Inflected vean"sea" (MC:220) , vear "in sea" (a "Qenya" locative in -r, MC:213) , veasse"on sea" (MC:220) . Cf. also veaciryo.

vea (4) noun “wind” (PE17:189)

veaciryo noun in genitive "of sea-ship", genitive of *veacirya (MC:216; this is "Qenya"; see vea # 2)

Veandur, masc. name (PM:191) , either *"Vigorous servant" or *"Sea-servant" (= mariner; compare earendur, etymologically very similar if the Qenya form vea "sea" was maintained in later Quenya). See vea #1 and 2 and compare Veantur.

veaner noun "(adult) man" (WEG)

Veantur, masc. name (UT:171) , either *"Vigorous lord" or *"Sea-lord" (see vea #1 and 2; those who prefer the translation *"Sea-lord" see this name as evidence that Tolkien maintained the Qenya noun vea "sea" in later Quenya). Compare Veandur.

veasse noun "vigour" (WEG)

[ vecca adj. “active”, ancient form (PE17:190) ]

vehte noun “'life' - not Life in general or as a principle, but (a period of) individual activity ”, thus also “the place where a person, people &c. lived and had their business, i.e. habitat , haunt(PE17:189)

vehtequentale noun ”biography” (PE17:189)

#vel- see véla #2

véla (1) adv. *“alike” (VT49:10)

véla (2) vb. "see" (Arct) ; present/continuative tense of a verbal stem #vel-? The context of the sentence where it occurs ("till I see you next") suggests that this is "see" in the sense of "meet".

velca noun "flame" (LT1:260; nár, náre would be the normal word in Tolkien's later Quenya)

velice adj. "great" (LT1:254; probably not valid in Tolkien's later Quenya; in the context of the Etymologies it would have to be derived from BEL, but it is stated that this stem was "not found in Q". Perhaps Tolkien rejected velice because it was too similar to the Russian word that clearly inspired it.)

v'ematte ??? May be the preposition ve + an otherwise unknown word ematte. (Narqelion)

véna pron. “for us”, (long) dative form of ve # 2, q.v.

vende < wende noun "maiden" (WEN/WENED, VT45:16) , "virgin" (in Tolkien's translations of Catholic prayers where the reference is to Mary; see VT44:10, 18) . The form Vénde in VT44:10 seems abnormal; normally Quenya does not have a long vowel in front of a consonant cluster.

vene noun "small boat, vessel, dish" (LT1:254)

véne < wéne noun "virginity" (WEN/WENED) ; in one source véne also appears with the concrete meaning "virgin" (VT44:10) , but this is normally vende, wende instead.

*vénea adj . *"maidenly, virginal" (VT44:10; the source has véne' alcare *"virginal glory", the first word possibly representing an adjective *vénea the final vowel of which has been elided since the next word begins in the same vowel.)

venesse noun "virginity" (WEN/WENED)

venie noun? "shape, cut" (LT1:254)

venno noun "husband" (cited as **verno in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry BES , but according to VT45:7, this is a misreading of Tolkien's manuscript) . In a later source, the word for “husband” is given as veru, q.v.

venta noun "chin" (QL:101)

venwe noun? "shape, cut" (LT1:254)

veo noun "man" (WEG; etymologically connected to vea "manly, vigorous"; the more neutral word for "man" is nér. According to VT46:21, Tolkien indicated that veo is an archaic or poetic word.) Tolkien at a later point defined the word as “living creature” (PE17:189) . Cf. variant weo, q.v.

véra (< Old Quenya wéra) noun "personal, private, own" (PM:340)

verca adj. "wild" (BERÉK)

vére (1) noun "bond, troth, compact, oath" (WED)

Vére (2) fem. name , tentative replacement form for the name Vaire, apparently never introduced in any narratives (PE17:33)

veri noun “wife” (VT49:45)

verie noun "boldness" (BER)

**verno noun "husband", misreading for venno, q.v. (BES)

verta- vb. “to give in marriage” (give a person in marriage to another); also “to take as husband or wife (to oneself)” (VT49:45)

veru (1) noun “husband” (VT49:45) . An earlier source gives the word for “husband” as venno.

veru(2) dual noun "husband and wife, married pair" (BES) . Obsoleted by #1 above? (Notice that the word veru “married pair” comes from the same source that has venno rather than veru as the word for “husband”.)

verya- (1) vb. "to dare"; also adj . verya "bold" (BER, VT45:7)

verya (2) vb. “to marry (of husband and wife), be joined to ” (intransitive; the spouse to be is mentioned in the allative case: veryanen senna *”I married him/her”; compare English “get married to someone”). (VT49:45, 46)

veryanwe “wedding”; veryanwesto “of your (dual) wedding” (VT49:44, 45)

vesse noun "wife" (BES) . A later source gives the word for “wife” as veri.

vesta noun "matrimony" (BES, VT49:46)

vesta- vb. "to wed" (BES, VT49:46) . (Under WED, the verb vesta- was defined as "swear to do something", but this was struck out.)

vestale noun "wedding" (BES, VT49:46) (under WED the word was defined as "oath", but this was struck out)

*vet, see ve #2

vi pron. ”we”, 1st person inclusive (PE17:130) , variant of ve #2.

vie noun "manhood, vigour" (WEG)

vil- vb. "to fly" (The forms given are the 1st pers. aorist vilin "I fly" and the pa.t. ville. Tolkien replaced wilin with wil-, pa.t. presumably *wille, but this may not render vil- obsolete; rather, Tolkien simply decided to cite the verb in its Old Quenya form, before the merger of w- with v- that occurred in Exilic Quenya.) (WIL)

[ vilda], see vilwa

víle noun "gentle breeze" (LT1:273)

vilin adj. "airy, breezy" (LT1:273) . Not to be confused with vilin "I fly", see vil-.

vilisse noun "spirit" (GL:23)

-vilte adjectival ending "-less", also -valta (evidently endings used to derive adjectives like "lifeless") (GL:23) . Rather -lóra in Tolkien's later Quenya.

[ vilwa < wilwa] noun "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL; in one place vilwa was not struck out, VT46:21) According to VT46:21, Tolkien considered vilda < wilda as a replacement form, but rejected it.

vilya noun "air, sky", also name of tengwa #24. Older wilya. (Appendix E) . Early "Qenya" has Vilya (changed from Vilna) "lower air" (LT1:273) ; also vilya"air" (MC:215)

*vinca, see winca

Vincarna compounded passive participle *"new-made, renewed" (MR:408)

[ vinda- vb. "fade"; pa.t. vindane given (VT46:21) . Compare vinta-.]

[ vinde noun "blue-grey, pale blue or grey"; older winde. (WIN/WIND, VT45:16, 46:21) The stem-form would have been vindi-, given the primitive form ¤ windi .]

*vine ( vini-), see wine

víne noun "youth" (probably as abstract) (VT47:26, PE17:191)

Vingelot, Vingilot, Vingilóte ship-name; "Foam-flower", name of Earendil's ship (SA:wing, Silm)

*vinima, see winima

*vinimo, see winimo

[ vinta-, vb. "fade", pa.t. vinte, vintane given. (WIN/WIND) Compare vinda-.]

vinya (1) adj. "young" (VT46:22, VT47:26, PE17:191) or "new" (cf. compounds Vinyamar, Vinyarie below; cf. also winya "new, fresh, young" in a deleted entry in the Etymologies , VT45:16; there the word was first written as vinya.) Vinya “the Young”, original name of the isle of Númenor among its own people (SD:332) .

vinya (2) < windya adj. "pale blue" (WIN/WIND)(It is uncertain whether Tolkien rejected this word or not; in any case, vinya is only attested with the meaning "young, new" in his later Quenya.)

Vinyamar place-name *"New Dwelling" (Silm)

*vinyamo, see winyamo

Vinyarie noun "Newyear's Day" (PM:127)

[ vinye noun "evening" (VT46:21) ]

Víresse noun , fourth month of the year, "April" (Appendix D) . The Quenya name is apparently related to words for youth and freshness; compare vírie, virya.

vírie noun "youth" (as abstract) (VT46:22)

vírin noun "a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon. Used of things of great and pure transparency." (LT2:339)

virya (1) adj. "fresh" (VT46:22)

virya- (2) vb. “change, alter(nate)” (intransitive) , pa.t. virne/ virinye, cf. transitive vista-, q.v. (PE17:189, 191)

vista (1) noun "air as substance" (WIS (WIL) )

vista- (2) vb. "change" (transitive), pa.t. vistane, cf. intransitive virya-, q.v. (PE17:189, 191)

(actually spelt ) , also vondo, noun "son" (LT2:336; in Tolkien's later Quenya yondo)

vor, voro adv. "ever" (BOR, LT1:250, 273 [only voro in the Etymologies ]; also in Narqelion )

vora, vore adv. "always"; see voro

vóre noun? "lasting" (as noun? i.e. *"lasting quality"?) Compare the derived adj. vórea. (VT45:7)

vórea noun "continuous, enduring, lasting" (VT45:7)

vorima adj. "continual, repeated" (BOR) , early "Qenya" gloss "everlasting" (LT1:250)

vórima (more or less identical to vorima above?) adj. "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful"; genitive vórimo in a variant of CO ; see UT:317. In VT45:7, vórima is glossed "continuous, enduring, repeated".

voro, voro- adv. "ever, continually" (BOR, Narqelion) Compare vor. (Focusing on the gloss "continually", post-Tolkien writers have sometimes used voro for "still, yet".) The variants vora, vore were used for "always" in drafts for a Quenya version of the Sub Tuum Praesidium , but Tolkien eventually replaced such forms with the unrelated word illume (VT44:9) . Compare vóre, vórea.

vorongandele noun "harping on one tune", continual repetition. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word is misprinted as "vorogandale"; see VT45:7. (BOR)

voronda adj. "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful", used as a title of Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Faithful"; genitive Vorondo in CO . Only glossed "faithful" in LT1:250.

Vorondil masc.name, *"Faithful friend" (Appendix A)

voronwa adj. "enduring, long-lasting" (BOR)

voronwe noun "steadfastness, loyalty, faithfulness" (CO) , also as masc. name Voronwe "the Faithful" (PM:340, BORÓN, LT1:250)

voronwie noun "endurance, lasting quality" (BOR)

vorosanya ( þ) adj. "regular, law-abiding, normal" (VT46:16) ; also just sanya ( þ). The prefix voro- means “ever” or “continually”.


Note: In Exilic Quenya, initial w- turned into v-, as Tolkien indicated in a number of the words here recorded.

-wa, variant of the possessive ending -va (as in andamacilwa, PE17:147), used following a consonant.

(actually spelt ) noun "wind" (LT1:266) . Cf. wáya-.

wai (what the primitive element ¤ wei "wind, weave" became in Quenya; therefore confused with the stem WAY "enfold") (WEY)

waia > vaia noun "envelope", especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY) (also vaiya , waiya )

waile noun “wind”, later form vaile, q.v. (PE17:189)

waina adj. “blonde, fair of hair”; the “late” form vaina is given (PE17:154)

waita- > vaita- noun "to enfold" (VT46:21)

waiwa noun "wind" (WĀ /WAWA/WAIWA)

waiya > vaiya (also vaia , waia ) noun "envelope", especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY)

walda adj. “excited, wild” (PE17:154)

walme noun “excitement, emotion” (PE17:154, 189)

walta- vb. “to excite, rouse, stir up” (PE17:154)

walwiste noun “change of mind” (PE17:189)

walya- vb. “be excited (moved)” (PE17:154)

wán > ván noun "goose" (WA-N) .

wanwa noun "great gale" (LT1:266)

wanwavoite noun "windy" (LT1:266)

waþar older form of vasar, q.v. (VT42:9)

wáya- “blow” (PE17:34, cf. wanwa) , perhaps altered to váva (q.v.; the wording of the source is unclear)

we, , see ve #2

-we a suffix occurring in many personal names, generally but not exclusively masculine ( Elenwe is the sole certain example of a fem. name with this ending); it is derived from a stem simply meaning "person" (PM:340, WJ:399) . In Etym , -we is simply defined as an element that is frequent in masculine names, and it is there derived from a stem (WEG) having to do with "(manly) vigour".

wén noun "greenness, youth, freshness" (GWEN) , blended with wende "maid"

wen noun "maid, girl" (* wend-), in early "Qenya" also wendi (Tolkien's later Quenya form wende occurs in MC:215 and in Etym, stems GWEN, WEN/WENED) . (LT1:271, 273)

- wen "maiden" as suffix, a frequent ending in feminine names like Earwen *"Sea-maiden" (SA:wen) . Early "Qenya" also has - wen, feminine patronymic *"daughter of" (LT1:271, 273) , but the patronymic ending seems to be - iel "-daughter" in Tolkien's later Quenya.

wenci noun , apparently a diminutive form of the stem wē n - "woman, maiden". It is possible that this is meant to be Common Eldarin rather than Quenya; if so the Quenya form would be * wence (compare nerce "little man") (VT48:18)

wende noun "maid" (GWEN) , wende > vende "maiden" (WEN/WENED, VT45:16, VT47:17) . Sana wende “that maiden” (PE16:96 cf. 90) . According to VT47:17, this word for "maiden" is "applied to all stages up to the fully adult (until marriage)".Early "Qenya" also had wendi "maid, girl" (LT1:271) ; this may look like a plural form in Tolkien's later Quenya. On the other hand, VT48:18 lists a word wendi "young or small woman, girl". It is unclear whether this is Quenya or a Common Eldarin form, but probably the former: PE17:191 displays the word for “maiden” as wendē , so the Quenya stem form is probably * wende- rather than wendi-, the stem-form that would result from Common Eldarin * wendi ). In his Quenya translation of the Sub Tuum Praesidium , Tolkien used Wende/ Vende to translate "virgin" with reference to the Virgin Mary. Here the plural genitive Wenderon appears in the phrase Wende mi Wenderon "Virgin of Virgins"; we might have expected * Wendion instead (VT44:18) .If the pl. form of wende is * wenderrather than wendi, as the gen.pl. wenderonsuggests, this may be to avoid confusion with the sg. wendi “girl”.

wendele noun "maidenhood" (LT1:271, PE17:191)

wendi noun “maid, girl” (LT1:271) , “young or small woman, girl” (VT48:18) ; see wende

wéne > véne noun "virginity" (WEN/WENED)

wente noun "brook" (GL:46)

wenya adj. "green, yellow-green, fresh" (GWEN) , apparently “fair, beautiful” (“probably originally “fresh, fair, unblemished especially of beauty of youth”) in a later deleted note (PE17:191) .

weo noun “living creature”, variant of veo, q.v. (PE17:189)

wéra, Old Quenya form of véra, q.v.

were- vb. “weave” (cited as a derivative of the root WER “twine, weave” and maybe a primitive form rather than a Quenya word). (PE17:33)

wet, see we #2

wil- vb. "fly" (1st pers. aorist wilin "I fly"; changed from vilin pa.t. ville, which would be the forms used in later Exilic Quenya. The older pa.t. would be wille.) (WIL) . The early "Qenya" lexicon has wili- "sail, float, fly" (LT1:273)

[ wilda], see wilwa

wilin noun "bird" (LT1:273; if this "Qenya" word is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, it must not be confused with the 1st pers. aorist of the verb wil-.)

wilma noun "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL)

wilwa adj. "vague, fluttering to and fro" ( Markirya). A similar word in the Etymologies was struck out: [ wilwa > vilwa] "air, lower air" (distinct from the 'upper' air of the stars, or the 'outer') (WIL) According to VT46:21, Tolkien considered wilda > vilda as a replacement form, but rejected it.

wilwarin ( wilwarind-, as in pl. wilwarindi) noun "butterfly" ( Markirya, WIL, LT1:273) ; Wilwarin name of a constellation, tentatively identified as Cassiopeia (Silm) . "Qenya" adjective wilwarindeen "like butterflies" (MC:216) ; see wilwarindea for Quenya form. "Qenya" similative form wilwarindon "as a butterfly" (MC:213, 220) ; Tolkien later abandoned the ending -ndon (PE17:58)

wilwarindea adj. “like a wilwarin or butterfly”, pl. wilwarindie (PE16:96)

wilya see vilya

winca noun “corner, nook” (QL:104, there written `winka) . Read *vinca if this early “Qenya” form is to be adapted to LotR-style Third Age Quenya.

wince, short form of winice, q.v.

winda noun "woof" (LT1:254)

[ winde > vinde adj. "pale blue" (VT45:16) ]

windele noun "loom" (LT1:254)

windya > vinya adj. "pale blue" (WIN/WIND)(It is uncertain whether Tolkien rejected this word or not; in any case, vinya means "new" in his later versions of Quenya.)

wine (stem *wini-, given the primitive form ¤ wini ) noun "baby, child not yet fully grown", "little-one", also used in children's play for "little finger" or "little toe" (VT46:10, 26, VT48:6, 16) . Synonyms win( i) ce, winimo. In Exilic Quenya, this word would appear as *vine; compare the related word winya > vinya "young, new".

winga noun "foam, spray" (Markirya) . Also winge.

winge noun "foam, crest of wave, crest" (WIG) ; "foam, spindrift" (LT1:273) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , winge was also the name of tengwa #24, which letter Tolkien would later call wilya > vilya instead. - Also winga (so in Markirya ).

Wingelot, Wingelóte ship-name, "foam-flower", name of Earendel's [sic] boat (WIG, LOT(H) )

wingil ( wingild-, as in pl. Wingildi) noun "nymph" (WIG, LT1:273, PE16:19) ; "Qenya" pl. wingildin"foam-fays, foam-maidens" (MC:216)

wingilot noun "foamflower, Earendel's boat" (LT1:273; in Tolkien's later Quenya Wingelot, Wingelóte)

winice (also wince), noun "baby", used in children's play for "little finger" or "little toe" (VT48:6) . Synonyms wine, winimo. In Exilic Quenya, this word would appear as *vinice, *vince; compare the related word winya > vinya "young, new". Since the diminutive ending -ice descends from - iki(VT48:16) , winice may have the stem-form winici-.

winima adj. "childish" (VT47:26) . In Exilic Quenya, this word would appear as *vinima; compare the related word winya > vinya "young, new".

winimo noun "baby", "little-one", used in children's play for "little finger" or "little toe" (VT47:10, VT48:6, 16) . Synonyms wine, win( i) ce. In Exilic Quenya, this word would appear as *vinimo; compare the related word winya > vinya "young, new".

winta- vb. "scatter, blow about" (both transitive and intransitive) (PM:376)

wintil noun "glint" (LT1:261)

winya (1) adj. "new, fresh, young" (VT45:16; though the entry including this form was struck out in the Etymologies , vinya "new" is a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, and it is meant to represent older winya. Compare winyamo, q.v.)

[ winya (2), see vinya#2 (WIN/WIND) ]

winyamo noun "youngster" (VT47:26) . In Exilic Quenya, this word would appear as *vinyamo; compare the related word winya > vinya "young, new".

Wirilóme fem. name; a name of the great Spider (Ungoliant) (LT1:254)

wirne noun? “change” (PE17:191)

wiste noun "weft" (LT1:254)


-xe (“ks”) reflextive pronominal ending, presumably meaning *“oneself, myself, themselves” etc.; plural -xer, dual -xet (VT49:48) . Presumably it can be used in constructions like *i nér tirnexe“the man watched himself” (*tirnesexe “he watched himself”), plural *i neri tirnexer “the men watched themselves” (*tirneltexer “they watched themselves”), dual e.g. *i ontaru tirnexet “the parents watched themselves” (*tirnettexet “they [dual] watched themselves”).


(1) adv.? "formerly", also postposition (?) "ago" (YA) . The form also appears as a variant of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.

(2) conj. “when” in the sentence yá hríve tene, ringa ná “when winter comes, it is cold” (VT49:23) . Compare íre #2.

ya (1) relative pronoun "which, what" (attested in VT43:28, 34 and in the Arctic sentence), with locative suffix in Namárie : see #yasse. According to VT47:21, ya is impersonal, "which" rather than "who(m)" (compare the personal form ye). The dative form yan(q.v.) is however used for "to whom" (rather than “to which”) in one text, indicating that Tolkien did not always distinguish between personal and impersonal forms. In the phrase lúmesse ya [variant: ] firuvamme, *"in [the] hour that we shall die", the relative pronoun is not explicitly marked for case and is evidently understood to share the case of the preceding noun (hence not *lúmesse yasse... "in [the] hour in which"...) (VT43:27-28) Presumably, ya has the plural form *yar (e.g. *i nati yar hirnen “the things that/which I found”).

ya (2) or yan, prep. "as" (VT43:16, probably abandoned in favour of síve )

- ya (3) suffix of endearment, attested in Anardilya as an intimate form of the name Anardil (UT:174, 418) , possibly also occurring in atya "dad", emya "mum" (q.v.) The forms ataryo "daddy" and amilye "mummy" (q.v.) may contain gender-specific variants - yo masc. and - ye fem.

- ya (4) pronominal suffix “his” (and probably also “her, its”), said to be used in “colloquial Quenya” (which had redefined the “correct” ending for this meaning, - rya, to mean “their” because it was associated with the plural ending - r). Hence e.g. cambeya (“k”) “his hand”, yulmaya “his cup” (VT49:17) instead of formally “correct” forms in - rya. The ending - yawas actually ancient, primitive¤- jā being used for “all numbers” in the 3rd person, predating elaborated forms like -rya. It is said that - ya “remained in Quenya” in the case of “old nouns with consonantal stems”, Tolkien listing tál “foot”, cas “head”, nér “man”, sír “river” and macil “sword” as examples. He refers to “the continued existence of such forms as talya `his foot'“, that could apparently be used even in “correct” Quenya (VT49:17) . In PE17:130, the forms talya “his foot” and macilya (“k”) “his (or their) sword” are mentioned.

- ya (5) adjectival ending, as in the word Quenya “Elvish” itself; when added to a verbal stem it may derive a kind of short active participle, as in melumatya “honey-eating” ( mat- “eat”), saucarya “evil-doing” ( car- “do”). (PE17:68)

yaht- see yat(YAK)

yaima noun "implement" (GL:37)

yaime noun "wailing", from which is derived the adjective yaimea "wailing", pl. yaimie in Markirya

yaimea adj. "wailing", pl. yaimie in Markirya

yaisa noun "steel" (GL:37)

yaiwe noun "mocking, scorn" (YAY)

yal- vb. "summon". In enyalie "to recall" (Notes on CO, UT:317)

yallume adv.? "at last" (FS)

yalme noun "clamour" (ÑGAL/ÑGALAM)

yalte noun "bridge" (GL:37) ; rather yanta in Tolkien's later Quenya

yalúme noun "former times" (but the Quenya word is singular) (YA)

yalúmea adj. "olden" (YA)

yalúmesse noun in locative "once upon a time" (locative form of yalúme) (YA)

yam- or yama- vb. “shout” (PE16:134, yamin, *”I shout”, QL:105) , pa.t. yáme (QL:105)

yáme adj.? "yawning" (MC:214; cf. the stem YAG in the Etymologies) . Not to be confused with the past tense of yam-.

yan relative pronoun in dative "for/to which” or "for/to whom” (PE16:90, 92, 96) . Used for “to whom" in the poem Nieninque ; according to the system described elsewhere, which distinguishes personal ye “who" from impersonal ya "which", "to whom” would be *yen instead. – A wholly distinct ya( n) seems to appear as an ephemeral word for "as" in one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer; see ya #2 (VT43:16, VT49:18)

yána (1) adj. “vast, huge; wide” (PE17:99, 115) ; also yanda, q.v.

yána (2) noun "holy place, fane, sanctuary" (YAN) . Compare ainas in a post-LotR source.

yana demonstrative "that" (the former) (YA)

yanda adj. “wide” (PE17:115) ; variant of yána #1, q.v.

yando adv. "also" (QL:104)

yanga- vb. "to yawn" (YAG)

yanta noun "bridge", also name of tengwa #35 (Appendix E) ; in the Etymologies , yanta is defined as "yoke" (YAT)

yantya- vb. “add, augment” (PE15:68)

yanwe noun "bridge, joining, isthmus" (YAT, “joining”, VT49:45, 46) , changed by Tolkien from yanwa (VT46:22, VT49:34)

yar inflected relative pronoun "to whom" (MC:215; this may be "Qenya", but on the other hand both the relative pronoun ya and an allativic ending -r are still valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, cf. mir "into". Later versions of the text in question however use yan [q.v.], with the common dative ending -n.) Likely, yar could also be the plural form of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.

yár ( yar-, as in dat.sg. yaren) noun "blood" (YAR; the Silmarillion appendix gives serce instead. According to VT46:22, Tolkien introduced yór as a replacement form in the Etymologies itself.)

yára adj. "ancient, belonging to or descending from former times" (YA) ; evidently it can also simply mean "old", since Tolkien used the intensive/superlative form #anyára to describe Elaine Griffiths as his *"oldest" or *"very old" friend in a book dedication (see an-).

yáre noun "former days" (YA)

yárea adj. "olden" (YA)

yáresse noun in locative "once upon a time" (locative form of yáre) (YA)

yarra- noun "growl, snarl" (stem used as participle in Markirya , translated "snarling")

yaru noun "gloom, blight" (GL:37)

#yasse (1) relative pronoun in locative "in which", pl. yassen referring back to a plural noun (relative pronoun ya + locative ending) (Nam, RGEO:66)

yasse (2) adv. "once upon a time" (YA) ; writers may rather use yalúmesse or yáresse of similar meaning to avoid confusion with # 1 above.

yat ( yaht-) noun "neck" (YAK)

yatta noun "narrow neck, isthmus" (YAK) . In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies , yatta was also the name of tengwa #35, which letter Tolkien would later call yanta instead.

yaule noun "cat” (PE16:132) . Compare meoi.

yav- vb. "bear fruit" (LT1:273, given in the form yavin and glossed "bears fruit"; this would have to mean "I bear fruit" in Tolkien's later Quenya: 1st pers. sg. aorist)

yáva, yava see yáve

yávan noun "harvest, autumn" (LT1:273; in LotR-style Quenya yávie)

Yavanna, fem. name: Yav-anna , “Fruit-gift” (PE17:93) or "Fruit-giver", name of a Valie, spouse of Aule. (YAB, ANA1; cf. yáve)

yavannamíre noun "Yavanna-jewel", name of a tree with globed and scarlet fruits (UT:167)

Yavannie noun , name of the ninth month of the year, "September" (Appendix D, SA:yáve)

Yavannildi pl. noun "Followers of Yavanna" (sg. #Yavannilde?), Elvish women who knew and kept the secret of the making of coimas (lembas) (PM:404) . Apparently Yavanna + hildi.

yáve noun "fruit" (YAB) , cf. Yavanna. Early "Qenya" has yáva (LT1:273) ; the form yava turns up even in later material (VT43:31)

yávie noun "autumn" (SA:yáve) ; "autumn, harvest", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D) . Noun yáviére *"Autumn-day", a day outside the months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Yavannie and Narquelie (September and October) (Appendix D)

Yávien fem. name , apparently yáve "fruit" + the feminine ending -ien.

yáwe noun "ravine, cleft, gulf" (YAG; according to VT46:22, the last gloss should perhaps be read as "gully" instead)

yaxe noun "milch cow", also yaxi "cow" (in Tolkien's later Quenya, the latter would probably be a plural) (GL:36)

ye (1) singular personal relative pronoun "who", maybe also object "whom" (plural form i). Compare the impersonal form ya. Also attested in the genitive and the ablative cases: yeo and yello, both translated "from whom" (though the former would also mean *"whose, of whom"). (VT47:21)

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22) ; both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

[ ye (3), also , prep. "as" (VT43:16, struck out; in the text in question Tolkien finally settled on síve, q.v.) ]

-ye (4) conj. "and" as a suffix added to the second of a pair, as Menel Cemenye "Heaven and Earth" (VT47:30, 31, VT49:25) . Other "pairs" are mentioned as examples but not actually translated into Quenya by Tolkien: Sun and Moon (*Anar Isilye), Land and Sea (*Nór Earye), fire and water (*náre nenye, or *úr nenye).

(1) interjection "lo!" (VT47:31) , also occurring in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree. (Compare yéta-.) Also in the ejaculation yé mána (ma) = “what a blessing” or “what a good thing!“ (VT49:41) . The more literal meaning would seem to be *“behold the blessing!”

(2) conj.? "what is more", also yea (VT47:31)

[ (3) = ye #3, q.v.]

yea conj.? "what is more", also (#2) (VT47:31)

[ yelca noun ?"sword" - Tolkien's gloss is not certainly legible, and the word was struck out anyway. (VT45:11) ]

[ yelda] adj. "friendly, dear as friend" (YEL, struck out)

yelde noun "daughter" (YEL) This word was struck out in Etym, but it may have been restored together with the ending -iel, q.v.

Yelin noun "winter" (LT1:260; LotR-style Quenya has hríve, and Yelin was probably obsoleted together with the adjective yelwa "cold", that appears with a different meaning in the Etymologies ).

yello (1) relative pronoun in ablative: "from whom"; see ye #1.

yello (2) noun "call, shout of triumph" (GYEL) ; changed from ello.

**yelma, see yelme.

yelme (1) noun "loathing". In the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry DYEL , the word appears as **yelma, but according to VT45:11 this is a misreading of Tolkien's manuscript. According to VT46:22, yelme briefly appeared as a word for "daughter" (?)

[ yelme] (2) noun (not glossed; the etymology may suggest *"friendship") (YEL, struck out)

yelta- vb. "to loathe, abhor" (DYEL, VT45:11)

yelwa (1) adj. "loathsome" (DYEL; according to VT45:11, Tolkien changed this word from yelva.)

yelwa (2) adj. "cold" (LT1:260 - this "Qenya" word is apparently obsoleted by # 1 above. In LotR-style Quenya, the regular term for “cold” seems to be ringa.)

yén noun , Elvish "long year" of 144 solar years, 52,596 days (Nam, Appendix D, E; RGEO:66. Tolkien earlier defined yén as 100 solar years; see PM:126. In the Etymologies , stem YEN, it seems to mean simply "year", but in the LotR Appendices the word for "year" instead appears as loa or coranar , q.v.) Yénonótie *"reckoning of years" (MR:51) . Pl. yéni in Nam and Etym , entry YEN – though the plural form is misread as "yen-" in the printed version of the Etymologies , cf. VT46:23. Yéni pa yéni *”years upon years” (VT44:36) . Pl. genitive yénion in yénion yéni "ages of ages" (VT44:36)

yen, yende noun "daughter" (YŌ /YON) . This word replaced another form, but this form may have been restored; see yelde . In VT45:16, yende is said to refer to a female "agent", a word changed by Tolkien from yendi , but Tolkien deleted all of this.

[ yendi] noun "agent" (fem.; masc.[ hendo]). The word yendi Tolkien changed to yende before deleting all of this (VT45:16)

yenya noun (or adv.?) "last year" (YA)

yeo relative pronoun in genitive "from whom" (could also mean *"of whom"); see ye # 1.

yére noun *"sexual desire" (VT46:23; the word is not really glossed, but looks like an abstract formation from the stem YER "feel sexual desire")

yerna adj. "old, worn" (GYER)

yerya- vb. "to wear (out)", also intr. "get old" (GYER)

yesta- (1) vb. "desire" (YES, VT46:23; the latter source indicates that Tolkien did write yesta- with a final hyphen, indicating that this is "desire" as a verbal stem, not as a noun).

yesta (2) noun “beginning” (PE17:120) . Also attested in the compound yestare (see below), but cf. esta #2.

yestare noun *"beginning-day", the first day of the year ( loa), immediately before the season of tuile (Appendix D, PE17:120)

Yésus masc. name "Jesus" (Tolkien's Quenya spelling would seem to be based on the Latin pronunciation of the name) (VT43:31)

yéta- vb. "look at" (LT1:262) Compare #1.

yéva vb. "will be" (also "there will be"), apparently the future tense of ye (#2). Once translated "is" ( íre ilqua yéva nótina, "when all is counted"), but this event belongs to the future; hence literally *"when all will be counted" (FS; VT46:22) . In Tolkien's later Quenya, yéva was apparently replaced by nauva.

yo conj. “and”, “often used between two items (of any part of speech) that were by nature or custom clearly associated, like the names of spouses ( Manwe yo Varda), or “sword and sheath” (*macil yo vaine), “bow and arrows” (*quinga yo pilindi), or groups like “Elves and Men” ( Eldar yo Fírimor – but contrast eldain a fírimoin [dative forms] in FS , where Tolkien joins the words with a, seemingly simply a variant of the common conjunction ar). – In one source, yo is apparently a preposition "with" ( yo hildinyar = *"with my heirs", SD:56 ).

("yô") , yond- see yondo. The genitive form of the relative pronoun ya “which” would likely also appear as “of which, from which” (for ya-o , cf. “thence” from ta-o ).

yomenie noun "meeting, gathering" (of three or more coming from different directions) (WJ:407)

Yón (1) noun "Son" (VT44:12, 17, referring to Jesus. Tolkien rewrote the text in question. Normally the Quenya word for "son" appears as yondo, which also refers to Jesus in one text.)

yón (2), variant of yonde, q.v. Defined as “a region, any (fairly extensive) region between obstacles such as rivers or mountains” (PE17:43)

yonda adj. “wide, roomy, extensive” (PE17:43) , also (as alternative form of yonna) glossed “enclosed”, with the latter meaning perhaps intended as the passive participle of the verb yor-

yonde noun “any fairly extensive region with well-marked natural bonds (as mountains or rivers)”, occurring as a suffix -yonde, -yon/-ionde, -ion in regional names. (PE17:43) . Note: † yonde may also be an (archaic/poetic) past tense of the verb yor-, q.v.

yondo noun "son" (YŌ /YON, VT43:37) ; cf. yonya and the patronymic ending - ion. Early "Qenya" has , yond-, yondo "son" (LT2:342) . According to LT2:344, these are poetic words, but yondo seems to be the normal word for "son" in LotR-style Quenya. Yón appears in VT44, 17, but Tolkien rewrote the text in question. In LT2:344, yondo is said to mean "male descendant, usually (great) grandson", but in Tolkien's later Quenya, yondo means "son", and the word is so glossed in LT2:342. Dative yondon in VT43:36 (here the "son" in question is Jesus). See also yonya. – At one point, Tolkien rejected the word yondo as “very unsuitable” (for the intended meaning?), but no obvious replacement appeared in his writings (PE17:43) , unless the (ephemeral?) form anon (q.v.) is regarded as such. In one source, yondo is also defined as “boy” (PE17:190) .

yonna adj. (or passive participle) “enclosed”, see yor-. (PE17:43)

yonwa noun “fence, border, boundary” (PE17:43)

yonya noun with pronominal ending "my son" (evidently short for *yondonya; the form yonya may be used as a form of address only) (LR:61)

yonyo noun "son, big boy". In one version, yonyo was also a term used in children's play for "middle finger" or "middle toe", but Tolkien may have dropped this notion, deciding to use hanno "brother" as the alternative play-name (VT47:10, 15, VT48:4)

yor- vb. “enclose, set bounds to/about” (PE17:43) . Past tense yóre, † yonde, perfect oiórie (PE17:43) . The forms yonda, yonna “enclosed” may be regarded as the passive participle of this verb.

yór noun "blood"; see yár (VT46:22)

yu- or - prefix "twi-" or "both" (VT45:13, VT46:23, VT48:20; see yuale, yúcale, yurasta below) . According to PE14:84, can function independently as the adverb “twice”.

yuale noun "twilight" (KAL) . Also yúcale. Cf. yúyal.

yúcale noun "twilight" (KAL, VT45:13) . Also yuale.

yúla noun "ember, smouldering wood" (YUL)

yulda noun "draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk", pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66) . See -da regarding etymology.

yulma (1) noun "cup" ( Nam , RGEO:67), "drinking-vessel" (WJ:416, PE17:180) . The plural form yulmar is attested (VT48:11) . Yulmaya (“k”) colloquial Quenya for “his cup” (the formally correct form being *yulmarya) (VT49:17)

yulma (2) noun "brand" (YUL) . May have been obsoleted by # 1 above.

yulme (1) noun "drinking, carousal" (WJ:416)

yulme (2) noun "red [?heat]" (the gloss was illegible)(YUL)

yulu- vb. "carry" (GL:38; rather #col- in LotR-style Quenya)

yunce cardinal "twelve", before it was altered to yunque under the influence of minque "eleven" (according to VT48:7, 8). The form yunce is asterisked by Tolkien. Compare ence under enque.

yunque ("q") cardinal "twelve" (VT47:41, VT48:4, 6, 9; VT49:57; also compare the stem yunuk(w)- cited in VT42:24, 31). This word appears already in an early source (PE14:82) . Some sources point to #rasta, q.v., as another word for "twelve". However, available post-LotR sources indicate that Tolkien intended yunque as the regular Quenya word for "twelve".

yunquenta cardinal "thirteen" (12 and one more) (VT47:15) , variant yunquente (VT47:40) , compare ente #1.

yunquesta fraction "one twelfth" (1/12) (VT48:11)

yur- vb. "run" (quoted in form yurin, translated "runs", but within Tolkien's later framework it looks like a 1st person aorist "I run")-QL:106 (cf. entry YUR in Etym)

yurasta cardinal "24" (two times #rasta "twelve") (PE14:17)

yúyal noun “twilight” (PE17:169) ; cf. yuale, yúcale, q.v.

yúyo noun? adv.? "both" (YŪ , VT48:10) . Used adjectivally in yúyo má “both hands”; notice that the noun following yúyo receives no plural or dual marker.


- zya, archaic form of the pronominal ending - rya “his, her, its”, q.v. (VT49:17)